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FUND     GIVEN     IN     1891     BY 



Cornell  University 

The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 

Hakluytus  Posthumus 


Purchas  His  Pilgrimes 

In  Twenty  Volumes 

Volume   XIX 













Hakluytus   Posthumus 


Purchas   His   Pilgrimes 

Contayning    a    History    of  the    World 

in-  Sea    Voyages    and    Lande    Travells 

by    Englishmen    and    others 




James    MacLehose   and    Sons 

Publishers  to  the  University 


o     ,    ,,    ,    ,-, 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters  and  Paragraphs 
in  the  Ninth  Booke  of  the  Second  part 
of  Purchas  his  Pilgrims. 

CHAP.  V. 

A  Letter  of  Master  Gabriel  Archer,  touching  the  Voyage 
of  the  Fleet  of  Ships,  which  arrived  at  Virginia, 
without  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  and  Sir  George  Summers, 
1609.     H 

Crost  by  extraordinary  windes.  False  rumours.  Idlenesse 
breedes  mischiefe.     New  Governour. 

CHAP.   VI. 

I  true  reportorie  of  the  wrack,  and  redemption  of  Sir 
Thomas  Gates,  Knight  ;  upon,  and  from  the  Hands 
of  the  Bermudas  :  his  comming  to  Virginia,  and  the 
estate  of  that  Colonic  then,  and  after,  under  the 
Government  of  the  Lord  La  Warre,  July  15.  1610. 
written   by  Wil.   Strachy.  Esq;  H.  ... 

I.  A  most  dreadful!  Tempest  (the  manifold  deaths 
whereof  are  heere  to  the  life  described)  their  Wracke 
on   Bermuda,  and  the   description   of  those  Hands.   . 



The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  '■*°^ 

Terrible  storme.  Feare  of  death.  Swelling  Sea.  Labour 
for  life.  Breach  of  Sea.  Governours  care.  Strange 
apparition.  Much  luggage  thrown  over-boord. 
Dreaded  Hand.  The  state  of  things  in  India.  Great 
store  of  Haile.  Many  faire  Harbors.  Store  of  Palme 
Trees  ;  black  and  round  Berry.  Want  of  Rivers  and 
water  Springs.  Store  of  Fish,  and  Fowle.  Thousands 
of  Birds.     Store  of  wilde  Hogs.     Many  Tortoises. 

§.  2.  Actions  and  Occurrents  whiles  they  continued  in  the 
Hands  :  Ravens  sent  for  Virginia  ;  Divers  Mutinies  ; 
Paine  executed  :    Two   Pinnaces   built.      ,  .         .  25 

A  Pinnace  built.  Summers  Creeks.  Lieutenant  Gover- 
nour  assisted.  People  very  diligent.  Churlish 
intreatie.  Earnest  vowes.  Conscience  against  con- 
science. Hopkins  pardoned.  Mutinie.  Paines 
mutinie  and  execution.  Sir  G.  Summers  mens  flight. 
Rebellious  and  turbulent  Humorists.  Thankfulnesse  and 
unitie.     Violence  of  the  Sea.     Cedar  bad  for  shipping. 

§.  3.  Their  departure  from  Bermuda  and  arrivall  in 
Virginia  :  Miseries  there,  departure  and  returne 
upon  the  Lord  La  Warres  arriving.  James  Towne 
described.         ........         41 

Change  of  water.  Cape  Henry.  Newes  of  safe  arrivall. 
Fort  viewed.  Want  of  provision.  Neglect,  and 
sensuall  surfet.  Store  of  Grapes.  Goodly  Come. 
Divers  men  killed.  Misgovernment.  East  Indian 
increase.  Equall  proportion.  New  found  Land. 
Favourable  winde.  Fortresse  raised.  Pewes  of  Cedar. 
Casualtie  of  fire.     Unholsome  ayre. 

§.  4.  The  Lord  La  Warres  beginnings  and  proceedings  in 
James  Towne,  Sir  Thomas  Gates  sent  into  England  ; 
his  and  the  Companies  testimony  of  Virginia,  and 
cause  of  the  late  miseries. 

Long  and  silent  Prayer.  Commission  read.  A  Voyage 
proposed.  Nets  hawled.  Villanous  practises.  Con- 
ditions performed.  Gifts  received.  Messengers  fore- 
warned. True  Declaration.  Mutinous  Loyterers. 
Tragicall  History.  Great  store  of  fish.  Fort  weakned.' 
Deepe  consultation. 



The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  pag* 


The  Voyage  of  Captaine  Samuell  Argal,  from  James  Towne 
in  Virginia,  to  seeke  the  He  of  Bermuda,  and  missing 
the  same,  his  putting  over  toward  Sagadahoc  and 
Cape  Cod,  and  so  baclce  againe  to  James  Towne, 
begun   the  nineteenth  of  June,   1610.     H.       .         .         73 

Fresh  gale.  Calme  weather.  Very  stormy  westerly  varia- 
tion. Calme  weather  ;  Sundry  kindes  of  soundings. 
Blacke  Ose.  Store  of  Scales  ;  Hard  gale ;  Westerly 
Variation.     Wind  shifting.     Westerly  variation. 


A  short  Relation  made  by  the  Lord  De  la  Warre,  to 
the  Lords  and  others  of  the  Counsell  of  Virginia, 
touching  his  unexpected  returne  home,  and  after- 
wards delivered  to  the  general!  Assembly  of  the  said 
Companie,  at  a  Court  holden  the  25.  of  June,  161 1. 
Published  by  authority  of  the  said  Counsell.  .  85 

Unjust  protraction.  Severall  Maladies.  Consultation  held. 
Fertile  Countrey.     Store  of  fish.     Indians  pursued. 

CHAP.    IX. 

A  Letter  of  Sir  Samuell  ArgoU,  touching  his  Voyage  to 
Virginia,  and  Actions  there  :  Written  to  Master 
Nicholas  Hawes.     June,   161 3.     H.  .         .         .         90 

Sir  T.  Dales  deliverance.  Felling  of  Timber.  Great 
quantitie  of  Come.     Good  Harbour. 

CHAP.   X. 

Notes  of  Virginian  Affaires  in  the  government  of  Sir 
Thomas  Dale  and  of  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  till  Ann. 
1 61 4.  taken  out  of  Master  Ralph  Hamor  (Secretarie 
to  the  Colonie)  his  Booke.       .....         95 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  p*"^ 

Planting  Come.  Businesse  of  greatest  hope.  Store  offish. 
R.  Nansamund.  Sir  Thomas  Gates  arrivall.  Henrico 
built.  Guest-house  for  sicke  people.  French  dis- 

CHAP.   XI. 

A  Letter  of  Sir  Thomas  Dale,  and  another  of  Master 
Whitakers,  from  James  Towne  in  Virginia,  June  i8. 
1 614.  And  a  peece  of  a  Tractate,  written  by  the 
said  Master  Whitakers  from  Virginia  the  yeere  before.        i  oz 

To    the    R.   and    my   most    esteemed    friend,   M.D.M.   at 

his  house  at  F.Ch.  in  London 102 

Desperate  hazard.  Powhatans  daughter  prisoner.  Rootes 
and  Hearbs  in  abundance.  Sir  Thomas  Dales  agree- 
ment :  his  report  of  Virginia.  Surplis  and 

Part  of  a  Tractate  written  at  Henrico  in  Virginia,  by 
M.  Alexander  Whitaker,  Minister  to  the  Colonie 
there,  which  then  governed  by  Sir  Thomas  Dale, 
1613 no 

Miserable  condition.  Strange  Narrations.  Mother 
Christian  Towne.  Defensive  Armour.  Strange 
Beasts.     Store  of  Fowles. 

CHAP.  xn. 

Of  the  Lotterie  :  Sir  Thomas  Dales  returne  :  the  Spaniards 
in  Virginia.  Of  Pocahuntas  and  Tomocomo  : 
Captaine  Yerdley  and  Captaine  ArgoU  (both  since 
Knighted)  their  Government ;  the  Lord  La  Warres 
Death,  and  other  occurrents  till  Anno   1619.  .  .        116 

Sir  T.  Gates  his  returne  from  Virginia.  State  of  Vir- 
ginia. Tomocomo  a  Blasphemer.  Cruell  storme. 
Treasurer  chosen.     Good  instructions. 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  pack 


The  estate  of  the  Colonie,  Anno  1620.  and  Master 
Dermers  Letter  to  me  from  Virginia,  touching  his 
Voyage  for  the  South  Sea.       .  .         .  .  .122 

Severall  Burroughs.  Planting  of  Vineyards.  Orders  & 

A  Note  of  the  Shipping,  Men,  and  Provisions  sent  to 
Virginia,  by  the  Treasurer  and  Companie,  in  the 
yeere   1619.     .         .         .  .  .  .         .        126 

Virginia  provision.  Private  adventurers.  Timber  of  all 
sorts.  Patents  granted.  Ancient  Plantations.  Many 
difficulties.  Freedome  and  reliefe.  Rockie  Hands. 
Overcharged  with  weather.     Massacring  Savages. 


A  true  Relation  of  a  Sea-fight  betweene  two  great  and 
well  appointed  Spanish  Ships,  or  Men  of  Warre ; 
and  an  English  ship,  called  the  Margaret  and  John, 
or  the  Black  Hodge,  going  for  Virginia.  .        135 

FearefuU  dangers.  Volley  of  small  shot.  Holland  Flagge. 
Opprobrious  tearmes.  Reciprocall  damage.  Signes  of 
willingnesse.  Musket  shot.  Many  slaine.  Scuppers 
run  of  bloud.     A  disaster. 

CHAP.   XV. 

Virginian   af&ires   since  the  yeere    i6zo.   till  this  present 

1624 143 

§.  I.  A  Note  of  the  shipping.  Men,  and  provisions  sent 
and  provided  for  Virginia,  by  the  Right  Honourable 
Henry  Earle  of  South-hampton,  and  the  Companie, 
and  other  private  Adventurers,  in  the  yeere  1621. 
&c  With  other  Occurrents  then  published  by  the 
Companie.       .  .         .         .         .  .         .         .143 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  ^*°^ 

Ships  and  People.  .....••        '43 

And  for  the  benefit  of  the  Plantations  these  things  follow- 
ing have  beene  here  done  this  yeere.        .  .  •        '44 

Other  Occurrents  of  note .145 

Gifts 1+7 

Provision  for  Virginia.  Benefit  of  the  Plantations. 
Governours  arrivall.  Late  discovery.  Vines  of  all 
sorts.     Patents  granted. 

§.  2.  Newes  from  Virginia  in  Letters  sent  thence  1621. 
partly  published  by  the  Company,  partly  transcribed 
from  the  Originals,  with  Letters  of  his  Majestic,  and 
of  the  Companie  touching  Silke-workes.    .  .  .149 

Newes  sent.  Restraint  for  Trade.  Late  Discoverie. 
Seven  goodly  Rivers  ;    Wild  Grapes.     Copper  Peeces. 

His  Majesties  gracious  Letter  to  the  Earle  of  South- 
hampton, Tresurer,  and  to  the  Counsell  and  Com- 
panie of  Virginia  here  :  commanding  the  present 
setting  up  of  Silke-workes,  and  planting  of  Vines  in 
Virginia.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .154 

His  Majest.  Letter  to  the  Treasurer  of  Virginia.  Par- 
ticular advice. 

§.  3.  The  barbarous  Massacre  committed  by  the  Savages 
on  the  English  planters,  March  the  two  and  twentieth, 
1 62 1,  after  the  English  accompt.     .  .  .  .157 

Barbarous  Massacre.  Fatall  day.  Cruell  Murtherers. 
Many  curtesies.  Viperous  broode.  Conversion  of 
the  Savages.  Dangerous  Conspiracie.  Cause  of 

|.  4.  A  Note  of  provisions  necessarie  for  every  Planter  or 
personall  Adventurer  to  Virginia  :  and  accidents  since 
the  Massacre.  .  .  .         .  .  .  .164 

Necessaries  for  such  as  transport  themselves  into  Virginia. 
Cruell  Savages.  Cruell  Massacre.  Cap.  Nuce  en- 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  i'*<=^ 


English    Voyages    to    the    Summer   Hands ;    Henry   Mays 

Shipwracke  there  1593.     The  first  Colony  sent  1612.        171 

Voyages  to  the  Summer  Hands.  May  his  shipwracke. 
Comfortable  passage.  Store  of  Fish.  Berries  pleasant 
to  eate.     Three  sorts  of  Timber. 

A  Copie  of  the  Articles  which  Master  R.  More,  Governour 
Deputie  of  the  Summer  Hands,  propounded  to  the 
Company  that  were  there  with  him  to  be  subscribed 
unto,  which  both  hee  and  they  subscribed  the  second 
of  August,  in  his  House,  Anno  161 2.  which  about 
the  same  time  hee  sent  into  England,  to  the  Wor- 
shipful! Companie  of  the  Adventurours.    .  .         .176 

Articles  propounded,  and  subscribed  unto. 


Relations  of  Summer  Hands,  taken  out  of  Master  Richard 
Norwood,  his  Map  and  Notes  added  thereto,  printed 
1622.  The  Historie  of  the  Creatures  growing  or 
living  therein,  being  inlarged  out  of  Captaine  Smiths 
written  Relations.    .  .         .  .         .  .  .179 

Strange  annoyance  by  Rats.  Come  consumed  by  them. 
Destitute  of  Boats :  Disease  called  the  Feages.  Ship 
and  provision.  Survey  of  the  Countrey.  Com- 
modities meete  for  Trade.  Scarcitie  of  fresh  water. 
Yellow  Spider.  Varietie  of  fish.  Historie  of  Turkles 
or  Tortoyses,  and  of  prickled  Peares. 


Extracts  out  of  Captaine  John  Smiths  Historie  of  Ber- 
mudas, or  Summer  Hands ;  touching  the  English  acts 
and    occurrents    there    from    the    beginning    of  the 

Plantation 193 



The  Contents  of  the  Chapters— Continued.  p*°^ 

The  animall  and  vegetall  creatures  in  Summer  Hands. 
Moores  Fortifications.  Spanish  Ships.  Rat-plague. 
Feagues-sicknes.  Flying  Fishes.  Brasse  Money. 
Assizes  kept.  House  of  Cedar.  Church  finished. 
Spanish  Wrack.  Bulwarkes  raised.  Miserable  tor- 
ments.    Noisome  Wormes. 

Briefe  intelligence  from  Virginia  by  Letters,  a  supplement 
of  French-Virginian  occurrants,  and  their  supplanta- 
tion   by   Sir   Samuel   Argal,   in   right   of  the   English 
plantation.        ........       207 

Intollerable  Rates.  His  Majesties  care.  Plentifull  increase. 
Virginias  good  &  evili.  Frenchmen  and  their  fortunes 
in  Virginia.  Jesuites  acts.  French  supplanted  by  Sir 
Samuel  Argall.    Canada  hopefull  way  to  the  South  Sea. 

CHAP.   XX. 

Virginias  Verger  :  or  a  discourse  shewing  the  benefits 
which  may  grow  to  this  Kingdome  from  American- 
English  Plantations,  and  specially  those  of  Virginia 
and  Summer  Hands.  .  .  .  .  .  .218: 

Gods  image  in  Man.  Religious  conformity.  Evangelicall 
Charter.  Babels  buildings.  Englands  Naturall  and 
Nationall  right  to  plant  in  Virginia.  English  just 
title  to  Virginia.  Sir  Sebastian  Cabot.  Englands 
manifold  rights  to  Virginia.  Gods  glory  in  his 
various  works.  Mynes  not  they  great  minds  wealth. 
Virginia  best  in  the  best  endowments  of  a  Country. 
Cause  of  ill  successe.  Virginias  baggage  and  impedi- 
ments. Motives  to  make  her  English.  Spaines 
American  greatnesse  a  motive  for  Englands  Virginia. 
Virginias  aery  climate,  watery  Rivers,  and  large  soyle. 
Many  commodities  inciting  and  inviting  a  Virginian 
progresse.  Pleasure,  profit,  gloria  by  Navigation. 
Motives  for  Virginia.  Benefit  by  fishing ;  Motives 
for  Virginia  from  these  times,  &c.  Necessity  and 
commodity  of  a  Virginian  Plantation.  South  Sea. 
Virginia  and  Bermuda  how  usefull.  Q.  Elizabeths 
glory.  Bellonas  plea  for  Virginia  and  Bermuda. 
Indian  Sea-course.  English  Voyages  miscarrying  for 
want  of  a  Virginian  Port. 



The  Contents  of  the  Chapters  and  Paragraphs  in 
the  tenth  Booke  of  the  Second  part  of 
Purchas   his   Pilgrims. 

CHAP.   I. 

A  Briefe  Relation  of  the  discoverie  and  plantation  of 
New  England  :  and  of  sundrie  accidents  therein 
occurring,  from  the  yeer  of  our  Lord  1607.  to  this 
present  1622.  published  by  the  President  and  Councell, 
and  dedicated  to  the  Princes  Highnesse,  here  abbre- 
viated.   .........       269 

New  supply.  WonderfuU  discouragement.  Christian  Faith. 
Attempt  frustrate.  Many  extremities.  Armes  for 
defence.  Harbour  entred.  Fishing  businesse.  A 
new  Graunt.  Patent  renewed  ;  peaceable  plantation  ; 
tractable  people.  Commodities  of  the  Countrey. 
Opportune  places.     Shewes  of  Pearle. 

CHAP.    II. 

The  voyage  of  Master  Henrie  Challons,  intended  for  the 
North  plantation  of  Virginia,  1606.  taken  by  the 
way,  and  ill  used  by  Spaniards :  written  by  John 
Stoneman  Pilot.     H.        .         .  .         .  .         .        284 

Voyage  to  the  N.  plantation.  Dominica.  Friar  Blascus. 
English  unhappily  taken  and  ill  used  by  Spaniards. 
Cruell  imprisonment.  Treacherous  Spaniards.  Des- 
paire  of  libertie.  Contrary  wind.  Cap.  Legat  slaine. 
Slaves  to  the  Spaniards. 

CHAP.    III. 

Extracts    of  a    Booke    of    Captaine   John   Smith,    printed 
1622.    called    New    Englands  trialls,  and    continuing 
the  storie   thereof,  with   Motives  to  the  businesse  of 
fishing  there.  .......       297 



The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  p*°^ 

New  Englands  Tryals.  Benefit  of  fishing.  Fish  sold  for 
Gold.  Increase  of  shipping.  Labyrinth.  Fraught 
with  Fish.  Pure  cowardise.  Taulbuts  Bay.  Passen- 
gers discharged.     Supply  of  victuall.     Religious  people. 

An  Abstract  of  Letters  sent   from   the   Colonic    in    New 

England,  July  sixteene,   1622.  .  .  .  •        3°^ 

Rare  novelties.  Desperate  designes.  Strong  Fort.  Wonder- 
full  returns.     Rare  secrets. 

CHAP.  iin. 

A  Relation  or  Journall  of  a  plantation  setled  at  Plimoth 
in  New  England,  and  proceedings  therof;  printed 
1622.  and  here  abbreviated.     .  .  .  .  .312 

Pleasant  Bay.  Muscles  full  of  Pearle.  Boate  laded  with 
Juniper.  Randevous  held.  Store  of  small  Vines. 
Harbour  for  Ship.  Device  to  catch  Deere.  Cold 
Harbour.  Flocks  of  wilde  Geese.  Great  quantitie 
of  Powder.  Houses  double  matted.  Many  Graves. 
Arrowes  flying.  Sweet  Brooke.  Much  weaknesse. 
The  common  house.  Muskets  charged.  Military 
Orders.  Extraordinary  plague.  Beavers  skins.  Trucke 
with  the  Savages.  Hostages.  Chaine  of  Beades. 
Good  watch  kept.  Savages  fearefulnesse.  Great 
plague.  Great  courage.  Presents  delivered.  Bad 
lodging.  Stormie  weather.  Excessive  crying.  Singing 
and  dancing. 

CHAP.    V. 

Good  newes  from  New  England  :  or,  a  relation  of  things 
remarkable  in  that  Plantation  ;  written  by  E.  Win- 
slow,  and  here  abbreviated.      .....       344 

Many  threats.  Feare  of  the  enemie.  Captaines  absence. 
Carriage  of  Tisquantum.  A  conceit  of  the  plague 
buried.  Plentie  enjoyed.  Encrease  of  fish.  Come 
wasted.  Many  clamours.  Captaines  supplied.  Tem- 
pestuous season.  Injurious  walking.  Come  equally 
divided.     Bay.     Tobacco  and  Beades.     Abundance  of 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  'age 

Basse.  Colonic.  Faire  opportunitie.  Professed  friend- 
ship. Troubled  spirit.  Friendly  entertainment. 
Comfortable  Conserves.  Recovery.  Exceeding  enter- 
tainment. Respected  friends.  Many  Arguments. 
Undirect  meanes.  Secret  Plot.  Grievous  Relation. 
Friendship  pretended.  Wet  and  stormy  weather. 
FearefuU  noise.  Many  killed.  Beaver  Coates.  Plot 
confessed.  Message  sent.  Three  persons  drowned. 
Great  drought.  Dejected  soules.  Solemne  daye  set. 
Garlands  hung  up.  Strange  apparitions.  Cold 
weather.  Bitter  Hearbs.  The  Sachims  care.  Many 
gifts.  Variable  names.  Dishonest  dealing  punished. 
Historicall  discourses  related.  Variable  soyle,  manured 
with  fish. 

CHAP.   VI. 

Nova  Scotia.  The  Kings  Patent  to  Sir  William  Alexander 
Knight,  for  the  plantation  of  New  Scotland  in 
America,  and  his  proceedings  therein  ;  with  a  descrip- 
tion of  Mawooshen  for  better  knowledge  of  those 
parts 394 

The  Kings  Patent.  The  Kings  Charter  for  New  Scotland. 
New  provisions.  Pleasant  River.  Store  of  wilde 

The  description  of  the  Country  of  Mawooshen,  discovered 
by  the  English,  in  the  yeere  1602.  3,  5,  6,  7,  8, 
and  9.     H 400 

Commodious  River.  Great  Lake.  Store  of  Woods. 
Many  houses  and  men.     Lake  of  eight  dayes  journey. 

CHAP.  vn. 

The  beginning  of  the  Patent  for  New-found-land  ;  and 
the  plantation  there  made  by  the  English,  1610. 
delivered  in  a  Letter  dated  thence  from  M.  Guy, 
to  M.  Slany  :  Also  of  the  weather  the  three  first 
winters,  and  of  Captaine  Weston  :  with  other  re- 
markable occurrents.     H. 406 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  ^^°^ 

A  Patent  for  New-found-land  ;  and  Plantation,  Trinitie 

Master  John  Guy  his  Letter  to  Master  Slany  Treasurer, 

and  to  the  Counsell  of  the  New-found-land  plantation.       410 

Master  Guy  his  Letter  to  the  Treasurer.  Seasonable 
Countrie.  Store-house  for  Provision.  Medow 
grounds.     Ships  returne.     Skins  and  Furs. 

To  Master  John  Slany  Treasurer,  and  others  of  the 
Councell,  and  Companie  of  the  New-found-land 
plantation,  the  29.  of  July,   1612 417 

Harbor  de  Grace.  Victuals  and  Munition.  Hands  of  Ice. 
Biskin  Oare.  Conference  with  Savages.  Their  fashions 
and  Canoas.     Bartering  with  the  Savages. 


Captaine  Richard  Whitbournes  voyages  to  New-found- 
land,  and  observations  there,  and  thereof ;  taken  out 
of  his  printed  booke.       ......       424 

Coast  of  Canadie.     Divers  Voyages  to  New-found-land. 

A  Relation  of  New-found-land.        .....       429 

The  Countrie,  People,  and  Bales  of  New-found-land. 
Manifold  Commodities  of  New-found-land.  Com- 
modities by  fishing.     Store  of  Skins.    Strange  Creature. 

CHAP.    IX. 

The  names  of  divers  honourable  persons  and  others,  who 
have  undertaken  to  helpe  to  advance  his  Majesties 
plantation  in  the  New-found-land  :  written  by  the 
said  R.  W.  with  extracts  of  certaine  Letters  written 
from  thence.   ........       4.4.0 

Plantation  advanced.  Colonic  maintained.  Great  benefit. 
Extracts  of  a  Letter.  Large  Parlour.  Good  tempera- 
ture.   HealthfuU  ayre.     Fresh  Rivers.    Woods  burned. 


The  second  Part  of  the  tenth  Booke. 

CHAP.  X. 

Divers  warlike  Fleets  set  forth  to  Sea  against  the  Spaniards, 
by  our  English  Debora,  Queene  Elizabeth,  of  glorious 
memorie :    Her  manifold  deliveries  and  victories.      .       449 

Queene  Elizabeth.  Papall  Rome  greater  Saint-slayer,  then 
the  Ethnike,  Man-slayer. 

CHAP.   XI. 

The  Popes  Bull,  the  King  of  Spaines  preparations,  the 
Duke  of  Medinas  Expedition,  the  Duke  of  Parmas 
Forces,  for  the  invasion  of  England  :  divers  Sea  fights 
twixt  the  English  and  Spanish  Fleets,  the  Sea  flight 
of  the  Spanish,  and  miserable  disasters  in  their 
returne.    Their  lyes.    The  Queenes  religious  triumph.       459 

Popes  Bull  against  Queene  Elizabeth,  virith  Annotations. 
The  Pope  pleads  and  rewards  Treasons.  Spanish 

Squadron  of  the  Galeons  of  Portugall.    ....       468 

The  Spanish  Ships,  men,  and  provisions  to  invade  Eng- 
land, 1588.  Infinite  store,  of  shipping  :  Men:  and 
all  manner  of  Munition.  Sixtie  foure  Galleons. 
Brasen  Ordnance.     Chiefe  Marshall. 

Don  Alonso  Peres  de  Gusman,  the  good  Duke  of  Medina, 
Sidonia,  Countie  of  Nebla,  Marquesse  of  Casheshe 
in  Africa,  Lord  of  the  Citie  of  Saint  Lucar,  Captaine 
Generall  of  the  Occian  Sea,  of  the  Coast  of  Andaluzia, 
and  of  this  Armie  of  his  Majestie,  and  Knight  of  the 
honorable  Order  of  the  golden  Fleece.      .         .         .       479 

The  Generals  strait  command  to  the  Captaine  of  the 
Navie.  Famous  and  warlike  preparation.  Sea  and 
Land  forces.  Spanish  Fleet.  Flemmings  newes. 
English  unprepared.     A  Galleon  and  Biscainer  taken. 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  'a°^ 

Don  Pedro  de  Valdez  captive.  Spaniards  pursued. 
Bloudie  fight.  Counsell  assembled.  Dangerous  con- 
flict. Government  resigned.  Flight.  Duke  of  Parma 
his  intent.  A  brave  encounter.  Great  vantages. 
Enemy  confounded.  Goods  unladen.  Great  en- 
counter. English  arrivall.  Contrary  wrindes.  Great 
shipwracke.  Many  Spanish  Nobles  drowned.  Spanish 
Fleete  departed.     Psalmes  of  thanksgiving. 

The  true  relation  of  the  successe  of  the  Catholike  Armie 
against  their  Enemies,  by  the  Letters  of  the  Post- 
master of  Logrono  of  the  fourth  of  September,  and  by 
Letters  from  Roan  of  the  31.  of  August,  and  by 
Letters  from  Paris  of  the  Kings  Embassadour  there  : 
wherein  hee  declareth  the  imprisonment  of  Francis 
Drake,  and  other  great  Nobles  of  England,  and  how 
the  Queene  is  in  the  field  with  an  Armie,  and  of  a 
certaine  mutinie  which  was  amongst  the  Queenes 
Armie,  with  the  successe  of  the  said  Catholike  Armie 
since  they  entred  in  the  Groyne,  till  they  came  on  the 
Coast  of  England,  with  two  Ballets  compounded  by 
Christover  Bravo,  a  blinde  man  of  Cordova,  printed 
with  licence  by  Gabriel  Ramos  Beiarano  printer.      .        511 

Packet  of  lyes,  concerning  the  successe  of  the  Catholike 
Army.     False  rumour.     Strange  stratagem. 

CHAP.  xn. 

A  discourse  of  the  Portugall  voyage.  Anno  1589.  Sir 
John  Norris  and  Sir  Francis  Drake  Generalls, 
written  (as  is  thought)  by  Colonell  Antonie  Wingfield, 
imployed  in  the  same  voyage,  formerly  published  by 
his  friend  to  whom  it  was  written  ;  and  here  abbre- 
viated.    ..... 

Portugall  Voyage.  Good  fortune.  New  Voyage.  Fleet 
scattered.  Enemy  expected.  Flemish  Warres.  Mar- 
shall Services.  Want  of  victualls.  Ships  and  Gallies. 
Huge    cry.       Five    hundred    throats    cut.       Powder 



The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued. 

bedded.  Breach  made.  The  Groine.  Mine-mis- 
chance. Puente  de  Burgos  Battell.  Spaniards 
overthrowne.  Portugalls  spoiled.  The  Groine  burned. 
Portugall  Voyage.  Peniche  taken.  March  and  Fleet 
for  Lisbon.  English  enter  the  Suburbs  of  Lisbon. 
Spaniards  chased  to  the  Gates.  Necessaries  minis- 
tred.  Enemy  beaten.  Towne  fortified.  Wants 
supplied.  Army  ready.  Peeces  of  Battery.  Flie 
Boates  sent  home.  Ambassadour  returned.  Towne 
entred.     State  of  the  Armie.     Fleet  dispersed. 


Map  of  Nova  Scotia,  ......      400 




Purchas   His   Pilgrimes 

Contayning  English  Plantations,  Discoveries,  Acts 
and    Occurrents    in    Virginia    and    Summer 
Islands  :    English   Discoveries  and   Plan- 
tations in  New  England,  Newfound- 
land ;  with  the  Patent  and  Voyages 
to   New  Scotland,  and  Relations 
of  the    Fleets   set    forth    by 
Queen    Elizabeth   against 
the   Spaniards 


Chap.    V. 

Letter  of  M.  Gabriel  Archar,  touching  the 
Voyage  of  the  Fleet  of  Ships,  which  arrived  at 
Virginia,  without  Sir  Tho.  Gates,  and  Sir 
George  Summers,   1609. 

Rom  Woolwich  the  fifteenth  of  May,  1 609, 
seventh  saile  weyed  anchor,  and  came  to 
Plimmouth  the  twentieth  day,  where  Sir 
George  Somers,  with  two  small  Vessels, 
consorted  with  us.  Here  we  tooke  into 
the  Blessing  (being  the  ship  wherein  I 
went)  sixe  Mares  and  two  Horses;  and 
the  Fleet  layed  in  some  necessaries  belonging  to  the 
action :  In  which  businesse  we  spent  time  till  the  second 
of  June.  And  then  wee  set  sayle  to  Sea,  but  crost  by 
South-west  windes,  we  put  in  to  Faulemouth,  and  there 
staying  till  the  eight  of  June,  we  then  gate  out.  Our 
Course  was  commanded  to  leave  the  Canaries  one  hundred  Tie  appointed 
leagues  to  the  Eastward  at  least,  and  to  steere  away  directly  Course. 
for  Virginia,  without  touching  at  the  West  Indies,  except 
the  Fleet  should  chance  to  be  separated,  then  they  were  to 
repaire  to  the  Bermuda,  there  to  stay  seven  dayes  in  expec- 
tation of  the  Admirall ;  and  if  they  found  him  not,  then 
to  take  their  course  to  Virginia. 

Now  thus  it  happened ;   about  sixe  dayes  after  we  lost 
the    sight    of    England,    one    of    Sir    George    Somers 
Pinnasses  left  our  company,  and  (as  I  take  it)  bare  up  for  j,^^ g/^.    ^^^ 
England ;   the  rest  of  the  ships,  viz.  The  Sea  Adventure  cMefe  men  in 
Admirall,  wherein  was  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  Sir  George  the  tket. 

XIX  I  A 


Sicknesse  and 
mortalitie  at 


[IV.  ix. 

Note.     False 


Somer,  and  Captaine  Newport:  The  Diamond  Vice- 
admirall,  wherein  was  Captaine  Ratcliffe,  and  Captaine 
King.  The  Falcon  Reare-admirall,  in  which  was  Captaine 
Martin,  and  Master  Nellson  :  The  Blessing,  wherein  I  and 
Captaine  Adams  went:  The  Unitie,  wherein  Captaine 
Wood,  and  Master  Pett  were.  The  Lion,  wherein  Cap- 
taine Webb  remained :  And  the  Swallow  of  Sir  George 
Somers,  in  which  Captaine  Moone,  and  Master  Somer 
went.  In  the  Catch  went  one  Matthew  Fitch  Master: 
and  in  the  Boat  of  Sir  George  Somers,  called  the  Virginia, 
which  was  built  in  the  North  Colony,  went  one  Captaine 
Davies,  and  one  Master  Davies.  These  were  the  Cap- 
taines  and  Masters  of  our  Fleet. 

We  ran  a  Southerly  course  from  the  Tropicke  of  Cancer, 
where  having  the  Sun  within  sixe  or  seven  degrees  right 
over  our  head  in  July,  we  bore  away  West ;  so  that  by 
the  fervent  heat  and  loomes  breezes,  many  of  our  men  fell 
sicke  of  the  Calenture,  and  out  of  two  ships  was  throwne 
over-boord  thirtie  two  persons.  The  Viceadmirall  was 
said  to  have  the  plague  in  her ;  but  in  the  Blessing  we 
had  not  any  sicke,  albeit  we  had  twenty  women  and 
children.  0 

Upon  Saint  James  day,  being  about  one  hundred  and 
fiftie  leagues  distant  from  the  West  Indies,  in  crossings  the 
Gulfe  of  Bahoma,  there  hapned  a  most  terrible  and  vehe- 
ment storme,  which  was  a  taile  of  the  West  Indian; 
Horacano ;  this  tempest  seperated  all  our  Fleet  one  from 
another,  and  it  was  so  violent  that  men  could  scarce  standi 
upon  the  Deckes,  neither  could  any  man  heare  anothetl 
speake,  being  thus  divided,  every  man  steered  his  owne 
course,  and  as  it  fell  out  about  five  or  sixe  dayes  after  the' 
storme  ceased  (which  endure  fortie  foure  houres  in 
extremitie)  the  Lion  first,  and  after  the  Falcon  and  the 
Unitie,  got  sight  of  our  Shippe,  and  so  we  lay  a  way 
directly  for  Virginia,  finding  neither  current  nor  winde 
opposite,  as  some  have  reported,  to  the  great  charge  of 
our  Counsell  and  Adventurers.  The  Unity  was  sore  dis- 
tressed when  she  came  up  with  us,  for  of  seventy  land 



men,  she  had  not  ten  sound,  and  all  her  Sea  men  were  ArnvaUin 
downe,  but  onely  the  Master  and  his  Boy,  with  one  poore  f^irginia- 
sailer,  but  we  relieved  them,  and  we  foure  consorting,  fell 
into  the  Kings  River  haply  the  eleventh  of  August.     In 
the  Unity  were  borne  two  children  at  Sea,  but  both  died, 
being  both  Boyes. 

When  wee  came  to  James  Towne,  we  found  a  Ship 
which  had  bin  there  in  the  River  a  moneth  before  we 
came ;  this  was  sent  out  of  England  by  our  Counsels 
leave  and  authority,  to  fish  for  Sturgeon,  and  to  goe  the 
ready  way,  without  tracing  through  the  Torrid  Zoan,  and 
shee  performed  it :  her  Commander  was  Captaine  ArgoU  Ca/>/ain 
(a  good  Marriner,  and  a  very  civill  Gentleman)  and  her  Argall. 
Master  one  Robert  Tindall. 

The  people  of  our  Colonic  were  found  all  in  health  (for  State  of  the 
the  most  part)  howbeit  when  Captaine  ArgoU  came  in.  Colony. 
they  were  in  such  distresse,  for  many  were  dispersed  in 
the  Savages  townes,  living  upon  their  almes  for  an  ounce 
of  Copper  a  day,  and  fourescore  lived  twenty  miles  from 
the  Fort,  and  fed  upon  nothing  but  Oysters  eight  weekes 
space,  having  no  other  allowance  at  all,  neither  were  the 
people  of  the  Country  able  to  relieve  them  if  they  would.  Idlenesse  and 
Whereupon  Captaine  Newport  and  others  have  beene  "''^''  ^"" '" 
much  to  blame  to  informe  the  Counsell  of  such  plenty  of 
victual!  in  this  Country,  by  which  meanes  they  have  beene 
slacke  in  this  supply  to  give  convenient  content.     Upon 
this,  you  that  be  adventurers,  must  pardon  us,  if  you  finde 
not  returne  of  Commodity  so  ample  as  you  may  expect, 
because  the  law  of  nature  bids  us  seeke  sustenance  first, 
and  then  to  labour  to  content  you  afterwards.     But  upon 
this  point  I  shall  be  more  large  in  my  next  Letter. 

After  our  foure  Ships  had  bin  in  harbour  a  few  dayes.  Some  things 
came  in  the  Viceadmirall,  having  cut  her  maine  Mast  partly  false 
over  boord,  and  had  many  of  her  men  very  sicke  and  rumors,  partly 
weake,  but  she  could  tell  no  newes  of  our  Governour,  and  gg/dJi  are 
some  three  or  foure  dayes  after  her,  came  in  the  Swallow,  here  left  out. 
with  her  maine  Mast  overboord  also,  and  had  a  shrewd 
leake,  neither  did  she  see  our  Admirall. 



They  choose  a 
new  Governor, 
nine  Ilia 
Hence  from 
the  malecon- 
tents  which 
had  beene  in 
before  enemies 
to  the  Presi- 
dent, raising 
now  ill  reports 
at  their  com- 
ming  of  him 
arose  these 
stirs,  and  the 
miseries  in 
which  this 
Author  with 
almost  the 
whole  Colony 


Now  did  we  all  lament  much  the  absence  of  our  Gover- 
nour,  for  contentions  began  to  grow,  and  factions,  and 
partakings,  &c.  Insomuch  as  the  President,  to  strengthen 
his  authority,  accorded  with  the  Mariners,  and  gave  not 
any  due  respect  to  many  worthy  Gentlemen,  that  came 
in  our  Ships :  whereupon  they  generally  (having  also  my 
consent)  chose  Master  West,  my  Lord  de  la  Wars  brother, 
to  be  their  Governour,  or  president  de  bene  esse,  in  the 
absence  of  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  or  if  he  miscarried  by  Sea,, 
then  to  continue  till  we  heard  newes  from  our  Counselll 
in  England.  This  choice  of  him  they  made  not  to  dis- 
turbe  the  old  President  during  his  time,  but  as  his 
authority  expired,  then  to  take  upon  him  the  sole  govern- 
ment, with  such  assistants  of  the  Captaines,  as  discreetest 
persons  as  the  Colonie  afforded.  Perhaps  you  shall  have 
it  blazoned  a  mutenie  by  such  as  retaine  old  malice ;  but 
Master  West,  Master  Percie,  and  all  the  respected  Gentle- 
men of  worth  in  Virginia,  can  and  will  testifie  otherwise) 
upon  their  oathes.  For  the  Kings  Patent  we  ratified,  but 
reftised  to  be  governed  by  the  President  that  now  is,  after 
his  time  was  expired,  and  onely  subjected  our  selves  to 
Master  West,  whom  we  labour  to  have  next  President.  I 
cannot  certifie  you  of  much  more  as  yet,  untill  we  grow 
to  some  certaine  stay  in  this  our  state,  but  by  the  other 
Ships  you  shall  know  more.  So  with  my  harty  com- 
mendations I  cease.  From  James  Towne  this  last  of 
August  1609. 



Chap.  VI. 

A  true  reportory  of  the  wracke,  and  redemption 
of  Sir  Thomas  Gates  Knight ;  upon,  and  from 
the  Hands  of  the  Bermudas :  his  comming  to 
Virginia,  and  the  estate  of  that  Colonie  then, 
and  after,  under  the  government  of  the  Lord 
La  Warre,  July  15.  1610.  written  by  WiUiam 
Strachy,  Esquire. 

§•  I. 

A  most  dreadfull  Tempest  (the  manifold  deaths 
whereof  are  here  to  the  life  described)  their 
wracke  on  Bermuda,  and  the  description  of 
those  Hands. 

Xcellent  Lady,  know  that  upon  Friday  late  2.  June.  160^. 
in  the  evening,  we  brake  ground  out  of 
the  Sound  of  Plymouth,  our  whole  Fleete 
then  consisting  of  seven  good  Ships,  and 
two  Pinnaces,  all  which  fi-om  the  said 
second  of  June,  unto  the  twenty  three 
of  July,  kept  in  friendly  consort  together, 
not  a  whole  watch  at  any  time  loosing  the  sight  each  of 
other.     Our  course  when  we  came  about  the  height  of 
betweene  26.  and  27.  degrees,  we  declined  to  the  North-  ^//J^^j 
ward,  and  according  to  our  Governours  instructions  altered  [iv.  ix. 
the  trade  and  ordinary  way  used  heretofore  by  Dominico,  1735] 

and  Mevis,  in  the  West  Indies,  and  found  the  winde  to 
this  course  indeede  as  friendly,  as  in  the  judgement  of  all 
Sea-men,  it  is  upon  a  more  direct  line,  and  by  Sir  George  sir  G. 
Summers  our  Admirall  had  bin  likewise  in  former  time  Summers  a 
sailed,  being  a  Gentleman  of  approved  assurednesse,  and  S"^  mariner 
ready  knowledge  in  Sea-fering  actions,  having  often  carried .  "souUUr 
command,  and  chiefe  charge  in  many  Ships  Royall  of  her 
Majesties,  and  in  sundry  Voyages  made  many  defeats  and 




attempts  in  the  time  of  the  Spaniards  quarrelling  with 
us,  upon  the  Hands  and  Indies,  &c.     We  had  followed  this 
course  so  long,  as  now  we  were  within  seven  or  eight 
dayes  at  the  most,  by  Cap.  Newports  reckoning  of  making 
Cape  Henry  upon  the  coast  of  Virginia:    When  on  S. 
James  his  day,  July  24.  being  Monday  (preparing  for  no 
A  terrible       lesse  all  the  blacke  night  before)  the  cloudes  gathering 
'^'^tr  ss  d 'n     ^^^^  ^P°*^  ^Sj  ^"d  the  windes  singing,  and  whistling 
^paZticalland  "^"^t  unusually,  which  made  us  to  cast  off  our  Pinnace 
retoricall         towing  the  same  untill  then  asterne,  a  dreadfuU  storme 
description.      and  hideous  began  to  blow  from  out  the  North-east,  which 
swelling,  and  roaring  as  it  were  by  fits,  some  houres  with 
more  violence  then  others,  at  length  did  beate  all  light 
Black-  from  heaven ;    which  like  an  hell  of  darkenesse  turned 

darknes.  blacke  upon  us,  so  much  the  more  fuller  of  horror,  as  in 

such  cases  horror  and  feare  use  to  overrunne  the  troubled, 
and  overmastered  sences  of  all,  which  (taken  up  with 
amazement)  the  eares  lay  so  sensible  to  the  terrible  cries, 
and  murmurs  of  the  windes,  and  distraction  of  our  Com-^  ''■ 
pany,  as  who  was  most  armed,  and  best  prepared,  was  not 
Feare  of  death  a  little  shaken.  For  surely  (Noble  Lady)  as  death  comes 
at  Sea  more  ^^^  gg  sodaine  nor  apparant,  so  he  comes  not  so  elvish 
jeaieju  .  ^^^  painfull  (to  men  especially  even  then  in  health  and 
perfect  habitudes  of  body)  as  at  Sea;  who  comes  at  no 
time  so  welcome,  but  our  frailty  (so  weake  is  the  hold  of 
hope  in  miserable  demonstrations  of  danger)  it  makes 
guilty  of  many  contrary  changes,  and  conflicts :  For 
indeede  death  is  accompanied  at  no  time,  nor  place  with 
circumstances  every  way  so  uncapable  of  particularities  of 
goodnesse  and  inward  comforts,  as  at  Sea.  For  it  is  most  , 
true,  there  ariseth  commonly  no  such  unmerciflill  tempest,  :|, 
compound  of  so  many  contrary  and  divers  Nations,  but 
that  it  worketh  upon  the  whole  frame  of  the  body,  and 
most  loathsomely  afFecteth  all  the  powers  thereof:  and 
the  manner  of  the  sicknesse  it  laies  upon  the  body,  being 
so  unsufferable,  gives  not  the  minde  any  free  and  quiet 
time,  to  use  her  judgement  and  Empire:  which  made 
the  Poet  say : 




and  increase. 

Hostium  uxores,  puerique  csecos 

Sentlant  motus  orientis  Haedi,  & 

^quoris  nigri  fremitumj  &  trementes 
Verbere  ripas. 
For  foure  and  twenty  houres  the  storme  in  a  restlesse  Continuance 
tumult,  had  blowne  so  exceedingly,  as  we  could  not  appre- 
hend in  our  imaginations  any  possibility  of  greater 
violence,  yet  did  wee  still  finde  it,  not  onely  more  terrible, 
but  more  constant,  fliry  added  to  fury,  and  one  storme 
urging  a  second  more  outragious  then  the  former ;  whether 
it  so  wrought  upon  our  feares,  or  indeede  met  with  new 
forces:  Sometimes  strikes  in  our  Ship  amongst  women, 
and  passengers,  not  used  to  such  hurly  and  discomforts, 
made  us  looke  one  upon  the  other  with  troubled  hearts, 
and  panting  bosomes :  our  clamours  dround  in  the  windes, 
and  the  windes  in  thunder.  Prayers  might  well  be  in  the 
heart  and  lips,  but  drowned  in  the  outcries  of  the  Officers : 
nothing  heard  that  could  give  comfort,  nothing  seene  that 
might  incourage  hope.  It  is  impossible  for  me,  had  I  the 
voyce  of  Stentor,  and  expression  of  as  many  tongues,  as 
his  throate  of  voyces,  to  expresse  the  outcries  and  miseries, 
not  languishing,  but  wasting  his  spirits,  and  art  constant 
to  his  owne  principles,  but  not  prevailing.  Our  sailes 
wound  up  lay  without  their  use,  and  if  at  any  time  wee 
bore  but  a  Hollocke,  or  halfe  forecourse,  to  guide  her 
before  the  Sea,  six  and  sometimes  eight  men  were  not 
inough  to  hold  the  whipstafFe  in  the  steerage,  and  the 
tiller  below  in  the  Gunner  roome,  by  which  may  be 
imagined  the  strength  of  the  storme :  In  which,  the  Sea 
swelled  above  the  Clouds,  and  gave  battell  unto  Heaven. 
It  could  not  be  said  to  raine,  the  waters  like  whole  Rivers  '"'^^^^''i  ■"'^^ 
did  flood  in  the  ayre.  And  this  I  did  still  observe,  that 
whereas  upon  the  Land,  when  a  storme  hath  powred  it 
selfe  forth  once  in  drifts  of  raine,  the  winde  as  beaten 
downe,  and  vanquished  therewith,  not  long  after  indureth  : 
here  the  glut  of  water  (as  if  throatling  the  winde  ere  while) 
was  no  sooner  a  little  emptied  and  qualified,,  but  instantly 
the  windes  (as  having  gotten  their  mouthes  now  free,  and 

Swelling  Sea 
set  forth  in  a 



with  the 

Leake  added 
to  the  stormes 





at  liberty)  spake  more  loud,  and  grew  more  tumultuous, 
and  malignant.  What  shall  I  say  ?  Windes  and  Seas  were 
as  mad,  as  fury  and  rage  could  make  them ;  for  mine  owne 
part,  I  had  bin  in  some  stormes  before,  as  well  upon  the 
coast  of  Barbary  and  Algeere,  in  the  Levant,  and  once 
more  distressfiill  in  the  Adriatique  gulfe,  in  a  bottome  of 
Candy,  so  as  I  may  weU  say.  Ego  quid  sit  ater  Adrise 
novi  sinus,  &  quid  albus  Peccet  lapex.  Yet  all  that  I  had 
ever  suffered  gathered  together,  might  not  hold  com- 
parison with  this :  there  was  not  a  moment  in  which  the 
sodaine  splitting,  or  instant  over-setting  of  the  Shippe  Was 
not  expected. 

Howbeit  this  was  not  all ;  It  pleased  God  to  bring  a 
greater  affliction  yet  upon  us ;  for  in  the  beginning  of  the 
storme  we  had  received  likewise  a  mighty  leake.  Ahd 
the  Ship  in  every  joynt  almost,  having  spued  out  her 
Okam,  before  we  were  aware  (a  casualty  more  desperate 
then  any  other  that  a  Voyage  by  Sea  draweth  with  it)  was 
growne  five  foote  suddenly  deepe  with  water  above  her 
ballast,  and  we  almost  drowned  within,  whilest  we  sat 
looking  when  to  perish  from  above.  This  imparting  no 
lesse  terrour  then  danger,  ranne  through  the  whole  Ship 
with  much  fright  and  amazement,  startled  and  turned  the 
bloud,  and  tooke  downe  the  braves  of  the  most  hardy 
Marriner  of  them  all,  insomuch  as  he  that  before  happily 
felt  not  the  sorrow  of  others,  now  began  to  sorrow  for 
himselfe,  when  he  saw  such  a  pond  of  water  so  suddeijily 
broken  in,  and  which  he  knew  could  not  (without  presint 
avoiding)  but  instantly  sinke  him.  So  as  joyning  (onely 
for  his  owne  sake,  not  yet  worth  the  saving)  in  the 
publique  safety;  there  might  be  scene  Master,  Masters 
Mate,  Boateswaine,  Quarter  Master,  Coopers,  Carpenters, 
and  who  not,  with  candels  in  their  hands,  creeping  along 
the  ribs  viewing  the  sides,  searching  every  corner,  and 
listening  in  every  place,  if  they  could  heare  the  water 
runne.  Many  a  weeping  leake  was  this  way  found,  and 
hastily  stopt,  and  at  length  one  in  the  Gunner  roome 
made  up  with  I  know  not  how  many  peeces  of  Beefe : 




but  all  was  to  no  purpose,  the  Leake  (if  it  were  but  one) 

which  drunke  in  our  greatest  Seas,  and  tooke  in  our 

destruction  fastest,  could  not  then  be  found,  nor  ever  -was, 

by  any  labour,   counsell,   or  search.      The  waters  still 

increasing,  and  the  Pumpes  going,  which  at  length  choaked 

with  bringing  up  whole  and  continuall  Bisket  (and  indeede 

all  we  had,  tenne  thousand  weight)  it  was  conceived,  as 

most  likely,  that  the  Leake  might  be  sprung  in  the  Bread-  Leake  cannot 

roome,  whereupon  the  Carpenter  went  downe,  and  ript  up  ^'/'"^d, 

all  the  roome,  but  could  not  finde  it  so.  l>ut  be  "found 

I  am  not  able  to  give  unto  your  Ladiship  every  mans 
thought  in  this  perplexity,  to  which  we  were  now  brought ; 
but  to  me,  this  Leakage  appeared  as  a  wound  given  to 
men  that  were  before  dead.  The  Lord  knoweth,  I  had 
as  little  hope,  as  desire  of  life  in  the  storme,  &  in  this, 
it  went  beyond  my  will ;  because  beyond  my  reason,  why 
we  should  labour  to  preserve  life ;  yet  we  did,  either 
because  so  deare  are  a  few  lingring  houres  of  life  in  all 
mankinde,  or  that  our  Christian  knowledges  taught  us, 
how  much  we  owed  to  the  rites  of  Nature,  as  bound,  not 
to  be  false  to  our  selves,  or  to  neglect  the  meanes  of  our 
owne  preservation ;  the  most  despaireftill  things  amongst 
men,  being  matters  of  no  wonder  nor  moment  with  him, 
who  is  the  rich  Fountaine  and  admirable  Essence  of  all 

Our  Governour,  upon  the  tuesday  morning  (at  what 
time,  by  such  who  had  bin  below  in  the  hold,  the  Leake 
was  first  discovered)  had  caused  the  whole  Company,  about 
one  hundred  and  forty,  besides  women,  to  be  equally 
divided  into  three  parts,  and  opening  the  Ship  in  three 
places  (under  the  forecastle,  in  the  waste,  and  hard  by  the 
Bitacke)  appointed  each  man  where  to  attend;  and  there-  Their  labour 
unto  every  man  came  duely  upon  his  watch,  tooke  the  M  lift  tf^rce 
Bucket,  or  Pumpe  for  one  houre,  and  rested  another,  "^p"  "^'^ 
Then  men  might  be  seene  to  labour,  I  may  well  say,  for  '"'^'  ''■ 

life,  and  the  better  sort,  even  our  Governour,  and  Admirall 
themselves,  not  refusing  their  turne,  and  to  spell  each  the 
other,   to   give  example   to   other.     The   common   sort 




The  Gover- 
nours  care. 

Remora  is 
fabled  to  be  a 
small  fish  able 
to  withstand  a 
Shippe  in  her 


stripped  naked,  as  men  in  Gallies,  the  easier  both  to  hold 
out,  and  to  shrinke  from  under  the  salt  water,  which 
continually  leapt  in  among  them,  kept  their  eyes  waking, 
and  their  thoughts  and  hands  working,  with  tyred  bodies, 
and  wasted  spirits,  three  dayes  and  foure  nights  destitute 
of  outward  comfort,  and  desperate  of  any  deliverance, 
testifying  how  mutually  willing  they  were,  yet  by  labour 
to  keepe  each  other  from  drowning,  albeit  each  one 
drowned  whilest  he  laboured. 

Once,  so  huge  a  Sea  brake  upon  the  poope  and  quarter, 
upon  us,  as  it  covered  our  Shippe  from  stearne  to  stemme, 
like  a  garment  or  a  vast  cloude,  it  filled  her  brimme  full 
for  a  while  within,  from  the  hatches  up  to  the  sparre  decke. 
This  source  or  confluence  of  water  was  so  violent,  as  it 
rusht  and  carried  the  Helm-man  from  the  Helme,  and 
wrested  the  Whip-stafFe  out  of  his  hand,  which  so  flew 
from  side  to  side,  that  when  he  would  have  ceased  the 
same  againe,  it  so  tossed  him  from  Star-boord  to  Lar- 
boord,  as  it  was  Gods  mercy  it  had  not.  split  him :  It  so 
beat  him  from  his  hold,  and  so  bruised  him,  as  a  fresh  man 
hazarding  in  by  chance  fell  faire  with  it,  and  by  maine 
strength  bearing  somewhat  up,  made  good  his  place,  and 
with  much  clamour  incouraged  and  called  upon  others; 
who  gave  her  now  up,  rent  in  pieces  and  absolutely  lost. 
Our  Governour  was  at  this  time  below  at  the  Capstone, 
both  by  his  speech  and  authoritie  heartening  every  man 
unto  his  labour.  It  strooke  him  from  the  place  where  hee 
sate,  and  groveled  him,  and  all  us  about  him  on  our  faces, 
beating  together  with  our  breaths  all  thoughts  from  our 
bosomes,  else,  then  that  wee  were  now  sinking.  For  my 
part,  I  thought  her  alreadie  in  the  bottome  of  the  Sea ;  and 
I  have  heard  him  say,  wading  out  of  the  floud  thereof,  all 
his  ambition  was  but  to  climbe  up  above  hatches  to  dye 
in  Aperto  coelo,  and  in  the  company  of  his  old  friends. 
It  so  stun'd  the  ship  in  her  full  pace,  that  shee  stirred  no 
more,  then  if  shee  had  beene  caught  in  a  net,  or  t£en,  as 
if  the  fabulous  Remora  had  stucke  to  her  fore-castle.  Yet 
without  bearing  one  inch  of  saile,  even  then  shee  was 


making  her  way  nine  or  ten  leagues  in  a  watch.  One  thing, 
it  is  not  without  his  wonder  (whether  it  were  the  feare 
of  death  in  so  great  a  storme,  or  that  it  pleased  God  to 
be  gracious  unto  us)  there  was  not  a  passenger,  gentleman, 
or  other,  after  hee  beganne  to  stirre  and  labour,  but  was 
able  to  relieve  his  fellow,  and  make  good  his  course :  And 
it  is  most  true,  such  as  in  all  their  life  times  had  never 
done  houres  worke  before  (their  mindes  now  helping  their 
bodies)  were  able  twice  fortie  eight  houres  together  to 
toile  with  the  best. 

During  all  this  time,  the  heavens  look'd  so  blacke  upon 
us,  that  it  was  not  possible  the  elevation  of  the  Pole  might 
be  observed :  nor  a  Starre  by  night,  not  Sunne  beame  by 
day  was  to  be  seene.  Onely  upon  the  thursday  night  Sir 
George  Summers  being  upon  the  watch,  had  an  apparition 
of  a  Tittle  round  light,  like  a  faint  Starre,  trembling,  and 
streaming  along  with  a  sparkeling  blaze,  halfe  the  height 
upon  the  Maine  Mast,  and  shooting  sometimes  from 
Shroud  to  Shroud,  tempting  to  settle  as  it  were  upon  any 
of  the  foure  Shrouds :  and  for  three  or  foure  houres 
together,  or  rather  more,  halfe  the  night  it  kept  with  us ; 
running  sometimes  along  the  Maine-yard  to  the  very  end, 
and  then  returning.  At  which.  Sir  George  Summers 
called  divers  about  him,  and  shewed  them  the  same,  who 
observed  it  with  much  wonder,  and  carefulnesse :  but  upon 
a  sodaine,  towards  the  morning  watch,  they  lost  the  sight 
of  it,  and  knew  not  what  way  it  made.  The  superstitious 
Sea-men  make  many  constructions  of  this  Sea-fire,  which 
neverthelesse  is  usuall  in  stormes :  the  same  (it  may  be) 
which  the  Graecians  were  wont  in  the  Mediterranean  to 
call  Castor  and  Pollux,  of  which,  if  one  onely  appeared 
without  the  other,  they  tooke  it  for  an  evill  signe  of  great 
tempest.  The  Italians,  and  such,  who  lye  open  to  the 
Adriatique  and  Tyrrene  Sea,  call  it  (a  sacred  Body)  Corpo 
sancto :  the  Spaniards  call  it  Saint  Elmo,  and  have  an 
authentique  and  miraculous  Legend  for  it.  Be  it  what  it 
will,  we  laid  other  foundations  of  safety  or  ruine,  then  in 
the  rising  or  falling  of  it,  could  it  have  served  us  now 



God  inableth 
whom  he  will 
save  to  save 

[IV.  Ix. 

Utter  darknes. 

Light  on  the 

See  Tom.  i. 



No  sleepe  or 
food  from 

tuesday  till 

Barricos  an 
lioure,  besides 

3.  Pumps, 
100  tuns 

of  water  every 

4.  houres. 


miraculously  to  have  taken  our  height  by,  it  might  have 
strucken  amazement,  and  a  reverence  in  our  devotions, 
according  to  the  due  of  a  miracle.  But  it  did  not  light 
us  any  whit  the  more  to  our  knowne  way,  who  ran  now 
(as  doe  hoodwinked  men)  at  all  adventures,  sometimes 
North,  and  North-east,  then  North  and  by  West,  and  in 
an  instant  againe  varying  two  or  three  points,  and  some- 
times halfe  the  Compasse.  East  and  by  South  we  steered 
away  as  much  as  we  could  to  beare  upright,  which  was  no 
small  carefulnesse  nor  paine  to  doe,  albeit  we  much 
unrigged  our  Ship,  threw  over-boord  much  luggage,  many 
a  Trunke  and  Chest  (in  which  I  suffered  no  meane  losse) 
and  staved  many  a  Butt  of  Beere,  Hogsheads  of  Oyle, 
Syder,  Wine,  and  Vinegar,  and  heaved  away  all  our 
Ordnance  on  the  Starboord  side,  and  had  now  purposed  to 
have  cut  downe  the  Maine  Mast,  the  more  to  lighten  her, 
for  we  were  much  spent,  and  our  men  so  weary,  as  their 
strengths  together  failed  them,  with  their  hearts,  having 
travailed  now  from  Tuesday  till  Friday  morning,  day  and 
night,  without  either  sleepe  or  foode ;  for  the  leakeage 
taking  up  all  the  hold,  wee  could  neither  come  by  Beere 
nor  fresh  water ;  fire  we  could  keepe  none  in  the  Cooke- 
roome  to  dresse  any  meate,  and  carefulnesse,  griefe,  and 
our  turne  at  the  Pumpe  or  Bucket,  were  sufficient  to  hold 
sleepe  from  our  eyes. 

And  surely  Madam,  it  is  most  true,  there  was  not  any 
houre  (a  matter  of  admiration)  all  these  dayes,  in  which  we 
freed  not  twelve  hundred  Barricos  of  water,  the  least 
whereof  contained  six  gallons,  and  some  eight,  besides 
three  deepe  Pumpes  continually  going,  two  beneath  at  the 
Capstone,  and  the  other  above  in  the  halfe  Decke,  and  at 
each  Pumpe  foure  thousand  stroakes  at  the  least  in  a 
watch;  so  as  I  may  well  say,  every  foure  houres,  we 
quitted  one  hundred  tunnes  of  water :  and  from  tuesday 
noone  till  friday  noone,  we  bailed  and  pumped  two 
thousand  tunne,  and  yet  doe  what  we  could,  when  our 
Ship  held  least  in  her,  (after  tuesday  night  second  watch) 
shee  bore  ten  foote  deepe,  at  which  stay  our  extreame 


working  kept  her  one  eight  glasses,  forbearance  whereof 
had  instantly  sunke  us,  and  it  being  now  Friday,  the  fourth 
niorning,  it  wanted  little,  but  that  there  had  bin  a  generall 
determination,  to  have  shut  up  hatches,  and  commending 
our  sinfuU  soules  to  God,  committed  the  Shippe  to  the 
mercy  of  the  Sea:  surely,  that  night  we  must  have  done 
it,  and  that  night  had  we  then  perished :  but  see  the 
goodnesse  and  sweet  introduction  of  better  hope,  by  our 
mercifiill  God  given  unto  us.  Sir  George  Summers, 
when  no  man  dreamed  of  such  happinesse,  had  discovered, 
and  cried  Land.  Indeede  the  morning  now  three 
quarters  spent,  had  wonne  a  little  cleerenesse  from  the 
dayes  before,  and  it  being  better  surveyed,  the  very  trees 
were  seene  to  move  with  the  winde  upon  the  shoare  side : 
whereupon  our  Governour  commanded  the  Helme-man 
to  beare  up,  the  Boateswaine  sounding  at  the  first,  found 
it  thirteene  fathome,  &  when  we  stood  a  little  in  seven 
fatham;  and  presently  heaving  his  lead  the  third  time, 
had  ground  at  foure  fathome,  and  by  this,  we  had  got  her 
withm  a  mile  under  the  South-east  point  of  the  land, 
where  we  had  somewhat  smooth  water.  But  having  no 
hope  to  save  her  by  comming  to  an  anker  in  the  same,  we 
were  inforced  to  runne  her  ashoare,  as  neere  the  land  as 
we  could,  which  brought  us  within  three  quarters  of  a 
mile  of  shoare,  and  by  the  mercy  of  God  unto  us,  making 
out  our  Boates,  we  had  ere  night  brought  all  our  men, 
women,  and  children,  about  the  number  of  one  hundred 
and  fifty,  safe  into  the  Hand. 

We  found  it  to  be  the  dangerous  and  dreaded  Hand,  or 
rather  Hands  of  the  Bermuda :  whereof  let  mee  give  your 
Ladyship  a  briefe  description,  before  I  proceed  to  my 
narration.  And  that  the  rather,  because  they  be  so  terrible 
to  all  that  ever  touched  on  them,  and  such  tempests, 
thunders,  and  other  fearefuU  objects  are  seene  and  heard 
about  them,  that  they  be  called  commonly.  The  Devils 
Hands,  and  are  feared  and  avoyded  of  all  sea  travellers 
alive,  above  any  other  place  in  the  world.  Yet  it  pleased 
our  mercifull  God,  to  make  even  this  hideous  and  hated 



described  by 
Sir  George 

They  go  a 

supposed  the 
Divels,  i^c. 


[IV.  ix. 





Sir  George 
survey:  his 
draught  which 
we  have  not. 
M.  Norgate 
hath  since 
published  an 
exact  Map. 


place,  both  the  place  of  our  safetie,  and  meanes  of  our 

And  hereby  also,  I  hope  to  deliver  the  world  from  a 
foule  and  generall  errour :  it  being  counted  of  most,  that 
they  can  be  no  habitation  for  Men,  but  rather  given  over 
to  Devils  and  wicked  Spirits ;  whereas  indeed  wee  find 
them  now  by  experience,  to  bee  as  habitable  and  com- 
modious as  most  Countries  of  the  same  climate  and 
situation :  insomuch  as  if  the  entrance  into  them  were 
as  easie  as  the  place  it  selfe  is  contenting,  it  had  long  ere 
this  beene  inhabited,  as  well  as  other  Hands.  Thus  shall 
we  make  it  appeare.  That  Truth  is  the  daughter  of  Time, 
and  that  men  ought  not  to  deny  every  thing  which  is  not 
subject  to  their  owne  sense. 

"^  The  Bermudas  bee  broken  Hands,  five  hundred  of  them 
in  manner  of  an  Archipelagus  (at  least  if  you  may  call 
them  all  Hands  that  lie,  how  little  soever  into  the  Sea, 
and  by  themselves)  of  small  compasse,  some  larger  yet  then 
other,  as  time  and  the  Sea  hath  wonne  from  them,  and 
eaten  his  passage  through,  and  all  now  lying  in  the  figur© 
of  a  Croissant,  within  the  circuit  of  sixe  or  seven  leagues 
at  the  most,  albeit  at  first  it  is  said  of  them  that  they 
were  thirteene  or  fourteene  leagues ;  and  more  in  longi- 
tude as  I  have  heard.  For  no  greater  distance  is  it  from 
the  Northwest  Point  to  Gates  his  Bay,  as  by  this  Map 
your  Ladyship  may  see,  in  which  Sir  George  Summers, 
who  coasted  in  his  Boat  about  them  all,  tooke  great  care 
to  expresse  the  same  exactly  and  full,  and  made  his  draught 
perfect  for  all  good  occasions,  and  the  benefit  of  such, 
who  either  in  distresse  might  be  brought  upon  them,  or 
make  saile  this  way. 

It  should  seeme  by  the  testimony  of  Gonzalus  Ferdi- 
nandus  Oviedus,  in  his  Booke  intituled.  The  Summary 
or  Abridgement  of  his  generall  History  of  the  West 
Indies,  written  to  the  Emperor  Charles  the  Fift,  that  they 
have  beene  indeed  of  greater  compasse  (and  I  easily 
beleeve  it)  then  they  are  now,  who  thus  saith :  In  the 
yeere  151 5.  when  I  came  first  to  informe  your  Majesty 




of  the  state  of  the  things  in  India,  and  was  the  yeere 
following  in  Flanders,  in  the  time  of  your  most  fortunate 
successe  in  these  your  kingdomes  of  Aragony  and  Casteel, 
whereas  at  that  voyage  I  sayled  above  the  Hand  Bermudas, 
otherwise  called  Gorza,  being  the  farthest  of  all  the  Hands 
that  are  yet  found  at  this  day  in  the  world,  and  arriving 

there  at  the  depth  of  eight  yards  *  of  water,  and  distant  *Orfadams 

from  the  Land  as  farre  as  the  shot  of  a  Peece  of  Ordnance,  braccia. 

I  determined  to  send  some  of  the  ship  to  Land,  as  well  ^?^"^.  ^''' 

to  make  search  of  such  things  as  were  there,  as  also  to  ^  g  ^g 

leave  in  the  Hand  certaine  Hogges  for  increase,  but  the  reciteth  the 

time  not  serving  my  purpose,  by  reason  of  contrary  winde  '^^e  hhtork 

I  could  bring  my  Ships  no  neerer :  the  Hand  being  twelve  »»«« Z'^''^'^"- 

leagues  in  length,  and  sixteene  in  breadth,  and  about  ;,  l^^J^  ^^^ 

thirtie  in  circuit,  lying  in  the  thirtie  three  degrees  of  the  names,Garz.a, 

North  side.     Thus  farre  hee.  of  the  ship 

True  it  is,  the  maine  Hand,  or  greatest  of  them  now,  ^k^ch first 

may  bee  some  sixteene  miles  in  length  East  North-east,  iH^Jl' called 

and  West  South-west  the  longest  part  of  it,  standing  in  and Bermudez 

thirtie  two  degrees  and  twentie  minutes,  in  which  is  a  of  the  Captain 

great  Bay  on  the  North  side,  in  the  North-west  end,  and  "f'^"^  '^'Pi 

many  broken  Hands  in  that  Sound  or  Bay,  and  a  little  "^^^'^J/^^" 

round  Hand  at  the  South-west  end.     As  occasions  were  ^^^^  that  he 

offered,  so  we  gave  titles  and  names  to  certaine  places.  placeth  it  more 

These  Hands  are  often  afflicted  and  rent  with  tempests,  '» '^^  North, 

great   strokes   of  thunder,   lightning  and   raine   in   the  *^'?*h\ 

extreamity  of  violence :  which  (and  it  may  well  bee)  hath  ^urs  inhabited 

so  sundred  and  tome  downe  the  Rockes,  and  whurried  y  say  som-  ' 

whole  quarters  of  Hands  into  the  maine  Sea  (some  sixe,  time  they  see 

some  seven  leagues,  and  is  like  in  time  to  swallow  them  tt,sometimenot 

all)  so  as  even  in  that  distance  from  the  shoare  there  is  no  "q^l/staniards 

small  danger  of  them  and  with  them,  of  the  stormes  (^^  /  fia^e 

continually  raging  from  them,  which  once  in  the  full  and  heard)  which 

change  commonly  of  every  Moone  (Winter  or  Summer)  ^"'^  wracked 

keepe  their  unchangeable  round,  and  rather  thunder  then  '1^7/  *"  .•    ' 

,,    *^  &  '  ,  _  Butlers  tme, 

blow  from  every  corner  about  them,  sometimes  rortie  thereof  opinion 
that  ours  are  not  the  Bermudas :  Tea  some  of  ours  affirme,  they  have  seen  such  an  Hand 
to  the  North  of  ours,  and  have  offered  to  discover  it;  snb  judice  lis  est;  Veritas  temporis  filia. 




eight  houres  together :  especially  if  the  circle,  which  the 
Halo,  the  Philosophers  call  Halo  were  (in  our  being  there)  scene 
circle  see7i  ^kiovA  the  Moone  at  any  season,  which  bow  indeed 
Mm^zrcat  appeared  there  often,  and  would  bee  of  a  mightie  com- 
compmie  passe  and  breadth.  I  have  not  observed  it  any  where  one 
quarter  so  great,  especially  about  the  twentieth  of  March, 
I  saw  the  greatest  when  followed  upon  the  eves  eve  of 
the  Annuntiation  of  our  Ladie,  the  mightiest  blast  of 
lightning,  and  most  terrible  rap  of  thunder  that  ever 
astonied  mortall  men,  I  thinke.  In  August,  September, 
and  untill  the  end  of  October,  wee  had  very  hot  and 
pleasant  weather  onely  (as  I  say)  thunder,  lightning,  and 
many  scattering  showers  of  Raine  (which  would  passe 
swiftly  over,  and  yet  fall  with  such  force  and  darknesse 
for  the  time  as  if  it  would  never  bee  cleere  againe)  wee 
wanted  not  any ;  and  of  raine  more  in  Summer  then  in 
Winter,  and  in  the  beginning  of  December  wee  had  great 
store  of  hayle  (the  sharpe  windes  blowing  Northerly)  but 
It  continued  not,  and  to  say  truth,  it  is  wintry  or  summer 
weather  there,  according  as  those  North  and  North-west 
-  A-  ,  windes  blow.  Much  taste  of  this  kind  of  Winter  wee 
had ;  for  those  cold  windes  would  suddenly  alter  the  ayre : 
but  when  there  was  no  breath  of  wind  to  bring  the  moyst 
ayre  out  of  the  Seas,  from  the  North  and  North-west, 
wee  were  rather  weary  of  the  heate,  then  pinched  with 
extreamitie  of  cold:  Yet  the  three  Winter  moneths, 
December,  January,  and  February,  the  winds  kept  in  those 
cold  corners,  and  indeed  then  it  was  heavy  and  melancholy 
being  there,  nor  were  the  winds  more  rough  in  March, 
then  in  the  foresaid  moneths,  and  yet  even  then  would 
the  Birds  breed.  I  thinke  they  bredde  there,  most 
monethes  in  the  yeere,  in  September,  and  at  Christmasse  I 
saw  young  Birds,  and  in  Februarie,  at  which  time  the 
mornings  are  there  (as  in  May  in  England)  fresh  and 

Well  may  the  Spaniards,  and  these  Biscani  Pilots,  with 
all  their  Traders  into  the  Indies,  passe  by  these  Hands  as 
afraid  (either  bound  out  or  homewards)  of  their  very 




Meridian,  and  leave  the  fishing  for  the  Pearle  (which  some 
say,  and  I  beleeve  well  is  as  good  there,  as  in  any  of  their 
other  Indian  Hands,  and  whereof  we  had  some  triall)  to 
such  as  will  adventure  for  them.     The  Seas  about  them  [IV.  ix. 
are  so  fill  of  breaches,  as  with  those  dangers,  they  may  wel  ^739-] 

be  said  to  be  the  strongest  situate  in  the  world.  I  have 
often  heard  Sir  George  Summers,  and  Captaine  New- 
port say,  how  they  have  not  beene  by  any  chance  or 
discovery  upon  their  like.  It  is  impossible  without  great 
and  perfect  knowledge,  and  search  first  made  of  them  to 
bring  in  a  bable  Boat,  so  much  as  of  ten  Tun  without 
apparant  ruine,  albeit  within  there  are  many  faire  harbours 
for  the  greatest  English  Ship :  yea,  the  Argasies  of  Venice 
may  ride  there  with  water  enough,  and  safe  land-lockt. 
There  is  one  onely  side  that  admits  so  much  as  hope  of 
safetie  by  many  a  league,  on  which  (as  before  described) 
it  pleased  God  to  bring  us,  wee  had  not  come  one  man  Experience 
of  us  else  a  shoare,  as  the  weather  was :  they  have  beene  '*f''*  ^"f 
ever  therefore  left  desolate  and  not  inhabited.  mZVafterue 

The  soile  of  the  whole  Hand  is  one  and  the  same,  the  both  fir  fruits', 
mould,  dark,  red,  sandie,  dry,  and  uncapable  I  beleeve  of  wormes,  l^c. 
any  of  our  commodities  or  fruits.     Sir  George  Summers  '^<>''  'f"" 

in   the   beginning   of   August,    squared   out   a   Garden  «'^^»""'* 
u      ^1.  ..       ^L  ^        L   •  ^    J  L  r        finding  more 

by  the   quarter,   the    quarter   being   set   downe    before  ,^^  f^^^g 

a  goodly    Bay,    upon    which    our    Governour    did    first  which  tooke 

leape    ashoare,    and    therefore    called    it    (as    aforesaid)  '^^re  Inne  or 

Gates  his  Bay,  which  opened  into  the  East,  and  into    f^j^'  .^^' 

which   the   Sea  did  ebbe  and  flow,  according  to   their  ^  j^nra 

tides,    and    sowed     Muske    Melons,    Pease,     Onyons,  yeeld  a 

Raddish,  Lettice,  and  many  English  seeds,  and  Kitchen  delightsome 

Herbes.     All  which  in  some  ten  dales  did  appeare  above  Hf'Utl'ough 

ground,  but  whether  by  the  small  Birds,  of  which  there  be  "°f„;J°,  ,l, 
1-    J  u     T?i-       f\\T  T  certatne  as  the 

many  kmdes,  or  by  rlies  (Wormes  1  never  saw  any,  nor  Sm:  for 

any  venomous  thing,  as  Toade,  or  Snake,  or  any  creeping  which  cause  I 

beast  hurtfuU,  onely  some  Spiders,  which  as  many  affirme  ^"^f  "^ 

are  signes  of  great  store  of  Gold  :  but  they  were  long  and  T'" 

slender  legge  Spiders,  and  whether  venomous  or  no  I  discoveries. 

know  not ;  I  beleeve  not,  since  wee  should  still  find  them  Sfiders, 

XIX  17  B 



Beetle  very 



Cedars,  are 
not  the  same 
kind  with 
those  of 
Libanus,  as  by 
the  historie  of 
them  in  our 
former  Tome, 
pag.  1500. 

Many  sorts  of 
Palmes,  the 
Coco,  the 
the  Wine- 
Palme,  or 
tadie,  i^c. 
besides  these 


amongst  our  linnen  in  our  Chests,  and  drinking  Cans; 
but  we  never  received  any  danger  from  them :  A  kind  of 
Melontha,  or  blacke  Beetell  there  was,  which  bruised,  gave 
a  savour  like  many  sweet  and  strong  gums  punned 
together)  whether,  I  say,  hindred  by  these,  or  by  the  con- 
dition or  vice  of  the  soyle  they  came  to  no  proofe,  nor 
thrived.  It  is  like  enough  that  the  commodities  of  the 
other  Westerne  Hands  would  prosper  there,  as  Vines, 
Lemmons,  Oranges,  and  Sugar  Canes:  Our  Governour 
made  trial!  of  the  later,  and  buried  some  two  or  three  in 
the  Garden  mould,  which  were  reserved  in  the  wracke 
amongst  many  which  wee  carried  to  plant  here  in  Virginia, 
and  they  beganne  to  grow,  but  the  Hogs  breaking  in,  both 
rooted  them  up  and  eate  them :  there  is  not  through  the 
whole  Hands,  either  Champion  ground.  Valleys,  or  fresh 
Rivers.  They  are  full  of  Shawes  of  goodly  Cedar,  fairer 
then  ours  here  of  Virginia  :  the  Berries,  whereof  our  men 
seething,  straining,  and  letting  stand  some  three  or  foure 
dales,  made  a  kind  of  pleasant  drinke :  these  Berries  are 
of  the  same  bignesse,  and  coUour  of  Corynthes,  full  of 
little  stones,  and  verie  restringent  or  hard  building.  Peter 
Martin  saith.  That  at  Alexandria  in  Egypt  there  is  a  kind 
of  Cedar,  which  the  Jewes  dwelling  there,  affirme  to  be 
the  Cedars  of  Libanus,  which  beare  old  fruite  and  new  all 
the  yeere,  being  a  kinde  of  Apple  which  tast  like  Prunes: 
but  then,  neither  those  there  in  the  Bermudas,  nor  ours 
here  in  Virginia  are  of  that  happy  kind. 

Likewise  there  grow  great  store  of  Palme  Trees,  not 
the  right  Indian  Palmes,  such  as  in  Saint  John  Port-Rico 
are  called  Cocos,  and  are  there  full  of  small  fruites  like 
Almonds  (of  the  bignesse  of  the  graines  in  Pomgranates) 
nor  of  those  kind  of  Palmes  which  beares  Dates,  but  a 
kind  of  Simerons  or  wild  Palmes  in  growth,  fashion, 
leaves,  and  branches,  resembling  those  true  Palmes :  for 
the  Tree  is  high,  and  straight,  sappy  and  spongious, 
unfirme  for  any  use,  no  branches  but  in  the  uppermost 
part  thereof,  and  in  the  top  grow  leaves  about  the  head 
pf  It  (the  most  inmost  part  whereof  they  call  Palmeto 



and  it  is  the  heart  and  pith  of  the  same  Trunke,  so  white 
and  thin,  as  it  will  peele  off  into  pleates  as  smooth  and 
delicate  as  white  Sattin  into  twentie  folds,  in  which  a  man 
may  write  as  in  paper)  where  they  spread  and  fall  down- 
ward about  the  Tree  like  an  overblowne  Rose,  or  Saffron 
flower  not  early  gathered ;  so  broad  are  the  leaves,  as  an 
Italian  Umbrello,  a  man  may  well  defend  his  whole  body 
under  one  of  them,  from  the  greatest  storme  raine  that 
falls.  For  they  being  stiffe  and  smooth,  as  if  so  many 
flagges  were  knit  together,  the  raine  easily  slideth  off. 
Wee  oftentimes  found  growing  to  these  leaves,  many  Silk-  Silke-uiormes. 
wormes  involved  therein,  like  those  small  wormes  which 
Acosta  writeth  of,  which  grew  in  the  leaves  of  the  Tunall 
Tree,  of  which  being  dried,  the  Indians  make  their 
Cochinile  so  precious  and  marchantable.  With  these 
leaves  we  thatched  our  Cabbins,  and  roasting  the  Palmito 
or  soft  top  thereof,  they  had  a  taste  like  fried  Melons, 
and  being  sod  they  eate  like  Cabbedges,  but  not  so  offen- 
sively thankefuU  to  the  stomacke.  Many  an  ancient 
Burger  was  therefore  heaved  at,  and  fell  not  for  his  place, 
but  for  his  head :  for  our  common  people,  whose  bellies 
never  had  eares,  made  it  no  breach  of  Charitie  in  their  hot 
blouds  and  tall  stomackes  to  murder  thousands  of  them. 
They  beare  a  kind  of  Berry,  blacke  and  round,  as  bigge  as 
a  Damson,  which  about  December  were  ripe  and  luscious  : 
being  scalded  (whilest  they  are  greene)  they  eate  like 
Bullases.  These  Trees  shed  their  leaves  in  the  Winter 
moneths,  as  withered  or  burnt  with  the  cold  blasts  of  the 
North  winde,  especially  those  that  grow  to  the  Seaward, 
and  in  March,  there  Burgen  new  in  their  roome  fresh  and 

Other  kindes  of  high  and  sweet  smelling  Woods  there  Other  trees. 
bee,  and  divers  colovirs,  blacke,  yellow,  and  red,  and  one 
which  beares  a  round  blew  Berry,  much  eaten  by  our 
owne  people,  of  a  stiptick  qualitie  and  rough  taste  on  the 
tongue  like  a  Slow  to  stay  or  binde  the  Fluxe,  which  the 
often  eating  of  the  luscious  Palme  berry  would  bring  them  [IV.  ix. 
into,  for  the  nature  of  sweet  things  is  to  dense  and  dis-  ^74°] 



Prickle -peare. 

No  Springs 
then  found, 
since  Wells 
have  bin  there 
digged  which 
ebbe  and  flow 
with  the  Sea. 

Fish.      C 


Salt  made 


solve.  A  kinde  of  Pease  of  the  bignesse  and  sha^  of  a 
Katherine  Peare,  wee  found  growing  upon  the  Rockes 
flill  of  many  sharpe  subtill  prickes  (as  a  Thistle)  which  wee 
therefore  called,  The  Prickle  Peare,  the  outside  greene, 
but  being  opened,  of  a  deepe  murrie,  full  of  juyce  like  a 
Mulberry,  and  just  of  the  same  substance  and  taste,  wee 
both  eate  them  raw  and  baked. 

^  Sure  it  is,  that  there  are  no  Rivers  nor  running  Springs 
of  fresh  water  to  bee  found  upon  any  of  them :  when  wee 
came  first  wee  digged  and  found  certaine  gushings  and 
soft  bublings,  which  being  either  in  bottoms,  or  on  the 
side  of  hanging  ground,  were  onely  fed  with  raine  water, 
which  neverthelesse  soone  sinketh  into  the  earth  and 
vanisheth  away,  or  emptieth  it  selfe  out  of  sight  into  the 
Sea,  without  any  channell  above  or  upon  the  superficies  of 
the  earth :  for  according  as  their  raines  fell,  we  had  our 
Wels  and  Pits  (which  we  digged)  either  halfe  full,  or 
absolute  exhausted  and  dry,  howbeit  some  low  bottoms 
(which  the  continuall  descent  from  the  Hills  filled  fiill,  and 
in  those  flats  could  have  no  passage  away)  we  found  to 
continue  as  fishing  Ponds,  or  standing  Poolesj  continually 
Summer  and  Winter  full  of  fresh  water. 
^  The  shoare  and  Bayes  round  about,  when  wee  landed 
first  afforded  great  store  of  fish,  and  that  of  divers  kindes, 
and  good,  but  it  should  seeme  that  our  fiers,  which  wee 
maintained  on  the  shoares  side  drave  them  from  us,  so  as 
wee  were  in  some  want,  untill  wee  had  made  a  flat  bottome 
Gundall  of  Cedar  with  which  wee  put  off  farther  into 
the  Sea,  and  then  daily  hooked  great  store  of  many  kindes, 
as  excellent  Angell-fish,  Salmon  Peale,  Bonetas,  Stingray^ 
Cabally,  Scnappers,  Hogge-fish,  Sharkes,  Dogge-fishj 
Pilcherds,  Mullets,  and  Rock-fish,  of  which  bee  divers 
kindes :  and  of  these  our  Governour  dryed  and  salted, 
and  barrelling  them  up,  brought  to  sea  five  hundred,  for 
he  had  procured  Salt  to  bee  made  with  some  Brine,  which 
happily  was  preserved,  and  once  having  made  a  little 
quantity,  he  kept  three  or  foure  pots  boyling,  and  two  or 
three  men  attending  nothing  else  in  an  house  (some  little 


distance  from  his  Bay)  set  up  on  purpose  for  the  same 

Likewise  in  Furbushers  building  Bay  wee  had  a  large 
Sein,  or  Tramell  Net,  which  our  Governour  caused  to  be 
made  of  the  Deere  Toyles,  which  wee  were  to  carry  to 
Virginia,  by  drawing  the  Masts  more  straight  and  narrow 
with  Roape  Yarne,  and  which  reached  from  one  side  of  the 
Dock  to  the  other :  with  which  (I  may  boldly  say)  wee 
have  taken  five  thousand  of  small  and  great  fish  at  one 
hale.  As  Pilchards,  Breames,  Mullets,  Rocke-fish,  &c. 
and  other  kindes  for  which  wee  have  no  names.  Wee 
have  taken  also  from  under  the  broken  Rockes,  Crevises 
oftentimes  greater  then  any  of  our  best  English  Lobsters ; 
and  likewise  abundance  of  Crabbes,  Oysters,  and  Wilkes. 
True  it  is,  for  Fish  in  everie  Cove  and  Creeke  wee  found 
Snaules,  and  Skulles  in  that  abundance,  as  (I  thinke)  no 
Hand  in  the  world  may  have  greater  store  or  better  Fish. 
For  they  sucking  of  the  very  water,  which  descendeth 
from  the  high  Hills  mingled  with  juyce  and  verdor  of  the 
Palmes,  Cedars,  and  other  sweet  Woods  (which  likewise 
make  the  Herbes,  Roots,  and  Weeds  sweet  which  grow 
about  the  Bankes)  become  thereby  both  fat  and  wholsome. 
As  must  those  Fish  needes  bee  grosse,  slimy,  and  corrupt 
the  bloud,  which  feed  in  Fennes,  Marishes,  Ditches, 
muddy  Pooles,  and  neere  unto  places  where  much  filth 
is  daily  cast  forth.  Unsealed  Fishes,  such  as  Junius  calleth 
Molles  Pisces,  as  Trenches,  Eele,  or  Lampries,  and  such 
feculent  and  dangerous  Snakes  wee  never  saw  any,  nor 
may  any  River  bee  invenomed  with  them  (I  pray  God) 
where  I  come.  I  forbeare  to  speake  what  a  sort  of  Whales 
wee  have  seene  hard  aboard  the  shoare  followed  sometime 
by  the  Sword-fish  and  the  Thresher,  the  sport  whereof 
was  not  unpleasant.  The  Sword-fish,  with  his  sharpe 
and  needle  Finne,  pricking  him  into  the  belly  when  hee 
would  sihke  and  fall  into  the  Sea ;  and  when  hee  startled 
upward  from  his  wounds,  the  Thresher  with  his  large  Fins 
(hke  Flayles)  beating  him  above  water.  The  examples 
whereof  gives  us  (saith  Oviedus)  to  understand,  that  in  the 



^ooo.  fishes 
taken  at  a 

Cause  of  their 

No  unsealed 

Whale  and 

beare  the  bell 
aivay.   Medio 
sutisimus  ibis. 


1609.  .  11 

selfe  same  perill  and  danger  doe  men  live  in  this  mortal! 
life,  wherein  is  no  certaine  security  neither  in  high  estate 
nor  low. 
Fowles.  Fowle  there  is  great  store,  small  Birds,  Sparrowes  fat 

and  plumpe  like  a  Bunting,  bigger  then  ours,  Robbins  of 
divers  colours  greene  and  yellow,  ordinary  and  familiar  in 
our  Cabbins,  and  other  of  lesse  sort.     White  and  gray 
Hernshawes,  Bitters,  Teale,  Snites,  Crowes,  and  Hawkes, 
of  which  in  March  wee  found  divers  Ayres,  Goshawkes 
and    Tassells,     Oxen-birds,     Cormorants,     Bald-Cootes, 
Moore-Hennes,  Owles,  and  Battes  in  great  store.     And 
upon  New-yeeres  day  in  the  morning,  our  Governour 
being   walked   foorth   with   another   Gentleman    Master 
mid  Swans.    James  Swift,  each  of  them  with  their  Peeces  killed  a  wild 
Swanne,  in  a  great  Sea-water  Bay  or  Pond  in  our  Hand. 
Web-fioted      A  kinde  of  webbe-footed  Fowle  there  is,  of  the  bignesse 
^Th^'  II  •    f  °^  ^^  English  greene  Plover,  or  Sea-Meawe,  which  all  the 
the^n  which    S^"!™^""  "^^^   saw   not,   and   in   the   darkest   nights  of 
it  maketh  a      November  and  December  (for  in  the  night  they  onely  feed) 
Cohow.  they  would  come  forth,  but  not  flye  farre  from  home, 

and  hovering  in  the  ayre,  and  over  the  Sea,  made  a  strange 
hollow  and  harsh  howling.  Their  colour  is  inclining  to 
Russet,  with  white  bellies,  (as  are  likewise  the  long 
Feathers  of  their  wings  Russet  and  White)  these  gather 
themselves  together  and  breed  in  those  Hands  which  are 
high,  and  so  farre  alone  into  the  Sea,  that  the  Wilde 
[IV.  ix.  Hogges  cannot  swimme  over  them,   and   there  in  the 

1741-]  ground  they  have  their  Burrowes,  like  Conyes  in  a 
Warren,  and  so  brought  in  the  loose  Mould,  though  not 
so  deepe :  which  Birds  with  a  light  bough  in  a  darke  night 
(as  in  our  Lowbelling)  wee  caught.  I  have  beene  at  the 
taking  of  three  hundred  in  an  houre,  and  wee  might  have 
laden  our  Boates.  Our  men  found  a  prettie  way  to  take 
them,  which  was  by  standing  on  the  Rockes  or  Sands  by 
the  Sea  side,  and  hollowing,  laughing,  and  making  the 
strangest  out-cry  that  possibly  they  could :  with  the  noyse 
whereof  the  Birds  would  come  flocking  to  that  place,  and 
settle  upon  the  very  armes  and  head  of  him  that  so  cryed, 



and  still  creepe  neerer  and  neerer,  answering  the  noyse 
themselves :  by  which  ovir  men  would  weigh  them  with 
their  hand,  and  which  weighed  heaviest  they  tooke  for  the 
best  and  let  the  others  alone,  and  so  ovir  men  would  take 
twentie  dozen  in  two  houres  of  the  chiefest  of  them ; 
and  they  were  a  good  and  well  relished  Fowle,  fat  and  fiall 
as  a  Partridge.  In  January  wee  had  great  store  of  their 
Egges,  which  are  as  great  as  an  Hennes  Egge,  and  so 
fashioned  and  white  shelled,  and  have  no  difference  in 
yolke  nor  white  from  an  Hennes  Egge.  There  are 
thousands  of  these  Birds,  and  two  or  three  Hands  fuU  of 
their  Burrowes,  whether  at  any  time  (in  two  houres  warn- 
ing) wee  could  send  our  Cock-boat,  and  bring  home  as 
many  as  would  serve  the  whole  Company :  which  Birds 
for  their  blindnesse  (for  they  see  weakly  in  the  day)  and 
for  their  cry  and  whooting,  wee  called  the  Sea  Owle :  they 
will  bite  cruelly  with  their  crooked  Bills. 

Wee  had  knowledge  that  there  were  wilde  Hogges  upon  wild  Hogges 
the  Hand,  at  first  by  our  owne  Swine  preserved  from  the  how  first 
wrack  and  brought  to  shoare :  for  they  straying  into  the  -^^^^ ""'  """^ 
Woods,  an  huge  wilde  Boare  followed  downe  to  our 
quarter,  which  at  night  was  watched  and  taken  in  this 
sort.  One  of  Sir  George  Summers  men  went  and  lay 
among  the  Swine,  when  the  Boare  being  come  and 
groveled  by  the  Sowes,  hee  put  over  his  hand  and  rubbed 
the  side  gently  of  the  Boare,  which  then  lay  still,  by  which 
meanes  hee  fastned  a  rope  with  a  sliding  knot  to  the 
hinder  legge  and  so  tooke  him,  and  after  him  in  this  sort 
two  or  three  more.  But  in  the  end  (a  little  businesse  over) 
our  people  would  goe  a  hunting  with  our  Ship  Dogge, 
and  sometimes  bring  home  thirtie,  sometimes  fiftie  Boares, 
Sowes,  and  Pigs  in  a  weeke  alive :  for  the  Dog  would 
fasten  on  them  and  hold,  whilest  the  Hunts-men  made  in : 
and  there  bee  thousands  of  them  in  the  Hands,  and  at  that 
time  of  the  yeere,  in  August,  September,  October,  and 
November,  they  were  well  fed  with  Berries  that  dropped 
from  the  Cedars  and  the  Palmes,  and  in  our  quarter  wee 
made  styes  for  them,  and  gathering  of  these  Berries  served 



1609.  •  1 

them  twice  aday,  by  which  meanes  we  kept  them  m  good 
plight :  and  when  there  was  any  fret  of  weather  (for  upon 
every  increase  of  wind  the  billow  would  be  so  great,  as  it 
was  no  putting  out  with  our  Gundall  or  Canow)  that  we 
could  not  fish  nor  take  Tortoyses,  then  wee  killed  our 
I  ,-  Hogs.  But  in  February  when  the  Palme  Berries  began 
to  be  scant  or  dry,  and  the  Cedar  Berries  failed  two 
moneths  sooner;  true  it  is  the  Hogs  grew  poore,  and 
being  taken  so,  wee  could  not  raise  them  to  be  better,  for 
besides  those  Berries,  we  had  nothing  wherewith  to  franke 
them:  but  even  then  the  Tortoyses  came  in  againe,  of 
which  wee  daily  both  turned  up  great  store,  finding  them 
on  Land,  as  also  sculling  after  them  in  our  Boate  strooke 
them  with  an  Iron  goad,  and  sod,  baked,  and  roasted  them. 

Tortoises.  The  Tortoyse  is  reasonable  toothsom  (some  say)  whol^ 
some  meate.  I  am  sure  our  Company  liked  the  meate 
of  them  verie  well,  and  one  Tortoyse  would  goe  further 
amongst  them,  then  three  Hogs.  One  Turtle  (for  so  we 
called  them)  feasted  well  a  dozen  Messes,  appointing  sixe 
to  every  Messe.  It  is  such  a  kind  of  meat,  as  a  man  can 
neither  absolutely  call  Fish  nor  Flesh,  keeping  most  what 
in  the  water,  and  feeding  upon  Sea-grasse  like  a  Heifer, 
in  the  bottome  of  the  Coves  and  Bayes,  and  laying  their 
Egges  (of  which  wee  should  finde  five  hundred  at  a  time 
in  the  opening  of  a  shee  Turtle)  in  the  Sand  by  the  shoare 
side,  and  so  covering  them  close  leave  them  to  the  hatch- 
ing of  the  Sunne,  like  the  Mahati  at  Saint  Dominique, 
which  made  the  Spanish  Friars  (at  their  first  arrivall)  make 
some  scruple  to  eate  them  on  a  Friday,  because  in  colour 
and  taste  the  flesh  is  like  to  morsells  of  Veale.  Concern- 
ing the  laying  of  their  Egges,  and  hatching  of  their 
young,  Peter  Martyr  writeth  thus  in  his  Decades  of  the 
Ocean  :  at  such  time  as  the  heate  of  Nature  moveth  them 
to  generation,  they  came  forth  of  the  Sea,  and  making  a 
deepe  pit  in  the  sand,  they  lay  three  or  foure  hundred 
Egges  therein :  when  they  have  thus  emptied  their  bag 
of  Conception,  they  put  as  much  of  the  same  againe  into 
the  Pit  as  may  satisfie  to  cover  the  Egges,  and  so  resort 



againe  unto  the  Sea,  nothing  carefull  of  their  succession. 
At  the  day  appointed  of  Nature  to  the  procreation  of 
these  creatures,  there  creepeth  out  a  multitude  of  Tor- 
toyses,  as  it  were  Pismyers  out  of  an  Ant-hill,  and  this 
only  by  the  heate  of  the  Sunne,  without  any  helpe  of  their 
Parents :  their  Egges  are  as  big  as  Geese  Egges,  and 
themselves  growne  to  perfection,  bigger  then  great  round 

§.   11. 
Actions  and  Occurrents  whiles  they  continued  in 
the  Hands :  Ravens  sent  for  Virginia ;  Divers 
mutinies ;     Paine    executed :     Two    Pinnaces 


[IV.  ix. 



O  soone  as  wee  were  a  little  setled  after  our  landing, 
with  all  the  conveniencle  wee  might,  and  as  the 
place,  and  our  many  wants  would  give  us  leave, 
wee  made  up  our  long  Boate  (as  your  Ladyship  hath 
heard)  in  fashion  of  a  Pinnace,  fitting  her  with  a  little 
Deck,  made  of  the  Hatches  of  our  ruin'd  ship,  so  close 
that  no  water  could  goe  in  her,  gave  her  Sayles  and  Oares, 
and  intreating  with  our  Masters  Mate  Henry  Ravens  H.  Ravens 
(who  was  supposed  a  sufficient  Pilot)  wee  found  him  voyage  from 
easily  wonne  to  make  over  therewith,  as  a  Barke  of  Aviso  ^[J^!^  * 
for  Virginia,  which  being  in  the  height  of  thirtie  seven 
degrees,  five  degrees  from  the  Hand  which  we  were,  might 
bee  some  one  hundred  and  fortie  leagues  from  us,  or  there- 
abouts (reckoning  to  every  degree  that  lies  North-east, 
and  Westerly  twentie  eight  English  leagues)  who  the 
twentie  eight  of  August  being  Munday,  with  sixe  Saylers, 
and  our  Cape  Merchant  Thomas  Whittingham  departed 
from  us  out  of  Gates  his  Bay :  but  to  our  much  wonder 
retiu-ned  againe  upon  the  Wednesday  night  after,  having 
attempted  to  have  got  cleere  of  the  Iland,  from  the  North 
North-east  to  the  South-west,  but  could  not  as  little  water 
as  shee  drew,  (which  might  not  bee  above  twentie  inches) 
for  shoales  and  breaches,  so  as  he  was  faine  to  go  out 




from  Summers  Creeks,  and  the  same  way  we  came  in  on 
the  South  South-east  of  the  Hands,  and  from  thence  wee 
made  to  Sea  the  Friday  after  the  first  of  September,  pro- 
mising if  hee  lived  and  arrived  safe  there,  to  returne  unto 
us  the  next  new  Moone  with  the  Pinnace  belonging'  to 
the  Colony  there :  according  unto  which  instructions  were 
directed  unto  the  new  Leiftenant  Governour,  and  Councell 
from  our  Governour  here,  for  which  the  Hands  were 
appointed  carefully  to  be  watched,  and  fiers  prepared  as 
Beacons  to  have  directed  and  wafted  him  in,  but  two 
Moones  were  wasted  upon  the  Promontory  before  men- 
tioned, and  gave  many  a  long  and  wished  loolce  round 
about  the  Horizon,  from  the  North-east  to  the  South-west, 
but  in  vaine,  discovering  nothing  all  the  while,  which  way 
soever  we  turned  our  eye,  but  ayre  and  sea. 

You  may  please,  excellent  Lady,  to  know  the  reason 
which  moved  our  Governour  to  dispatch  this  long  Boat, 
was  the  care  which  hee  tooke  for  the  estate  of  the  Colony 
in  this  his  inforced  absence :  for  by  a  long  practised 
experience,  foreseeing  and  fearing  what  innovation  and 
tumult  might  happily  arise,  amongst  the  younger  and 
ambitious  spirits  of  the  new  companies  to  arrive  in 
Virginia,  now  comming  with  him  along  in  this  same  Fleet, 
hee  framed  his  letters  to  the  Colony,  and  by  a  particular 
Commission  confirmed  Captaine  Peter  Win  his  Lieutenant 
Governour,  with  an  Assistance  of  sixe  Counsellours,  writ- 
ing withall  to  divers  and  such  Gentlemen  of  qualitie  and 
knowledge  of  vertue,  and  to  such  lovers  of  goodnesse  in 
this  cause  whom  hee  knew,  intreating  them  by  giving 
examples  in  themselves  of  duty  and  obedience,  to  assist 
likewise  the  said  Lieutenant  Governour,  against  such  as 
should  attempt  the  innovating  of  the  person  (now  named 
by  him)  or  forme  of  government,  which  in  some  Articles 
hee  did  likewise  prescribe  unto  them  :  and  had  faire  hopes 
all  should  goe  well,  if  these  his  letters  might  arrive  there, 
untill  such  time  as  either  some  Ship  there  (which  hee 
fairely  beleeved)  might  bee  moved  presently  to  adventure 
for  him:   or  that  it  should  please  the  right  honourable, 




the  Lordes,  and  the  rest  of  his  Majesties  Councell  in 
England,  to  addresse  thither  the  right  honoiirable  the 
Lord  Lawar  (one  of  more  eminencie  and  worthinesse)  as  Caf.  Win. 
the  project  was  before  his  comming  forth,  whilest  by  their  L.  Lawane. 
honourable   favours,   a  charitable   consideration   in   like  p""  ^f^f- 
manner  might  bee  taken  or  our  estates  to  redeeme  us  ,urvay,  and 
from  hence.     For  which  purpose  likewise  our  Governour  other industrle. 
directed  a  particular  letter  to  the  Councell  in  England, 
and  sent  it  to  the  foresaid  Captaine  Peter  Winne  (his 
now  to  bee  chosen  Lieutenant  Governour)  by  him  to  bee 
dispatched  (which  is  the  first)  from  thence  into  England. 

In  his  absence  Sir  George  Summers  coasted  the  Hands, 
and  drew  the  former  plat  of  them,  and  daily  fished,  and 
hunted  for  our  whok  company,  untill  the  seven  and 
twentieth  of  November,  when  then  well  perceiving  that  we 
were  not  likely  to  heare  from  Virginia,  and  conceiving 
how  the  Pinnace  which  Richard  Frubbusher  was  a  building 
would  not  be  of  burthen  sufficient  to  transport  all  our  men 
from  thence  into  Virginia  (especially  considering  the 
season  of  the  yeare,  wherein  we  were  likely  to  put  off)  he 
consulted  with  oiw  Governour,  that  if  hee  might  have 
two  Carpenters  (for  we  had  foure,  such  as  they  were)  and 
twenty  men,  over  with  him  into  the  maine  Hand,  he  would  , 
quickly  frame  up  another  little  Barke,  to  second  ours,  for 
the  better  fitting  and  conveiance  of  our  people.  Our 
Governour,  with  many  thankes  (as  the  cause  required) 
cherishing  this  so  carefuU  and  religious  consideration  in 
him  (and  whose  experience  likewise  was  somewhat  in  these 
affaires)  granted  him  all  things  sutable  to  his  desire,  and 
to  the  furthering  of  the  worke :  who  therefore  had  made 
ready  for  him  all  such  tooles  and  instruments,  as  our  owne  fje  builds  a 
use  required  not :  and  for  him,  were  drawne  forth  twenty  Pinnace. 
of  the  ablest  and  stoutest  of  the  company,  and  the  best  of 
our  men,  to  hew  and  square  timber,  when  himselfe  then, 
with  daily  paines  and  labour,  wrought  upon  a  small  Vessell,  [IV.  ix. 
which  was  soone  ready  as  ours:  at  which  wee  leave  him  '743-] 

a  while  busied,  and  returne  to  our  selves.     In  the  meane 
space  did  one  Frubbusher,  borne  at  Graves  end,  and  at  his 




Power  of 

comming  forth  now  dwelling  at  Lime  House  (a  painefull 
and  well  experienced  Shipwright,  and  skilfuU  workman) 
R.Frubbusher  labour  the  building  of  a  little  Pinnace :  for  the  furtherance 
builds  another,  of  which,  the  Governour  dispensed  with  no  travaile  of 
his  body,  nor  forbare  any  care  or  study  of  minde,  per- 
swading  (as  much  and  more,  an  ill  qualified  parcell  of 
people,  by  his  owne  performance,  then  by  authority,  thereby 
to  hold  them  at  their  worke,  namely  to  fell,  carry,  and 
sawe  Cedar,  fit  for  the  Carpenters  purpose  (for  what  was 
so  meane,  whereto  he  would  not  himselfe  set  his  hand, 
being  therefore  up  earely  and  downe  late  ?)  yet  neverthe- 
lesse  were  they  hardly  drawne  to  it,  as  the  Tortoise  to  the 
inchantment,  as  the  Proverbe  is,  but  his  owne  presence 
and  hand  being  set  to  every  meane  labour,  and  imployed 
so  readily  to  every  office,  made  our  people  at  length  more 
diligent,  and  willing  to  be  called  thereunto,  where,  they 
should  see  him  before  they  came.  In  which,  we  may 
observe  how  much  example  prevailes  above  precepts,  and 
how  readier  men  are  to  be  led  by  eyes,  then  eares. 

And  sure  it  was  happy  for  us,  who  had  now  runne  this 
fortune,  and  were  fallen  into  the  bottome  of  this  misery, 
that  we  both  had  our  Governour  with  us,  and  one  so 
solicitous  and  carefuU,  whose  both  example  (as  I  said) 
and  authority,  could  lay  shame,  and  command^  upon  our 
people :  else,  I  am  perswaded,  we  had  most  of  us  finished 
our  dayes  there,  so  willing  were  the  major  part  of  the 
common  sort  (especially  when  they  found  such  a  plenty  of 
victuals)  to  settle  a  foundation  of  ever  inhabiting  there; 
as  well  appeared  by  many  practises  of  theirs  (and  perhaps 
of  some  of  the  better  sort)  Loe,  what  are  our  affections 
and  passions,  if  not  rightly  squared  ?  how  irreligious,  and 
irregular  they  expresse  us?  not  perhaps  so  ill  as  we  would 
be,  but  yet  as  wee  are;  some  dangerous  and  secret  dis- 
contents nourished  amongst  us,  had  like  to  have  bin  the 
parents  of  bloudy  issues  and  mischiefes ;  they  began  first 
in  the  Sea-men,  who  in  time  had  fastened  unto  them  (by 
false  baits)  many  of  our  land-men  likewise,  and  some  of 
whom  (for  opinion  of  their  Religion)  was  carried  an  extra- 






ordinary  and  good  respect.  The  Angles  wherewith 
chiefely  they  thus  hooked  in  these  disquieted  Pooles,  were, 
how  that  in  Virginia,  nothing  but  wretchednesse  and  labour 
must  be  expected,  with  many  wants,  and  a  churlish 
intreaty,  there  being  neither  that  Fish,  Flesh,  nor  Fowle, 
which  here  (without  wasting  on  the  one  part,  or  watching 
on  theirs,  or  any  threatning,  and  are  of  authority)  at  ease, 
and  pleasure  might  be  in  joyed :  and  since  both  in  the 
one,  and  the  other  place,  they  were  (for  the  time)  to  loose 
the  fruition  both  of  their  friends  and  Countrey,  as  good, 
and  better  were  it  for  them,  to  repose  and  seate  them  where 
they  should  have  the  least  outward  wants  the  while.  This, 
thus  preached,  and  published  each  to  other,  though  by 
such  who  never  had  bin  more  onward  towards  Virginia, 
then  (before  this  Voyage)  a  Sculler  could  happily  rowe 
him  (and  what  hath  a  more  adamantive  power  to  draw 
unto  it  the  consent  and  attraction  of  the  idle,  untoward, 
and  wretched  number  of  the  many,  then  liberty,  and 
fiilnesse  of  sensuality?)  begat  such  a  murmur,  and  such 
a  discontent,  and  disunion  of  hearts  and  hands  from  this 
labour,  and  forwarding  the  meanes  of  redeeming  us  from 
hence,  as  each  one  wrought  with  his  Mate  how  to  divorse 
him  from  the  same. 

And  first  (and  it  was  the  first  of  September)  a  con-  Conspiracy, 
spiracy  was  discovered,  of  which  six  were  found  principals, 
who  had  promised  each  unto  the  other,  not  to  set  their 
hands  to  any  travaile  or  endeavour  which  might  expedite 
or  forward  this  Pinnace :  and  each  of  these  had  severally 
(according  to  appointment)  sought  his  opportunity  to  draw 
the  Smith,  and  one  of  our  Carpenters,  Nicholas  Bennit, 
who  made  much  profession  of  Scripture,  a  mutinous  and 
dissembling  Imposter ;  the  Captaine,  and  one  of  the  chiefe 
perswaders  of  others,  who  afterwards  brake  from"  the 
society  of  the  Colony,  and  like  outlawes  retired  into  the 
Woods,  to  make  a  settlement  and  habitation  there,  on 
their  party,  with  whom  they  purposed  to  leave  our 
Quarter,  and  possesse  another  Hand  by  themselves :  but 
this  happily  found  out,  they  were  condemned  to  the  same 



John  Wont,y 
Carter,     r^ 
and  others 
exiled  and 

[IV.  ix. 

1 74+-] 



punishment  which  they  would  have  chosen  (but  without 
Smith  or  Carpenter)  and  to  an  Hand  farre  by  it  selte,  they 
were  carried,  and  there  left.  Their  names  were  John 
Want,  the  chiefe  of  them,  an  Essex  man  of  Newport  by 
Saffronwalden,  both  seditious,  and  a  sectary  in  pomts  of 
Religion,  in  his  owne  prayers  much  devout  and  frequent, 
but  hardly  drawne  to  the  publique,  insomuch  as  being 
suspected  by  our  Minister  for  a  Brownist,  he  was  often 
compelled  to  the  common  Liturgie  and  forme  of  Prayer. 
The  rest  of  the  confederates  were  Christopher  Carter, 
Francis  Pearepoint,  William  Brian,  William  Martin, 
Richard  Knowles:  but  soone  they  missed  comfort  (who 
were  farre  removed  from  our  store)  besides,  the  society 
of  their  acquaintance  had  wrought  in  some  of  them,  if  not 
a  loathsomenesse  of  their  offence,  yet  a  sorrow  that  their 
complement  was  not  more  full,  and  therefore  a  wearinesse 
of  their  being  thus  untimely  prescribed;  insomuch,  as 
many  humble  petitions  were  sent  unto  our  Governor, 
fraught  full  of  their  seeming  sorrow  and  repentance,  and 
earnest  vowes  to  redeeme  the  former  trespasse,  with 
example  of  dueties  in  them  all,  to  the  common  cause,  and 
generall  businesse ;  upon  which  our  Governour  (not  easie 
to  admit  any  accusation,  and  hard  to  remit  an  offence,  but 
at  all  times  sorry  in  the  punishment  of  him,  in  whom  may 
appeare  either  shame  or  contrition)  was  easily  content  to 
reacknowledge  them  againe. 

Yet  could  not  this  be  any  warning  to  others,  who  more 
subtilly  began  to  shake  the  foundation  of  our  quiet  safety, 
and  therein  did  one  Stephen  Hopkins  commence  the  first 
act  or  overture :  A  fellow  who  had  much  knowledge  in  the 
Scriptures,  and  could  reason  well  therein,  whom  our 
Minister  therefore  chose  to  be  his  Clarke,  to  reade  the 
Psalmes,  and  Chapters  upon  Sondayes,  at  the  assembly 
of  the  Congregation  under  him:  who  in  January  the 
twenty  foure,  brake  with  one  Samuel  Sharpe  and  Humfrey 
Reede  (who  presently  discovered  it  to  the  Governour).  and 
alleaged  substantiall  arguments,  both  civill  and  divine  (the 
Scripture  falsly  quoted)  that  it  was  no  breach  of  honesty. 




conscience,  nor  Religion,  to  decline  from  the  obedience  of 
the  Governour,  or  refuse  to  goe  any  further,  led  by  his 
authority   (except   it   so   pleased    themselves)    since    the 
authority  ceased  when  the  wracke  was  committed,  and  with 
it,  they  were  all  then  freed  from  the  government  of  any 
man ;  and  for  a  matter  of  Conscience,  it  was  not  unknowne  Conscience 
to  the  meanest,  how  much  we  were  therein  bound  each  greatest  enemy 
one  to  provide  for  himselfe,  and  his  owne  family :   for  '"  ">^'"'^"- 
which  were  two  apparant  reasons  to  stay  them  even  in 
this  place;    first,  abundance  by  Gods  providence  of  all 
manner  of  good  foode:   next,  some  hope  in  reasonable 
time,  when  they  might  grow  weary  of  the  place,  to  build  a 
small  Barke,  with  the  skill  and  helpe  of  the  aforesaid 
Nicholas  Bennit,  whom  they  insinuated  to  them,  albeit  hee 
was  now  absent  from  his  quarter,  and  working  in  the 
maine  Hand  with  Sir  George  Summers  upon  his  Pinnace, 
to  be  of  the  conspiracy,  that  so  might  get  cleere  from  hence 
at  their  owne  pleasures :  when  in  Virginia,  the  first  would 
be  assuredly  wanting,  and  they  might  well  feare  to  be 
detained  in  that  Countrie  by  the  authority  of  the  Com- 
mander thereof,  and  their  whole  life  to  serve  the  turnes  of 
the  Adventurers,  with  their  travailes  and  labours.     This 
being  thus  laid,  and  by  such  a  one,  who  had  gotten  an 
opinion  (as  I  before  remembred)  of  Religion ;    when  it 
was  declared  by  those  two  accusers,  not  knowing  what 
further    ground    it    had    or    complices,    it    pleased    the 
Governour  to  let   this  his  factious  offence   to   have  a 
publique  affront,  and  contestation  by  these  two  witnesses 
before  the  whole  Company,  who  (at  the  toling  of  a  Bell) 
assemble  before  a  Corps  du  guard,  where  the  Prisoner 
was  brought  forth  in  manacles,  and  both  accused,  and 
suffered  to  make  at  large,  to  every  particular,  his  answere ; 
which  was  onely   full   of   sorrow  and   teares,   pleading 
simplicity,  and  deniall.     But  hee  being  onely  found,  at 
this  time,  both  the  Captaine,  and  the  follower  of  this 
Mutinie,  and  generally  held  worthy  to  satisfie  the  punish-  ^^f^" 
ment  of  his  offence,  with  the  sacrifice  of  his  life,  our  condemned  and 
Governour  passed  the  sentence  of  a  Martiall  Court  upon  pardoned. 




him,  such  as  belongs  to  Mutinie  and  RebeUion.  But  so 
penitent  hee  was,  and  made  so  much  moane,  alleadging 
the  ruine  of  his  Wife  and  Children  in  this  his  trespasse, 
as  it  wrought  in  the  hearts  of  all  the  better  sort  of  the 
Company,  who  therefore  with  humble  intreaties,  and 
earnest  supplications,  went  unto  our  Governor,  whom  they 
besought  (as  likewise  did  Captaine  Newport,  and  my  selfe) 
and  never  left  him  untill  we  had  got  his  pardojj. 
V,,  In  these  dangers  and  divellish  disquiets  (whilest  the 

^      almighty  God  wrought  for  us,  and  sent  us  miraculously 
delivered  from  the  calamities  of  the  Sea,  all  blessings  upon 
the  shoare,  to  content  and  binde  us  to  gratefulnesse)  thus 
inraged  amongst  our  selves,  to  the  destruction  each  of 
other,  into  what  a  mischiefe  and  misery  had  wee  bin  given 
up,  had  wee  not  had  a  Governour  with  his  authority,  to 
have    suppressed    the    same?     Yet    was    there    a   worse 
Third     practise,   faction,    and   conjuration   a   foote,   deadly  and 
Mutiny,  bloudy,  in  which  the  life  of  our  Governour,  with  many 
others  were  threatned,  and  could  not  but  miscarry  in  his 
fall.     But  such  is  ever  the  will  of  God  (who  in  the  execu- 
tion of  his  judgements,  breaketh  the  firebrands  upon  the 
head  of  him,  who  first  kindleth  them)  there  were,  who 
conceived  that  our  Governour  indeede  neither  durst,  nor 
had  authority  to  put  in  execution,  or  passe  the  act  of 
Justice  upon  any  one,  how  treacherous  or  impious  so  ever ; 
their  owne  opinions   so  much  deceiving   them  for  the 
unlawfulnesse  of  any  act,  which  they  would  execute: 
daring  to  justifie  among  themselves,  that  if  they  should 
be   apprehended,   before   the   performance,    they   should 
happily  suffer  as  Martyrs.     They  persevered  therefore  not 
onely  to  draw  unto  them  such  a  number,  and  associates  as 
they  could  worke  in  to  the  abandoning  of  our  Governour, 
and  to  the  inhabiting  of  this  Hand.     They  had  now  pur- 
posed to  have  made  a  surprise  of  the  Store-house,  and  to 
have  forced  from  thence,  what  was  therein  either  of  Meale, 
Cloath,  Cables,  Armes,  Sailes,  Oares  or  what  else  it  pleased 
God  that  we  had  recovered  from  the  wracke,  and  was  to 
serve  our  generall  necessity  and  use,  either  for  the  reliefe 




of  us,  while  wee  staied  here,  or  for  the  carrying  of  us  from 
this  place  againe,  when  our  Pinnace  should  have  bin 

But  as  all  giddy  and  lawlesse  attempts,  have  alwayes  Evill,  as  it 
something  of  imperfection,  and  that  as  well  by  the  porperty  fiiih  0 
of  the  action,  which  holdeth  of  disobedience  and  rebellion  ^fi»'"'""'''^ 
(both  fiill  of  feare)  as  through  the  ignorance  of  the  devisers  ^^^^^  ,^^ 
themselves ;    so  in  this  (besides  those  defects)  there  were  effects,  defects 
some  of  the  association,  who  not  strong  inough  fortified  are  found. 
in  their  owne  conceits,  brake  from  the  plot  it  selfe,  and 
(before  the  time  was  ripe  for  the  execution  thereof)  dis- 
covered the  whole  order,  and  every  Agent,  and  Actor 
thereof,    who    neverthelesse   were    not    suddenly    appre- 
hended,  by   reason   the   confederates   were   divided   and 
seperated  in  place,  some  with  us,  and  the  chiefe  with  Sir 
George  Summers  in  his  Hand  (and  indeede  all  his  whole 
company)  but  good  watch  passed  upon  them,  every  man 
from  thenceforth  commanded  to  weare  his  weapon,  without  [IV.  ix. 
which  before,  we  freely  walked  from  quarter  to  quarter,  i745-] 

and  conversed  among  our  selves,  and  every  man  advised 
to  stand  upon  his  guard,  his  owne  life  not  being  in  safety, 
whitest  his  next  neighbour  was  not  to  be  trusted.  The 
Centinels,  and  nightwarders  doubled,  the  passages  of  both 
the  quarters  were  carefiiUy  observed,  by  which  meanes 
nothing  was  further  attempted ;  untill  a  Gentleman 
amongst  them,  one  Henry  Paine,  the  thirteenth  of  March,  H-  Paine  his 
full  of  mischiefe,  and  every  houre  preparing  something  or  ^^''""^ 
other,  stealing  Swords,  Adises,  Axes,  Hatchets,  Sawes, 
Augers,  Planes,  Mallets,  &c.  to  make  good  his  owne  bad 
end,  his  watch  night  comming  about,  and  being  called  by 
the  Captaine  of  the  same,  to  be  upon  the  guard,  did  not 
onely  give  his  said  Commander  evill  language,  but 
strucke  at  him,  doubled  his  blowes,  and  when  hee 
was  not  suffered  to  close  with  him,  went  off  the 
Guard,  scoffing  at  the  double  diligence  and  attend- 
ance of  the  Watch,  appointed  by  the  Governour  for 
much  purpose,  as  hee  said :  upon  which,  the  Watch 
telling  him,  if  the  Governour  should  understand  of  this 
XIX  33  c 



his  insolency,  it  might  turne  him  to  much  blame,  and 
happily  be  as  much  as  his  life  were  worth.  The  said 
Paine  replyed  with  a  setled  and  bitter  violence,  and  in  such 
unreverent  tearmes,  as  I  should  offend  the  modest  eare 
too  much  to  expresse  it  in  his  owne  phrase;  but  the 
contents  were,  how  that  the  Governour  had  no  authoritie 
of  that  qualitie,  to  justifie  upon  any  one  (how  meane 
soever  in  the  Colonie)  an  action  of  that  nature,  and  there- 
fore let  the  Governour  (said  hee)  kisse,  &c.  Which  words, 
being  with  the  omitted  additions,  brought  the  next  day 
unto  every  common  and  publique  discourse,  at  length  they 
were  delivered  over  to  the  Governour,  who  examining 
well  the  fact  (the  transgression  so  much  the  more 
exemplary  and  odious,  as  being  in  a  dangerous  time,  in 
a  Confederate,  and  the  successe  of  the  same  wishtly 
listened  after,  with  a  doubtfuU  conceit,  what  might  be  the 
issue  of  so  notorious  a  boldnesse  and  impudency)  calling 
the  said  Paine  before  him,  and  the  whole  Company,  where 
(being  soone  convinced  both  by  the  witnesse,  of  the 
Commander,  and  many  which  were  upon  the  watch  with 
him)  our  Governour,  who  had  now  the  eyes  of  the  whole 
Colony  fixed  upon  him,  condemned  him  to  be  instantly 
hanged ;  and  the  ladder  being  ready,  after  he  had  made 
many  confessions,  hee  earnestly  desired,  being  a  Gentle- 
man, that  hee  might  be  shot  to  death,  and  towards  the 
His  execution,  evening  he  had  his  desire,  the  Sunne  and  his  life  setting 

But  for  the  other  which  were  with  Sir  George,  upon  the 
Sunday  following  (the  Barke  beeing  now  in  good  forward- 
nesse)  and  readie  to  lanch  in  short  time,  from  that  place 
(as  we  supposed)  to  meet  ours  at  a  pond  of  fresh  water, 
where  they  were  both  to  bee  mored,  untill  such  time  as 
being  fully  tackled,  the  wind  should  serve  faire,  (for  our 
putting  to  Sea  together)  being  the  eighteenth  of  March, 
hearing  of  Paynes  death,  and  fearing  hee  had  appeached 
them,  and  discovered  the  attempt  (who  poore  Gentleman 
therein,  in  so  bad  a  cause,  was  too  secret  and  constant  to 
his  owne  faith  ingaged  unto  them,  and  as  little  needed, 




as  urged  thereunto,  though  somewhat  was  voluntarily 

delivered  by  him)  by  a  mutuall  consent  forsooke  their 

labour,  and  Sir  George  Summers,  and  like  Out-lawes  Diven  of  Sir 

betooke  them  to  the  wild  Woods :  whether  meere  rage,  G.  Summers 

and  greedinesse  after  some  little  Pearle  (as  it  was  thought)  "^^^^^^'J^^ 

wherewith   they  conceived  they  should  for   ever   inrich 

themselves,  and  saw  how  to  obtaine  the  same  easily  in 

this  place,  or  whether,  the  desire  for  ever  to  inhabite  heere, 

or  what  other  secret  else  moved  them  thereunto,  true  it  is, 

they   sent    an    audacious    and    formall   Petition    to    our 

Governour,  subscribed  with  all  their  names  and  Seales : 

not  only  intreating  him,  that  they  might  stay  heere,  but 

(with  great  art)  importuned  him,  that  he  would  performe 

other  conditions  with  them,  and  not  wave,  nor  evade  from 

some  of  his  owne  promises,  as  namely  to  furnish  each  of 

them  with  two  Sutes  of  Apparell,  and  contribute  Meale 

rateably  for  one  whole  yeere,  so  much  among  them,  as 

they  had  weekly  now,  which  was  one  pound  and  an  halfe 

a  weeke  (for  such  had  beene  our  proportion  for  nine 

moneths).     Our  Governour  answered  this  their  Petition, 

writing  to  Sir  George  Summers  to  this  effect. 

That  true  it  was,  at  their  first  arrivall  upon  this  Hand,  Sir  T.  Gates 
when  it  was  feared  how  our  meanes  would  not  extend  to  his  letter  to  Sir 
the  making  of  a  Vessell,  capeable  and  large  enough,  to  ^"  5«»^'"*''^- 
transport  all  our  Countrimen  at  once,  indeed  out  of  his 
Christian  consideration  (mourning  for  such  his  Countri- 
men, who  comming  under  his  command,  he  foresaw  that 
for  a  while,  he  was  like  enough  to  leave  here  behind, 
compelled  by  tyrannie  of  necessitie)  his  purpose  was  not 
yet  to  forsake  them  so,  as  given  up  like  Savages :  but  to 
leave  them  all  things  fitting  to  defend  them  from  want 
and  wretchednesse,  as  much  at  least  as  lay  in  his  power,  to 
spare  from  the  present  use  (and  perhaps  necessitie  of  others, 
whose  fortunes  should  be  to  be  transported  with  him)  for 
one  whole  yeere  or  more  (if  so  long  by  any  casualtie,  the 
ships  which  he  would  send  unto  them  might  be  staied 
before  their  arrivall,  so  many  hazards  accompanying  the 
Sea)  but  withall  intreated  Sir  George  to  remember  unto  his 




Company  (if  by  any  meanes  he  CQuld  learne  where  they 
were)  how  he  had  vowed  unto  him,  that  if  either  his  owne 
meanes,  his  authoritie  in  Virginia,  or  love  with  his  friends 
in  England,  could  dispatch  for  them  sooner,  how  farre  it 
was   from   him,   to  let   them   remayne   abandoned,   and 
neglected  without  their  redemption  so  long :   and  then 
proceeded,  requesting  Sir  George  Summers  againe,   to 
signifie  unto  them,  since  now  our  owne  Pinnasse  did  arise 
to  that  burthen,  and  that  it  would  sufficiently  transport 
them  all,  beside  the  necessitie  of  any  other  Barke  :  and  yet, 
that  since  his  Barke  was  now  readie  too,  that  those  con- 
sultations, howsoever  charitable  and  most  passionate  in 
[IV.  ix.         themselves,  might  determine,  as  taken  away  thereby,  and 
'746-  .therefore,  that  he  should  now  bee  pleased  to  advise  them 
well,  how  unanswerable  this  grant  or  consent  of  his  should 
be  :  first,  to  his  Majestic  for  so  many  of  his  subjects,  next 
to    the    Adventurers,    and    lastly,    what    an    imputation 
and   infamy   it   might   be,    to   both    their   owne   proper 
reputations,  and  honours,  having  each  of  them  authoritie 
in  their  places,  to  compell  the  adversant  and  irregular 
multitude,   at   any   time,    to   what   should   bee   obedient 
and    honest,    which    if    they    should    not    execute,    the 
blame   would   not   lye   upon    the   people    (at    all   times 
wavering  and  insolent)  but  upon  themselves  so  weake 
and   unworthy   in   their   command.     And   moreover   in- 
treated  him  by  any  secret  practice  to  apprehend  them, 
smce  that  the  obstinate,  and  precipitate  many,  were  no 
more  in  such  a  condition  and  state  to  bee  favoured,  then 
the   murmuring   and   mutinie   of   such   Rebellious   and 
turbulent  Humorists,  who  had  not  conscience  nor  know- 
ledge, to  draw  in  the  yoke  of  goodnesse,  and  in  the  busi- 
nesse  for  which  they  were  sent  out  of  England  :  for  which 
likewise,  at  the  expence  and  charge  of  the  Adventurers, 
they  were  to  him  committed,  and  that  the  meanest  in  the 
whole  Fleet  stood  the  Company  in  no  lesse  then  twentie 
pounds,  for  his  owne  personall  Transportation,  and  things 
necessary   to   accompany  him.     And   therefore   lovingly 
conjured  Sir  George,  by  the  worthinesse  of  his  (heretofore) 



well  mayntayned  reputation,  and  by  the  powers  of  his 
owne  judgement,  and  by  the  vertue  of  that  ancient  love 
and  friendship,  which  had  these  many  yeeres  beene  setled 
betweene  them,  to  doe  his  best,  to  give  this  revolted  Com- 
pany (if  he  could  send  unto  them)  the  consideration  of 
these  particulars,  and  so  worke  with  them  Hf  he  might) 
that  by  faire  meanes  (the  Mutinie  reconciled)  they  would 
at  length  survey  their  owne  errours,  which  hee  would  bee 
as  readie,  upon  their  rendring  and  comming  into  pardon, 
as  he  did  now  pittie  them ;  assuring  them  in  generall 
and  particular,  that  whatsoever  they  had  sinisterly  com- 
mitted, or  practised  hitherto  against  the  Lawes  of  dutie 
and  honestie,  should  not  in  any  sort  be  imputed  against 

In  which  good  Office  Sir  George  Summers  did  so  nobly 
worke,  and  heartily  labour,  as  hee  brought  most  of  them 
in,  and  indeed  all,  but  Christopher  Carter,  and  Robert 
Waters,  who  (by  no  meanes)  would  any  more  come 
amongst  Sir  Georges  men,  hearing  that  Sir  George  had 
commanded  his  men  indeed  (since  they  would  not  be 
intreated  by  faire  meanes)  to  surprize  them  (if  they  could) 
by  any  device  or  force.  From  which  time  they  grew  so 
cautelous  and  wary,  for  their  owne  ill,  as  at  our  comming 
away,  wee  were  faine  to  leave  them  behind.  That  Waters 
was  a  Sayler,  who  at  his  first  landing  upon  the  Hand  (as 
after  you  shall  heare)  killed  another  feUow  Sayler  of  his, 
the  bodie  of  the  murthered  and  Murtherer  so  dwelling, 
as  prescribed  now  together. 

During  our  time  of  abode  upon  these  Hands,  wee  had 
daily  every  Sunday  two  Sermons  preached  by  our  Minister, 
besides  every  Morning  and  Evening  at  the  ringing  of  a 
Bell,  wee  repayred  all  to  publique  Prayer,  at  what  time 
the  names  of  our  whole  Company  were  called  by  Bill, 
and  such  as  were  wanting,  were  duly  punished. 

The  contents  (for  the  most  part)  of  all  our  Preachers 
Sermons,  were  especially  of  Thankefulnesse  and  Unitie, 

It  pleased  God  also  to  give  us  opportunitie,  to  performe 



Waters  and 
Carter  stand 
out  and  are 
left  behind. 

performed  by 


The  most  holy 
civill  and  most 
waturall  pos- 
session taken  of 
the  Bermttdas 
by  exercise  of 


Bermuda  and 



all  the  other  Offices,  and  Rites  of  our  Christian  Profession 
in  this  Hand :  as  Marriage,  for  the  sixe  and  twentieth  of 
November,  we  had  one  of  Sir  George  Summers  his  men, 
his  Cooke,  named  Thomas  Powell,  who  married  a  Maid 
Servant  of  one  Mistris  Horton,  whose  name  was 
Elizabeth  Persons:  and  upon  Christmasse  Eve,  as  also 
once  before,  the  first  of  October ;  our  Minister  preached 
a  godly  Sermon,  which  being  ended,  he  celebrated  a  Com- 
munion, at  the  partaking  whereof  our  Governour  was,  and 
the  greatest  part  of  oiu:  Company :  and  the  eleventh  of 
February,  wee  had  the  childe  of  one  John  Rose  christened 
a  Daughter,  to  which  Captaine  Newport  and  my  selfe 
were  Witnesses,  and  the  aforesaid  Mistris  Horton  and  we 
named  it  Bermuda,  as  also  the  five  and  twentieth  of  March, 
the  wife  of  one  Edward  Eason,  being  delivered  the  weeke 
before  of  a  Boy,  had  him  then  christened,  to  which 
Captaine  Newport  and  my  selfe,  and  Master  James  Swift 
were  Godfathers,  and  we  named  it  Bermudas. 

Likewise,  we  buried  five  of  our  company,  JefFery 
Briars,  Richard  Lewis,  William  Hitchman,  and  my 
God-daughter  Bermuda  Rolfe,  and  one  untimely  Edward 
Samuell  a  Sayler,  being  villanously  killed  by  the  foresaid 
Robert  Waters,  (a  Sayler  likewise)  with  a  shovell,  who 
strake  him  therewith  under  the  lift  of  the  Eare,  for 
which  he  was  apprehended,  and  appointed  to  be  hanged 
the  next  day,  (the  fact  being  done  in  the  twilight) 
but  being  bound  fast  to  a  Tree  all  night,  with  many 
Ropes,  and  a  Guard  of  five  or  six  to  attend  him,  his 
fellow  Saylers  (watching  the  advantage  of  the  Centinels 
sleeping)  in  despight  and  disdaine  that  Justice  should  bee 
shewed  upon  a  Sayler,  and  that  one  of  their  crue  should 
be  an  example  to  others,  not  taking  into  consideration,  the 
unmanlinesse  of  the  murther,  nor  the  horror  of  the  sinne, 
they  cut  his  bands,  and  conveyed  him  into  the  Woods, 
where  they  fed  him  nightly,  and  closely,  who  afterward 
by  the  mediation  of  Sir  George  Summers,  upon  many 
conditions,  had  his  tryall  respited  by  our  Governour. 

Wee  had  brought  our  Pinnasse  so  forward  by  this  time, 



as  the  eight  and  twentieth  of  August  we  having  laid  her 
Keele.  The  sixe  and  twentieth  of  February,  we  now 
began  to  calke:  old  Cables  we  had  preserved  unto  us, 
which  afFoorded  Ocam  enough :  and  one  barreU  of  Pitch, 
and  another  of  Tarre,  we  likewise  saved,  which  served  our 
use  some  little  way  upon  the  Bilg,  wee  breamed  her  other- 
wise with  Lime  made  of  Wilke-shels,  and  an  hard  white 
stone  which  we  burned  in  a  Kill,  slaked  with  fresh  water,  [iv.  ix. 
and  tempered   with  Tortoyses   Oyle.     The   thirtieth   of  i747-] 

March  being  Friday,  we  towed  her  out  in  the  morning 
Spring-tyde,  from  the  Wharfe  where  she  was  built,  boying 
her  with  foure  Caske  in  her  runne  only :  which  opened 
into  the  North-west,  and  into  which  when  the  Breeze 
stood  North  and  by  West  with  any  stiffe  gale,  and  upon 
the  Spring-tydes,  the  Sea  would  increase  with  that  violence, 
especially  twice  it  did  so,  as  at  the  first  time  (before  our 
Governour  had  caused  a  solid  Causey  of  an  hundred  load 
of  stone  to  bee  brought  from  the  Hils  and  Neighbour 
Rockes,  and  round  about  her  ribs  from  stemme  to  stemme, 
where  it  made  a  pointed  Baulke,  and  thereby  brake  the 
violence  of  the  Flowe  and  Billowe)  it  indangered  her  over- 
throw and  ruine,  beeing  greene  as  it  were  upon  the 
Stockes.  With  much  difficultie,  diligence,  and  labour,  we 
saved  her  at  the  first,  aU  her  Bases,  Shores,  and  Piles,  which 
under-set  her,  being  almost  carried  from  her,  which  was 
the  second  of  January,  when  her  knees  were  not  set  to, 
nor  one  joynt  firme :  We  launched  her  unrigged,  to  carrie 
her  to  a  little  round  Hand,  lying  West  North-west,  and 
close  aboord  to  the  backe  side  of  our  Hand,  both  neerer 
the  Ponds  and  Wels  of  some  fresh  water,  as  also  from 
thence  to  make  our  way  to  the  Sea  the  better  :  the  Channell 
being  there  sufficient  and  deepe  enough  to  leade  her  forth, 
when  her  Masts,  Sayles,  and  all  her  Trimme  should  bee 
about  her.  Shee  was  fortie  foot  by  the  Keele,  and  nine- 
teene  foot  broad  at  the  Beame,  sixe  foote  floore,  her  Rake 
forward  was  fourteene  foot,  her  Rake  aft  from  the  top  of 
her  Post  (which  was  twelve  foot  long)  was  three  foot, 
shee  was  eight  foot  deepe  under  her  Beame,  betweene  her 




Cedar  ill  for 

Deckes  she  was  foure  foot  and  an  halfe,  with  a  rising  of 
halfe  a  foot  more  under  her  fore  Castle,  of  purpose  to 
scowre  the  Decke  with  small  shot,  if  at  any  time  wee 
should  bee  horded  by  the  Enemie.  Shee  had  a  fall  of 
eighteene  inches  aft,  to  make  her  sterage  and  her  great 
Cabbin  the  more  large :  her  sterage  was  five  foote  long, 
and  sixe  foote  high,  with  a  close  Gallerie  right  aft,  with  a 
window  on  each  side,  and  two  right  aft.  The  most  part 
of  her  timber  was  Cedar,  which  we  found  to  be  bad  for 
shipping,  for  that  it  is  wonderous  false  inward,  and  besides 
it  is  so  spault  or  brickie,  that  it  will  make  no  good  plankes, 
her  Beames  were  all  Oke  of  our  ruine  ship,  and  some 
plankes  in  her  Bow  of  Oke,  and  all  the  rest  as  is  aforesaid. 
When  shee  began  to  swimme  (upon  her  launching)  our 
Governour  called  her  The  Deliverance,  and  shee  might  be 
some  eighty  tunnes  of  burthen. 

Before  we  quitted  our  old  quarter,  and  dislodged  to 
the  fresh  water  with  our  Pinnasse,  our  Governour  set 
up  in  Sir  George  Summers  Garden  a  faire  Muemosynon 
in  figure  of  a  Crosse,  made  of  some  of  the  timber 
of  our  ruined  shippe,  which  was  scrued  in  with  strong 
and  great  trunnels  to  a  mightie  Cedar,  which  grew  in 
the  middest  of  the  said  Garden,  and  whose  top  and 
upper  branches  he  caused  to  be  lopped,  that  the 
violence  of  the  winde  and  weather  might  have  the  lesse 
power  over  her. 

In  the  middest  of  the  Crosse,  our  Governour  fastened 

^tlty"*'"  the  Picture  of  his  Majestie  in  a  piece  of  Silver  of  twelve 

pence,   and    on    each   side    of    the    Crosse,    hee    set    an 

Inscription  graven  in  Copper,  in  the  Latine  and  English 

to  this  purpose. 

In  memory  of  our  great  deliverance,  both  from  a. 
mightie  storme  and  leake :  wee  have  set  up  this  to  the 
honour  of  God.  It  is  the  spoyle  of  an  English  ship, 
(of  three  hundred  tunne)  called  the  Sea  Venture,  bound 
with  seven  ships  more  (from  which  the  storme  divided 
us)  to  Virginia,  or  Nova  Britania,  in  America.  In  it 
were  two  Knights,  Sir  Thomas  Gates  Knight,  Governour 


Crosse  set  up 
for  a  memorial. 



of  the  English  Forces  and  Colonic  there :  and  Sir  George 
Summers  Knight,  Admirall  of  the  Seas.  Her  Captaine 
was  Christopher  Newport,  Passengers  and  Mariners  shee 
had  beside  (which  came  all  safe  to  Land)  one  hundred 
and  fiftie.  We  were  forced  to  runne  her  ashore  (by 
reason  of  her  leake)  under  a  Point  that  bore  South-east 
from  the  Northerne  Point  of  the  Hand,  which  wee 
discovered  first  the  eight  and  twentieth  of  July  1609. 
About  the  last  of  Aprill,  Sir  George  Summers 
launched  his  Pinnasse,  and  brought  her  from  his  building 
Bay,  in  the  Mayne  Hand,  into  the  Channell  where  ours 
did  ride,  and  shee  was  by  the  Keele  nine  and  twentie 
foot:  at  the  Beame  fifteene  foot  and  an  halfe:  at  the 
Loofe  fourteene,  at  the  Trausam  nine,  and  she  was 
eight  foote  deepe,  and  drew  sixe  foote  water,  and  hee 
called  her  the  Patience. 

§.   III. 
Their    departure    from    Bermuda    and    arrivall    in 
Virginia :  miseries  there,  departure  and  returne 
upon    the    Lord   La    Warres   arriving.     James 
Towne  described. 

Rom  this  time  we  only  awaited  a  favourable 
Westerly  wind  to  carrie  us  forth,  which  longer 
then  usuall  now  kept  at  the  East,  and  South-east, 
the  way  which  wee  were  to  goe.  The  tenth  of  May 
early,  Sir  George  Summers  and  Captaine  Newport  went 
off  with  their  long  Boates,  and  with  two  Canoaes  boyed 
the  Channell,  which  wee  were  to  leade  it  out  in,  and 
which  was  no  broader  from  Shoales  on  the  one  side 
and  Rockes  on  the  other,  then  about  three  times  the  [IV.  ix. 
length  of  our  Pinnasse.     About  ten  of  the  docke,  that  1748-] 

day  being  Thursday,  we  set  sayle  an  easie  gale,  the  wind 
at  South,  and  by  reason  no  more  winde  blew,  we  were 
faine  to  towe  her  with  our  long  Boate,  yet  neither  with 
the  helpe  of  that,  were  we  able  to  fit  our  Bowyes,  but 
even  when  we  came  just  upon  them,  we  strucke  a  Rocke 




on  the  starboord  side,  over  which  the  Bowye  rid,  and 
had  it  not  beene  a  soft  Rocke,  by  which  meanes  she  bore 
it  before  her,  and  crushed  it  to  pieces,  God  knowes  we 
might  have  beene  like  enough,  to  have  returned  anew, 
and  dwelt  there,  after  tenne  monethes  of  carefulnesse 
and  great  labour  a  longer  time:  but  God  was  more 
mercifuU  unto  us.  When  shee  strucke  upon  the  Rocke, 
the  Cock-swayne  one  Walsingham  beeing  in  the  Boate 
with  a  quicke  spirit  (when  wee  were  all  amazed,  and 
our  hearts  failed)  and  so  by  Gods  goodnesse  wee  led 
it  out  at  three  fadome,  and  three  fadome  and  an  halfe 
water.  The  wind  served  us  easily  all  that  day  and  the 
next,  when  (God  be  ever  praysed  for  it)  to  the  no 
little  joy  of  us  all,  we  got  cleere  of  the  Hands.  After 
which  holding  a  Southerly  course,  for  seven  dayes  wee 
had  the  winde  sometimes  faire,  and  sometimes  scarce 
and  contrarie :  in  which  time  we  lost  Sir  George  Summers 
twice,  albeit  we  still  spared  him  our  mayne  top-sayle, 
and  sometimes  our  fore  course  too. 
Signe  of  The  seventeenth  of  May  we  saw  change  of  water, 
Land.  ^^^  ]^^^  much  Rubbish  swimme  by  our  ship  side, 
whereby  wee  knew  wee  were  not  farre  from  Land.  The 
eighteenth  about  midnight  wee  sounded,  with  the  Dipsing 
Lead,  and  found  thirtie  seven  fadome.  The  nineteenth 
in  the  morning  we  sounded,  and  had  nineteene  and  an 
halfe  fadome,  stonie,  and  sandie  ground.  The  twentieth 
about  midnight,  we  had  a  marvellous  sweet  smell  from 
the  shoare  (as  from  the  Coast  of  Spaine,  short  of  the 
Straits)  strong  and  pleasant,  which  did  not  a  little  glad 
us.  In  the  morning  by  day  breake  (so  soone  as  one 
might  well  see  from  the  fore-top)  one  of  the  Saylers 
descryed  Land  about  an  houre  after,  I  went  up  and 
might  discover  two  Hummockes  to  the  Southward,  from 
which  (Northward  all  along)  lay  the  Land,  which  wee 
were  to  Coast  to  Cape  Henrie.  About  seven  of  the 
clocke  we  cast  forth  an  Anchor,  because  the  tyde  (by 
reason  of  the  Freshet  that  set  into  the  Bay)  made  a 
strong  Ebbe  there,  and  the  winde  was  but  easie,  so  as 




not  beeing  able  to  stemme  the  Tyde,  we  purposed  to 

lye  at  an  Anchor  untill   the   next  flood,  but  the  wind 

comming  South-west  a  loome  gale  about  eleven,  we  set 

sayle  againe,  and  having  got  over  the  Barre,  bore  in  for 

the  Cape. 

This  is  the  famous  Chesipiacke  Bay,  which  wee  have  Chesifiack 
caUed  (in  honour  of  our  young  Prince)  Cape  Henrie  ^"h 
over  against  which  within  the  Bay,  lyeth  another  Head- 
land, which  wee  called  in  honour  of  our  Princely  Duke 
of  Yorke  Cape  Charles;  and  these  lye  North-east  and 
by  East,  and  South-west  and  by  West,  and  they  may 
bee  distant  each  from  the  other  in  breadth  seven  leagues, 
betweene  which  the  Sea  runnes  in  as  broad  as  betweene 
Queeneburrough  and  Lee.  Indeed  it  is  a  goodly  Bay 
and  a  fairer,  not  easily  to  be  found. 

The  one  and  twentieth,  beeing  Munday  in  the 
morning,  wee  came  up  within  two  miles  of  Point 
Comfort,  when  the  Captaine  of  the  Fort  discharged  a 
warning  Peece  at  us,  whereupon  we  came  to  an  Anchor, 
and  sent  off  our  long  Boat  to  the  Fort,  to  certifie  who 
we  were  ;  by  reason  of  the  shoales  which  lye  on  the 
South-side,  this  Fort  easily  commands  the  mouth  of 
the  River,  albeit  it  is  as  broad  as  betweene  Greenwich, 
and  the  He  of  Dogges. 

True  it  is,  such  who  talked  with  our  men  from  the 
shoare,  delivered  how  safely  all  our  ships  the  last 
yeere  (excepting  only  the  Admirall,  and  the  little 
Pinnasse  in  which  one  Michael  Philes  commanded  of 
some  twentie  tunne,  which  we  towed  a  sterne  till  the 
storme  blew)  arrived,  and  how  our  people  (well  increased) 
had  therefore  builded  this  Fort ;  only  wee  could  not 
learne  any  thing  of  our  long  Boat,  sent  from  the 
Bermudas,  but  what  wee  gathered  by  the  Indians  them- 
selves, especially  from  Powhatan,  who  would  tell  our 
men  of  such  a  Boat  landed  in  one  of  his  Rivers,  and 
would  describe  the  people,  and  make  much  scoffing  sport 
thereat:  by  which  wee  have  gathered,  that  it  is  most 
likely,  how  it  arrived  upon  our  Coast,  and  not  meeting 



The  long  Boat 
sent  by  Ravens 
cast  away. 



M.  George 


shezves  of 
[IV.  ix. 

1 749-] 

Old  Patent 
yeelded  up. 


with  our  River  were  taken  at  some  time  or  other,  at 
some  advantage  by  the  Savages,  and  so  cut  ofF.  When 
our  SkifFe  came  up  againe,  the  good  newes  of  our  ships, 
and  mens  arrivall  the  last  yeere,  did  not  a  little  glad  our 
Governour :  who  went  soone  ashoare,  and  assoone  (contrary 
to  all  our  faire  hopes)  had  new  unexpected,  uncomfortable, 
and  heavie  newes  of  a  worse  condition  of  our  people 
above  at  James  Towne. 

Upon  Point  Comfort  our  men  did  the  last  yeere  (as 
you  have  heard)  rayse  a  little  Fortification,  which  since 
hath  beene  better  perfected,  and  is  likely  to  proove  a 
strong  Fort,  and  is  now  kept  by  Captaine  James  Davies 
with  forty  men,  and  hath  to  name  Algernoone  Fort,  so 
called  by  Captaine  George  Percy,  whom  we  found  at  , 
our  arrivall  President  of  the  Colony,  and  at  this  time 
like-wise  in  the  Fort.  When  we  got  into  the  Point, 
which  was  the  one  and  twentieth  of  May,  being  Munday 
about  noone;  where  riding  before  an  Indian  Towne 
called  Kecoughton,  a  mightie  storme  of  Thunder, 
Lightning,  and  Raine,  gave  us  a  shrewd  and  fearefull 

From  hence ,  in  two  dayes  (only  by  the  helpe  of 
Tydes,  no  winde  stirring)  wee  plyed  it  sadly  up  the 
River,  and  the  three  and  twentieth  of  May  we  cast 
Anchor  before  James  Towne,  where  we  landed,  and 
our  much  grieved  Governour  first  visiting  the  Church 
caused  the  Bell  to  be  rung,  at  which  (all  such  as  were 
able  to  come  forth  of  their  houses)  repayred  to  Church 
where  our  Minister  Master  Bucke  made  a  zealous  and 
sorrowfuU  Prayer,  finding  all  things  so  contrary  to 
our  expectations,  so  full  of  misery  and  misgovernment. 
After  Service  our  Governour  caused  mee  to  reade 
his  Commission,  and  Captaine  Percie  (then  President) 
delivered  up  unto  him  his  Commission,  the  old  Patent 
and  the  Councell  Seale.  Viewing  the  Fort,  we  found 
the  Pallisadoes  torne  downe,  the  Ports  open,  the  Gates 
from  off  the  hinges,  and  emptie  houses  (which  Owners 
death  had  taken  from  them)  rent  up  and  burnt,  rather 



then  the  dwellers  would  step  into  the  Woods  a  stones 
cast  off  from  them,  to  fetch  other  fire-wood  :  and  it 
is  true,  the  Indian  killed  as  fast  without,  if  our  men  Their  miseries 
stirred  but  beyond  the  bounds  of  their  Block-house,  »»f'«>'^-  Ip" 
as  Famine  and  Pestilence  did  within  ;  with  many  more  "'/""ff 
particularities  or  their  surrerances  (brought  upon  them 
by  their  owne  disorders  the  last  yeere)  then  I  have 
heart  to  expresse.  In  this  desolation  and  misery  our 
Governour  found  the  condition  and  state  of  the  Colonie, 
and  (which  added  more  to  his  griefe)  no  hope  how 
to  amend  it  or  save  his  owne  Company,  and  those  yet 
remayning  alive,  from  falling  into  the  like  necessities. 
For  we  had  brought  from  the  Bermudas  no  greater 
store  of  provision  (fearing  no  such  accidents  possible 
to  befall  the  Colony  here)  then  might  well  serve  one 
hundred  and  fiftie  for  a  Sea  Voyage  :  and  it  was  not 
possible,  at  this  time  of  the  yeere  to  amend  it,  by  any 
helpe  fi-om  the  Indian.  For  besides  that  they  (at  their 
best)  have  little  more,  then  from  hand  to  mouth,  it 
was  now  likewise  but  their  Seed-time,  and  all  their 
Corne  scarce  put  into  the  ground  :  nor  was  there  at 
the  Fort,  (as  they  whom  we  found  related  unto  us)  any 
meanes  to  take  fish,  neither  sufficient  Seine,  nor  other 
convenient  Net,  and  yet  if  there  had,  there  was  not 
one  eye  of  Sturgeon  yet  come  into  the  River.  All 
which  considered,  it  pleased  our  Governour  to  make 
a  Speech  unto  the  Company,  giving  them  to  understand, 
that  what  provision  he  had,  they  should  equally  share 
with  him,  and  if  he  should  find  it  not  possible,  and 
easie  to  supply  them  with  some  thing  from  the  Countrey, 
by  the  endevours  of  his  able  men,  hee  would  make 
readie,  and  transport  them  all  into  their  Native  Countrey 
(accommodating  them  the  best  that  he  could)  at  which 
there  was  a  generall  acclamation,  and  shoute  of  joy  on 
both  sides,  for  even  our  owne  men  began  to  be  dis- 
heartened and  faint,  when-  they  saw  this  misery  amongst 
the  others,  and  no  lesse  threatned  unto  themselves.  In 
the    meane    while,    our    Governour    published    certaine 




Orders  estab-  Orders    and    Instructions,    which    hee    enjoyned    them 

lished  which     strictly  to  observe,  the  time  that  hee  should  stay  amongst 

'thek"t^"^    them,  which  being  written  out  faire,  were  set  up  upon 

stay:' the        »  post  in  the  Church  for  every  one  to  take  notice  of. 

farticulers  are       If  I  should  be  examined  from  whence,  and  by  what 

here  omitted,    occasion,    all    these    disasters,   and    afflictions    descended 

They  con-       ^^on    our   people,    I    can   only    referre   you    (honoured 

Preface  and     Ladie)  to  the  Booke,  which  the  Adventurers  have  sent 

21.  Articles     hither    intituled,    Advertisements    unto    the    Colony    in 

for  Pietie,       Virginia  :   wherein  the  ground  and  causes  are  favourably 

Loyaltie  and    abridged,  from  whence  these  miserable  effects  have  beene 

venient  to  the   produced,  not  excusing  likewise   the  forme    of  govern- 

Colonie.  ment  of  some  errour,  which  was  not  powerfuU  enough 

among  so  headie  a  multitude,  especially,  as  those  who 

arrived  here  in  the  supply  sent  the  last  yeere  with  us : 

with  whom   the  better  authoritie  and  government  now 

changed   into   an   absolute   command,    came   along,   and 

had    beene   as  happily  established,  had  it  pleased  God, 

that  we  with  them  had  reached   our   wished   Harbour. 

Unto  such  calamity  can  sloath,  riot,  and  vanity,  bring 

the   most   setled   and   plentifuU   estate.      Indeede   (right 

noble    Lady)    no    story    can    remember    unto    us,    more 

woes  and  anguishes,  then   these   people,  thus  governed, 

have   both    suffered    and    puld    upon   their  owne  heads. 

Men  blamed.    And   yet  true    it  is,   some   of  them,   whose   voyces  and 

''counlr"^' ""  '^^^'^^^'^  "light  "ot  be   heard,  may   easily  be  absolved 

freed.  ^^°^  ^^^  g"i^t  hereof,  as  standing  untouched,  and  upright 

in  their  innocencies  ;   whilest  the  privie  factionaries  shall 

never  find  time  nor   darknesse,  to  wipe  away  or  cover 

their  ignoble  and  irreligious  practises,  who,   it   may  be, 

lay   all    the   discredits,   and   imputations  the  while  upon 

the  Countrie.     But  under  pardon,  let  me  speake  freely 

to   them  :    let    them   remember   that    if   riot    and    sloth 

should    both    meet   in   any    one   of  their  best  Families, 

in  a  Countrey  most  stored  with  abundance  and  plentie 

in    England,    continuall    wasting,    no    Husbandry,    the 

old  store  still   spent  on,   no  order   for    new    provisions, 

what   better   could   befall   unto   the    Inhabitants,    Land- 




lords,  and  Tenants  of  that  corner,  then  necessarily 
following  cleannesse  of  teeth,  famine  and  death  ?  Is 
it  not  the  sentence  and  doome  of  the  Wiseman  ?  Yet  P''"^-  ^■ 
a  little  sleepe,  a  little  slumber,  and  a  little  folding  of 
the  hands  to  sleepe  :  so  thy  poverty  commeth,  as  one 
that  travelleth  by  the  way,  and  thy  necessitie  like  an 
armed  man.  And  with  this  Idlenesse,  when  some  thing 
was  in  store,  all  wastftill  courses  exercised  to  the  heigth, 
and  the  headlesse  multitude,  (some  neither  of  qualitie 
nor  Religion)  not  imployed  to  the  end  for  which  they 
were  sent  hither,  no  not  compelled  (since  in  themselves 
unwilling)  to  sowe  Corne  for  their  owne  bellies,  nor 
to  put  a  Roote,  Herbe,  &c.  for  their  owne  particular 
good  in  their  Gardens  or  elsewhere  :  I  say  in  this  neglect 
and  sensuall  Surfet,  all  things  suffered  to  runne  on, 
to  lie  sicke  and  languish ;  must  it  be  expected,  that 
health,  plentie,  and  all  the  goodnesse  of  a  well  ordered 
State,  of  necessitie  for  all  this  to  flow  in  this  Countrey  ? 
You  have  a  right  and  noble  heart  (worthy  Lady)  bee 
judge  of  the  truth  herein.  Then  suffer  it  not  bee 
concluded  unto  you,  nor  beleeve,  I  beseech  you,  that 
the  wants  and  wretchednesse  which  they  have  indured, 
ascend  out  of  the  povertie  and  vilenesse  of  the  Countrey, 
whether  bee  respected  the  Land  or  Rivers  :  the  one, 
and  the  other,  having  not  only  promised,  but  powred 
enough  in  their  veines,  to  convince  them  in  such  [IV.  ix. 
calumnies,  and  to  quit  those  common  calamities,  which  '75°-J 

(as  the  shadow  accompanies  the  body)  the  precedent 
neglects  touched  at,  if  truely  followed,  and  wrought 
upon.  What  England  may  boast  of,  having  the  faire 
hand  of  husbandry  to  manure  and  dresse  it,  God,  and  The  Countrey 
Nature  have  favourably  bestowed  upon  this  Country,  <^'>"'™inded. 
and  as  it  hath  given  unto  it,  both  by  situation,  height, 
and  soyle,  all  those  (past  hopes)  assurances  which  follow 
our  well  planted  native  Countrie,  and  others,  lying 
under  the  same  influence :  if,  as  ours,  the  Countrey 
and  soyle  might  be  improved,  and  drawne  forth :  so 
hath  it  indowed  it,  as  is  most  certaine,  with  many  more, 




which  England  fetcheth  farre  unto  her  from  elsewhere. 
For  first  wee  have  experience,  and  even  our  eyes  witnesse 
(how  yong  so  ever  wee  are  to  the  Countrie)  that  no 
Countrey  yeeldeth  goodlier  Corne,  nor  more  manifold 
increase :  large  Fields  wee  have,  as  prospects  of  the 
same,  and  not  farre  from  our  Pallisado.  Besides,  wee 
have  thousands  of  goodly  Vines  in  every  hedge,  and 
Boske  running  along  the  ground,  which  yeelde  a 
plentifull  Grape  in  their  kinde.  Let  mee  appeale  then 
to  knowledge,  if  these  naturall  Vines  were  planted, 
dressed,  and  ordered  by  skilfuU  Vinearoones,  whether 
wee  might  not  make  a  perfect  Grape,  and  fruitefuU 
Vintage  in  short  time  .''  And  we  have  made  triall  of 
our  owne  English  seedes,  kitchen  Hearbs,  and  Rootes, 
and  finde  them  to  prosper  as  speedily  as  in  England. 
Rem.  acu  Onely   let   me   truely   acknowledge,  they  are  not  an 

Mtgtt.  hundred  or  two  of  deboist  hands,  dropt  forth  by  yeare 

m^"ery  in  ^^^^^  yeare,  with  penury,  and  leisure,  ill  provided  for 
Virginia.  before  they  come,  and  worse  to  be  governed  when  they 
are  here,  men  of  such  distempered  bodies,  and  infected 
mindes,  whom  no  examples  daily  before  their  eyes, 
either  of  goodnesse  or  punishment,  can  deterre  from 
their  habituaU  impieties,  or  terrifie  from  a  shamefuU 
death,  that  must  be  the  Carpenters,  and  workemen 
in  this  so  glorious  a  building. 

Then  let  no  rumour  of  the  poverty  of  the  Country 
(as  if  in  the  wombe  thereof  there  lay  not  those  elementall 
seedes,  which  could  produce  as  many  faire  births  of 
plenty,  and  increase,  and  better  hopes,  then  any  land 
under  the  heaven,  to  which  the  Sunne  is  no  neerer 
a  neighbour)  I  say,  let  no  imposture  rumour,  nor  any 
fame  of  some  one,  or  a  few  more  changeable  actions, 
interposing  by  the  way,  or  at  home,  wave  any  mans 
faire  purposes  hitherward,  or  wrest  them  to  a  declining 
and  falling  off  from  the  businesse. 

I  will  acknowledge,  deere  Lady,  I  have  seene  much 
propensnesse  already  towards  the  unity,  and  generall 
endeavours  :    how  contentedly  doe  such  as  labour  with 



us,  goe   forth,  when   men  of  ranke  and  quality,  assist, 
and  set  on  their  labours  ?  I  have  seene  it,  and  I  protest 
it,   I   have  heard   the  inferioor  people,  with   alacrity  of 
spirit   professe,    that   they   should   never   refuse   to   doe 
their  best  in  the  practise  of  their  sciences  and  knowledges.  Times  of 
when   such  worthy,   and  Noble  Gentlemen   goe  in  and  ^"^""J"  ""'i''' 
out  before  them,  and  not  onely  so,  but  as  the  occasion    "^    '    ""' 
shall  be  offered,   no  lesse  helpe  them  with  their  hand, 
then   defend    them  with  the  Sword.      And   it  is   to  be 
understood,  that  such  as  labour,  are  not  yet  so  taxed, 
but  that  easily   they   performe   the   same,   and  ever   by 
tenne  of  the  clocke  have  done  their  Mornings  worke  : 
at  what  time,  they  have  their  allowances  set  out  ready 
for  them,   and   untill  it   be   three  of  the  clocke  againe, 
they  take  their  owne  pleasure,  and  afterwards  with  the 
Sunne  set,   their  dayes  labour  is  finished.     In  all  which 
courses,  if  the  businesse  be  continued,  I  doubt  nothing, 
with  Gods  favour  towards  us,  but  to  see  it  in  time,  a 
Countrie,   an    Haven,    and   a    Staple,    fitted    for   such   a 
trade,   as  shall  advance  assureder  increase,   both  to   the 
Adventurers,  and  free  Burgers  thereof,  then  any  Trade  Note.    The 
in  Christendome,  or  then  that  (even  in  her  earely  dayes,  ^°f".°f 
when    Michael    Cavacco   the   Greeke,   did   first   discover     '  ^ 
it  to  our  English   Factor  in   Poland)   which  extends  it 
selfe   now   from    Calpe   and   Abila,    to    the   bottome   of 
Sidon,   and   so   wide   as   Alexandria,    and   all  the  Ports 
and  Havens  North  and  South,  through   the  Arches  to 
Cio,  Smyrna,  Troy,  the  Hellespont,  and  up  to  Pompeys 
Pillar,    which    as    a    Pharos,    or    watch    Tower,    stands 
upon  the  wondrous  opening  into  the  Euxine  Sea. 

From  the  three  and  twentieth  of  May,  unto  the  Sir  T.  Gates 
seventh  of  June,  our  Governour  attempted,  and  made  A"  ere. 
triall  of  all  the  wayes,  that  both  his  owne  judgement 
could  prompe  him  in,  and  the  advice  of  Captaine  George 
Percy,  and  those  Gentlemen  whom  hee  found  of  the 
Counsell,  when  hee  came  in,  as  of  others  ;  whom  hee 
caused  to  deliver  their  knowledges,  concerning  the  State 
and  Condition  of  the  Countrey  :  but  after  much  debating, 

XIX  49  D 



it  could  not  appeare,  how  possibly  they  might  preserve 
themselves  (reserving  that  little  which  wee  brought  from 
the  Bermudas  in  our  Shippes,  and  was  upon  all  occasions 
tp  stand  good  by  us)  tenne  dayes  from  starving.  For 
besides  that  the  Indians  were  or  themselves  poore,  they 

Pohatam         were  forbidden  likewise  (by  their  subtile  King  Powhatan) 

policy.  at   ^U   to   trade   with    us ;    and   not   onely    so,    but   tp 

indanger  and  assault  any  Boate  upon  the  River,  or 
stragler  out  of  the  Fort  by  Land,  by  which  (not  long 
before  our  arrivall)  our  people  had  a  large  Bpate  cut 
off,  and  divers  of  our  men  killed,  even  within  command 
of  our  Blocke-house ;  as  likewise,  they  shot  two  of 
our  people  to  death,  after  we  had  bin  foure  and  five 
dayes  come  in  :  and  yet  would  they  dare  then  to  enter 
our   Ports,   and   trucke   with    us    (as   they  counterfeited 

Savage  Spies,  underhand)  when  indeede,  they  came  but  as  Spies  to 
discover  our  strength,  trucking  with  us  upon  such  hard 
conditions,  that  our  Governour  might  very  well  see 
their  subtiltie,  and   therefore  neither  could  well  indure, 

[IV.  ix.  nor  would  continue  it.     And  I  may  truely   say  beside, 

'75'-]  so   had  our  men   abased,   and  to   such  a  contempt,   had 

ourl"otie  *^^J^  brought  the  value  of  our  Copper,  that  a  peece 
which  would  have  bought  a  bushell  of  their  Corne  in 
former  time,  would  not  now  buy  a  little  Cade  or 
Basket    of    a    Pottle.      And    for    this    misgovernment, 

Mischiefes  of  chjefely   our   Colony  is  much  bound  to    the  Mariners, 

Manners.  ^j^^  never  yet  in  any  Voyage  hither,  but  have  made 
a  prey  of  our  poore  people  in  want ;  insomuch,  as 
unlesse  they  might  advance  foure  or  five  for  one  (how 
assured  soever  of  the  payments  pf  their  Bils  of  Exchange) 
they  would  not  spare  them  a  dust  of  Cprne,  nor  a 
pinte  of  Beere,  to  give  unto  them  the  least  comfort  or 
reliefe,  although  that  Beere  purloyned,  and  stolne  perhaps, 
either  from  some  particular  supply,  or  from  the  generall 
store  :  so  uncharitable  a  parcell  of  people  they  be,  and 
ill  conditioned.  I  my  selfe  have  heard  the  Master  of  a 
Shippe  say  (even  upon  the  arrivall  of  this  Fleete,  with 
the  Lord  Governour  and   Captaine  Generall,  when  the 




said  Master  was  treated  with  for  such  Commodities 
as  hee  brought  to  sell)  that  unlesse  hee  might  have  an 
East  Indian  increase,  foure  for  one,  all  charges  cleered, 
hee  would  not  part  with  a  Can  of  Beere.  Besides,  to 
doe  us  more  villany  and  mischiefs,  they  would  send 
of  their  long  Boates  still  by  night,  and  (well  guarded) 
make  out  to  the  neighbour  Villages,  and  Townes,  and 
there  (contrary  to  the  Articles  of  the  Fort,  which  now 
pronounce  death  for  a  trespasse  of  that  qualitie)  trucke 
with  the  Indians,  giving  for  their  trifles  Otter  skinnes, 
Bevers,  Rokoone  Furres,  Beares  skinnes,  &c.  so  large  a 
quantity,  and  measure  of  Copper,  as  when  the  Trucke- 
Master  for  the  Colony,  in  the  day  time  offered  trade,  the 
Indians  would  laugh  and  scorne  the  same,  telling  what 
bargains  they  met  withall  by  night,  from  our  Mangot 
Quintons  (so  calling  our  great  Shippes)  by  which  meanes, 
the  Market  with  them  forestalled  thus  by  these  dis- 
honest men,  I  may  boldly  say,  they  have  bin  a  con- 
sequent cause  (this  last  yeare)  to  the  death  and  starving  Pursers  fraud. 
of  many  a  worthy  spirit ;  but  I  hope  to  see  a  true 
amendment  and  reformation,  as  well  of  those  as  of 
divers  other  intoUerable  abuses,  thrust  upon  the  Colony 
by  these  shamelesse  people,  as  also  for  the  transportation 
of  such  provisions  and  supplies  as  are  sent  hither,  and 
come  under  the  charge  of  pursers  (a  parcell,  fragment, 
and  odde  ends  of  fellowes  dependancies  to  the  others) 
a  better  course  thought  upon  :  of  which  supplies,  never 
yet  came  into  the  Store,  or  to  the  Parties,  unto  whom 
such  supplies  were  sent,  by  relation  hitherto,  a  moitie 
or  third  part ;  for  the  speedy  redresse  of  this,  being 
so  soveraigne  a  point,  I  understand  how  the  Lord 
Governour  and  Captaine  Generall,  hath  advised  unto  Remedy. 
the  Counsell,  that  there  may  be  no  more  provisions 
at  all  delivered  unto  Pursers,  but  hath  intreated  to 
have  the  provision  thus  ordered.  He  would  have  a 
Commissary  Generall  of  the  Victuals  to  be  appointed, 
who  (receiving  the  store  for  the  Colony,  by  Indenture 
from   the   Treasurer,   and   Victuallers  in  England)  may 




keepe  a  just  accompt,  what  the  grosse  amounteth  unto, 
and  what  is  transported  every  Voyage,  in  severall  kindes, 
as  of  Bread,  Meate,  Beere,  Wine,  &c.  which  said 
Commissary  shall  deliver  over  the  same,  to  the  Master 
of  every  Ship,  and  take  an  Indenture  from  the  said 
Master,  of  what  he  hath  in  charge,  and  what  he  is 
to  deliver  to  the  Treasurer  of  the  store  in  Virginia  : 
of  which,  if  any  be  wanting,  he  the  said  Master  shall 
make  it  good,  out  of  his  owne  intertainment,  other- 
wise the  Pursers,  Stewards,  Coopers,  and  quarter  Masters, 
will  be  sure  still,  not  onely  to  give  themselves  and 
their  friends  double  allowances,  but  thinke  it  all  well 
gotten  that  they  can  purloine  and  steale  away. 

Besides  that  the  Indian  thus  evill  intreated  us,  the 
River  (which  were  wont  before  this  time  of  the  yeare 
to  be  plentifuU  of  Sturgion)  had  not  now  a  Fish  to 
be  scene  in  it,  and  albeit  we  laboured,  and  hold  our 
Net  twenty  times  day  and  night,  yet  we  tooke  not 
so  much  as  would  content  halfe  the  Fishermen.  Our 
Governour  therefore  sent  away  his  long  Boate  to  coast 
the  River  downward,  as  farre  as  Point  Comfort,  and 
from  thence  to  Cape  Henry,  and  Cape  Charles,  and 
all  within  the  Bay :  which  after  a  seven  nights  triall 
and  travaile,  returned  without  any  fruites  of  their 
labours,  scarse  getting  so  much  Fish  as  served  their 
owne  Company. 
The  Colony  And  to  take  any  thing  from   the   Indian   by  force, 

when  they  ^g  never  used,  nor  willingly  ever  will  :  and  though 
foure"daves  of  ^^^7  ^^^  ^^^^  deserved  it,  yet  it  was  not  now  time, 
starving.  for  they  did  (as  I  said  before)  but  then  set  their  Corne, 
and  at  their  best,  they  had  but  from  hand  to  mouth; 
so  as  what  now  remained?  such  as  we  found  in  the 
Fort,  had  wee  staid  but  foure  dayes,  had  doubtlesse 
bin  the  most  part  of  them  starved,  for  their  best 
reliefe  was  onely  Mushrums,  and  some  hearbes,  which 
sod  together,  made  but  a  thin  and  unsavory  broath, 
and  swelled  them  much.  The  pitty  hereof  moved  our 
Governour    to    draw    forth    such    provision    as    he   had 




brought,  proportioning  a  measure  equally  to   every  one 

a  like.     But  then  our  Governor  began  to  examine  how 

long    this    his    store    would    hold    out,    and    found    it 

(husbanded  to  the  best  advantage)  not  possible  to  serve 

longer   then    sixteene   dayes :    after   which,  nothing  was 

to  be  possibly  supposed  out  of  the  Countrey  (as  before 

remembred)    nor   remained   there   then    any   meanes   to 

transport  him  elsewhere.     Whereupon  hee  then  entred 

into   the   consultation   with    Sir  George   Summers,   and 

Captaine  Newport,  calling  unto  the  same  the  Gentlemen 

and  Counsell  of  the  former  Government,  intreating  both 

the  one   and   the   other   to  advise  with  him  what  was 

best    to    be    done.      The    provision    which    they    both 

had   aboord    himselfe    and    Sir    George    Summers,    was 

examined,    and    delivered,    how   it,   being   rackt   to   the 

uttermost,    extended    not    above,    as    I    said,    sixteene 

dayes,    after    two    Cakes    a    day.      The    Gendemen    of 

the    Town,    who    knew    better    of  the   Country,    could 

not  give  him  any  hope,  or  wayes,  how  to  improve  it  [IV.  ix. 

from    the    Indian.      It    soone    then   appeared   most   fit,  '75^] 

by  a   generall  approbation,   that   to   preserve   and   save 

all    from    starving,    there   could    be    no    readier    course 

thought     on,     then     to     abandon     the     Country,     and  P'*1>^"  "> 

accommodating    themselves   the    best   that    they    might,  q^LI 

in  the   present   Pinnaces   then    in   the   road,  namely  in 

the  Discovery  and  the  Virginia,  and  in  the  two,  brought 

from,   and   builded  at   the   Bermudas,   the   Deliverance, 

and  the  Patience,  with  all   speede  convenient  to  make 

for  the   New    found    Land,    where    (being    the    fishing 

time)  they  might  meete  with  many  English  Ships  into 

which     happily    they     might     disperse     most     of    the 


This  Consultation  taking  effect,  our  Governor  having 
caused  to  be  carried  aboord  all  the  Armes,  and  all  the 
best  things  in  the  store,  which  might  to  the  Adventurers 
make  some  commodity  upon  the  sale  thereof  at  home, 
and  burying  our  Ordnances  before  the  Fort  gate, 
which  looked   into   the   River.      The   seventh   of  June 



The  highest 
pitch  y  htoest 
depth  of  the 
escaping  the 
javies  of 

L.  La  Warrs 


having  appointed  to  every  Pinnace  likewise  his  com- 
plement and  number,  also  delivered  thereunto  a  pro- 
portionable rate  of  provision,  hee  commanded  every 
man  at  the  beating  of  the  Drum  to  repaire  aboord. 
And  because  hee  would  preserve  the  Towne  (albeit 
now  to  be  quitted)  unburned,  which  some  intemperate 
and  malicious  people  threatned,  his  owne  Company  he 
caused  to  be  left  ashoare,  and  was  himselfe  the  last 
of  them,  when  about  noone  giving  a  farewell,  with  a 
peale  of  small  shot,  wee  set  saile,  and  that  night,  with 
the  tide,  fell  downe  to  an  Hand  in  the  River,  which 
our  people  have  called  Hogge  Hand  ;  and  the  morning 
tide  brought  us  to  another  Hand,  which  we  have 
called  Mulberry  Hand ;  where  lying  at  an  ancor,  in  the 
afternoone  stemming  the  tide,  wee  discovered  a  long 
Boate  making  towards  us,  from  Point  Comfort :  much 
descant  we  made  thereof,  about  an  houre  it  came  up ; 
by  which,  to  our  no  little  joyes,  we  had  intelligence 
of  the  honorable  my  Lord  La  Warr  his  arrivall  before 
Algarnoone  Fort  the  sixt  of  June,  at  what  time,  true 
it  is,  his  Lordship  having  understood  of  our  Governours 
resolution  to  depart  the  Country,  with  all  expedition 
caused  his  SkifFe  to  be  manned,  and  in  it  dispatched 
his  letters  by  Captain  Edward  Bruster  (who  command- 
eth  his  Lordships  Company)  to  our  Governdur,  which 
preventing  us  before  the  aforesaid  Mulberry  Hand,  (the 
eight  of  June  aforesaid)  upon  the  receipt  of  his  honours 
letters,  our  Governour  bore  up  the  helme,  with  the 
winde  comming  Easterly,  and  that  night  (the  winde 
so  favourable)  relanded  all  his  men  at  the  Fort  againe: 
before  which  (the  tenth  of  June,  being  Sunday)  his 
Lordship  had  likewise  brought  his  Ships,  and  in  the 
afternoone,  came  a  shoare  with  Sir  Ferdinando  Weinman, 
and  all  his  Lordships  followers. 

Here  (worthy  Lady)  let  mee  have  a  little  your  pardon, 
for  having  now  a  better  heart,  then  when  I  first  landed, 
I  will  briefely  describe  unto  you,  the  situation  and 
forme   of   our    Fort.     When    Captain    Newport   in   his 




first  Voyage,  did  not  like  to  inhabit  upon  so  open  Description  of 
a  roade,  as  Cape  Henry,  nor  Point  Comfort  he  plied  ^f « ««* -""^ 
It  up  to  the  Rivef,  still  looking  out  for  the  most  apt  y^w  """" 
and  securest  place,  as  well  for  his  Company  to  sit  downe 
in,  as  which  might  give  the  least  cause  of  offence,  or  distast 
in  his  judgement,  to  the  Inhabitants.  At  length,  sifter 
much  and  weary  search  (with  their  Barge  coasting 
still  before,  as  Virgill  writeth  ^neas  did,  arriving  in 
the  region  of  Italy  called  Latium,  upon  the  bankes 
of  the  River  Tyber)  in  the  Country  of  a  Werowance 
called  Wowinchapuncke  (a  ditionary  to  Powhatan) 
within  this  faire  River  of  Paspiheigh,  which  wee  have 
called  the  Kings  River,  a  Country  least  inhabited  by 
the  Indian,  as  they  all  the  way  observed,  and  three- 
score miles  &  better  up  the  fresh  Channell,  from 
Cape  Henry  they  had  sight  of  an  extended  pkine  & 
spot  of  earth,  which  thrust  out  into  the  depth,  & 
middest  of  the  channell,  making  a  kinde  of  Chersonesus 
or  Peninsula,  for  it  was  fastened  onely  to  the  Land 
^\t\i  a  slender  necke,  no  broader  then  a  man  may  well 
quaite  a  tile  shard,  &  no  inhabitants  by  seven  or  six 
miles  neere  it.  The  Trumpets  sounding,  the  Admiraill 
strooke  saile,  and  before  the  same,  the  rest  of  the 
Fleete  came  to  an  ancor,  and  here  (as  the  best  yet 
offered  unto  their  view,  supposed  so  much  the  more 
convenient,  by  how  much  with  their  small  Company, 
they  were  like  inough  the  better  to  assure  it)  to  loose 
no  further  time,  the  Colony  disimbarked,  and  every 
man  brought  his  particular  store  and  furniture,  together 
with  the  generall  provision  ashoare  :  for  the  safety  of 
which,  as  likewise  for  their  owne  security,  ease,  and 
better  accommodating,  a  certaine  Canton  and  quantity 
of  that  little  halfe  Hand  of  ground,  was  measured,  which 
they  began  to  fortifie,  and  thereon  in  the  name  of 
God,  to  raise  a  Fortresse,  with  the  ablest  and  speediest 
meanes  they  could  :  which  Fort,  growing  since  to  more 
peffection,  is  now  at  this  present  in  this  manner.  TheFort,i^c. 

A  low  levell  of  ground  about  halfe  an  Acre,  or  (so  described. 




much  as  Queene  Dido  might  buy  of  King  Hyarbas, 
which  she  compassed  about  with  the  thongs  cut  out 
of  one  Bull  hide,  and  therein  built  her  Castle  of 
Byrza)  on  the  North  side  of  the  River,  is  cast  almost 
into  the  forme  of  a  Triangle,  and  so  Pallizadoed. 
The  South  side  next  the  River  (howbeit  extended  in 
a  line,  or  Curtaine  six  score  foote  more  in  length,  then 
the  other  two,  by  reason  the  advantage  of  the  ground 
doth  so  require)  containes  one  hundred  and  forty  yards: 
the  West  and  East  sides  a  hundred  onely.  At  every 
Angle  or  corner,  where  the  lines  meete,  a  Bulwarke 
or  Watchtower  is  raised,  and  in  each  Bulwarke  a 
peece  of  Ordnance  or  two  well  mounted.  To  every 
side,  a  proportioned  distance  from  the  Pallisado,  is  a 
setled  streete  of  houses,  that  runs  along,  so  as  each 
line  of  the  Angle  hath  his  streete.  In  the  middest  is 
a  market  place,  a  Store  house,  and  a  Corps  du  guard, 
as  likewise  a  pretty  Chappell,  though  (at  this  time 
when  wee  came  in)  as  ruined  and  unfrequented :  but 
[IV.  ix.  the  Lord  Governour,  and  Captaine  Generall,  hath  given 

I753-J  order  for  the  repairing  of  it,  and  at  this  instant,  many 
hands  are  about  it.  It  is  in  length  threescore  foote,  in 
breadth  twenty  foure,  and  shall  have  a  Chancell  in  it  of 
Cedar,  and  a  Communion  Table  of  the  Blake  Walnut, 
and  all  the  Pewes  of  Cedar,  with  faire  broad  windowes, 
to  shut  and  open,  as  the  weather  shall  occasion,  of  the 
same  wood,  a  Pulpet  of  the  same,  with  a  Font  hewen 
hollow,  like  a  Canoa,  with  two  Bels  at  the  West  end. 
It  is  so  cast,  as  it  be  very  light  within,  and  the  Lord 
Governour  and  Captaine  Generall  doth  cause  it  to  be 
kept  passing  sweete,  and  trimmed  up  with  divers 
flowers,  with  a  Sexton  belonging  to  it,  and  in  it  every 
Sonday  wee  have  sermons  twice  a  day,  and  every 
Thursday  a  Sermon,  having  true  preachers,  which  take 
their  weekely  turnes,  and  every  morning  at  the  ringing 
of  a  Bell,  about  ten  of  the  clocke,  each  man  addresseth 
himselfe  to  prayers,  and  so  at  foure  of  the  clocke 
before  Supper.     Every  Sunday,  when   the  Lord  Gover- 




nour,  and  Captaine  Generall  goeth  to  Church,  hee  is 
accompanied  with  all  the  Counsailers,  Captaines,  other 
Officers,  and  all  the  Gentlemen,  and  with  a  Guard  of 
Holberdiers  in  his  Lordships  Livery,  faire  red  cloakes, 
to  the  number  of  fifty,  both  on  each  side,  and  behinde 
him  :  and  being  in  the  Church,  his  Lordship  hath  his 
seate  in  the  Quier,  in  a  greene  Velvet  Chaire,  with  a 
Cloath,  with  a  Velvet  Cushion  spread  on  a  Table 
before  him,  on  which  he  kneeleth,  and  on  each  side 
sit  the  Counsell,  Captaines,  and  Officers,  each  in  their 
place,  and  when  he  returneth  home  againe,  he  is  waited 
on  to  his  house  in  the  same  manner. 

And  thus  inclosed,  as  I  said,  round  with  a  Pallizado 
of  Planckes  and  strong  Posts,  foure  foote  deepe  in  the 
ground,  of  yong  Oakes,  Walnuts,  &c.  The  Fort  is 
called  in  honour  of  his  Majesties  name,  James  Towne  ; 
the  principall  Gate  from  the  Towne,  through  the 
Pallizado,  opens  to  the  River,  as  at  each  Bulwarke 
there  is  a  Gate  likewise  to  goe  forth,  and  at  every 
Gate  a  Demi-Culverin,  and  so  in  .  the  Market  Place. 
The  houses  first  raised,  were  all  burnt  by  a  casualty  of  The  Houses. 
fire,  the  beginning  of  the  second  yeare  of  their  seate, 
and  in  the  second  Voyage  of  Captain  Newport,  which 
since  have  bin  better  rebuilded,  though  as  yet  in  no 
great  uniformity,  either  for  the  fashion,  or  beauty  of 
the  streete.  A  delicate  wrought  fine  kinde  of  Mat  the 
Indians  make,  with  which  (as  they  can  be  trucked  for, 
or  snatched  up)  our  people  do  dresse  their  chambers, 
and  inward  roomes,  which  make  their  houses  so  much 
the  more  handsome.  The  houses  have  wide  and  large 
Country  Chimnies  in  the  which  is  to  be  supposed  (in 
such  plenty  of  wood)  what  fires  are  maintained  ;  and 
they  have  found  the  way  to  cover  their  houses  :  now  (as 
the  Indians)  with  barkes  of  Trees,  as  durable,  and  as  Barke  Roofes. 
good  proofe  against  stormes,  and  winter  weather,  as  the 
best  Tyle  defending  likewise  the  piercing  Sunbeames  of 
Summer,  and  keeping  the  inner  lodgings  coole  enough, 
which  before   in    sultry   weather   would  be  like  Stoves, 




whilest  they  were,  as  at  first,  pargetted  and  {JlaistCfed 
with  Bitumen  or  tough  Clay  :  and  thus  armed  fof  the 
injury  of  changing  times,  and  seasons  of  the  yeare,  we  hold 
our  selves  well  apaid,  though  wanting  Arras  Hangings, 
Tapistry,  and  guilded  Venetian  Cordovdh,  or  more 
spruse  houshold  garniture,  and  wanton  City  ornameitts, 
remembring  the  old  Epigratph  : 

We  dwell  not  here  to  build  us  Bowers, 
And  Hals  for  pleasure  and  good  cheere  : 
But  Hals  we  build  for  us  and  ours. 
To  dwell  in  them  whilst  we  live  here. 

Unhealthfttl-  True  it  is,  I  may  not  excuse  this  our  Fort,  or 
nesse  of  James  James  Towne,  as  yet  seated  in  some  what  an  unwhole- 
Touine.  some  and  sickly  ayre,  by  reason  it  is  in  a  marish  ground, 

low,  flat  to  the  River,  and  hath  no  fresh  water  Springs 
Serving  the  ToWne,  but  what  wee  drew  froih  a  Well 
sixe  or  seven  fathom  deepe,  fed  by  the  brackish  River 
owzing  into  it,  from  whence  I  verily  beleeve,  the  dhiefe 
causes  have  proceeded  of  many  diseases  and  sicknesses 
which  have  happened  to  our  people,  who  are  indeede 
strangely  afflicted  with  Fluxes  and  Aguds ;  and  every 
particular  season  (by  the  relation  of  the  old  inhabitants) 
hath  his  particular  infirmity  too,  all  which  (if  it  had 
bin  our  fortunes,  to  have  seated  upon  some  hfll, 
accommodated  with  fresh  Springs  and  cleere  ayfe,  as 
doe  the  Natives  of  the  Country)  we  might  have,  I 
beleeve,  well  escaped :  and  some  experience  we  have 
to  perswade  our  selves  that  it  may  be  so,  for  of  fotire 
hundred  and  odde  men,  which  were  seated  at  the  Fals, 
the  last  yeere  when  the  Fleete  came  in  with  fresh  and 
yong  able  spirits,  under  the  government  of  Captain 
Francis  West,  and  of  one  hundred  to  the  Seawards  (on 
the  South  side  of  our  River)  in  the  Country  bf  the 
Nansamundes,  under  the  charge  of  Gaptaine  John 
Martin,  thei'e  did  not  so  much  as  one  man  miscarry, 
and  but  very  fc-w  or  none  fall  sicke,  wher'feas'  at 
James  Towne,   the  same   time,  and   the  same  moneths, 




one  hundred  sickned,  &  halfe  the  number  died  : 
howbeit,  as  we  condemne  not  Kent  in  England,  for 
a  small  Towne  called  Plumsted,  continually  assaulting 
the  dwellers  there  (especially  new  commers)  with 
Agues  and  Fevers ;  no  more  let  us  lay  scandall, 
and  imputation  upon  the  Country  of  Virginia,  because 
the  little  Quarter  wherein  we  are  set  downe  (un- 
advisedly so  chosed)  appeares  to  be  unwholesome, 
and  subject  to  many  ill  ayres,  which  accompany  the 
like  marish  places. 

§.   nil.  [IV.i^. 

.  1754-] 

The  Lord  La  Warres  beginnings  and  proceedings 
in  James  Towne.  Sir  Thomas  Gates  sent 
into  England  ;  his  and  the  Companies  testi- 
mony of  Virginia,  and  cause  of  the  late 

Pon  his  Lordship's  landing  at  the  South  gate  of  the 
Pallizado    (which    lookes    into    the    River)    our 
Governour  caused  his  Company  in  armes  to  stand 
in  order,   and   make  a   Guard  :    It  pleased  him,   that   I 
should  beare  his   Colours  for  that  time  :    his  Lordship 
landing,  fell  upon  his  knees,  and  before  us  all,  made  a 
long  and  silent  Prayer  to  himselfe,  and  after,  marched  up 
into  the  Towne,  where  at  the  Gate,   I  bowed  with  the 
Colours,  and  let  them  fall  at  his  Lordship's  feete,  who 
passed  on  into  the  Chappell,  where  he  heard  a  Sermon  by 
Master  Bucke  our  Governours  Preacher  ;  and  after  that, 
caused  a  Gentleman,  one  of  his  owne  followers.  Master 
Anthony    Scot  his    Ancient,    to   reade   his   Commission,  Commission 
which    intituled    him    Lord    Governour,    and    Captaine  >ed. 
Generall  during  his  life,  of  the  Colony  and  Plantation  in  ^'"''^  ^''. 
Virginia   (Sir   Thomas    Gates    our    Governour    hitherto,  s^/t'''  Q^t'is 
being  now  stiled  therein  Lieutenant  Generall.)  Lieutenant 

After  the  reading  of  his  Lordships  Commission,  Sir  Generall. 
Thomas  Gates  rendred  up  unto  his  Lordship  his  owne 
Commission,  both  Patents,  and  the  Counsell  Scale  :  after 





His  speech. 


which,  the  Lord  Governour,  and  Captaine  Generall,  de- 
livered some  few  words  unto  the  Company,  laying  many 
blames  upon  them  for  many  vanities,  and  their  Idlenesse, 
earnestly  wishing,  that  he  might  no  more  finde  it  so, 
least  he  should  be  compelled  to  draw  the  sword  of 
Justice,  to  cut  off  such  delinquents,  which  he  had 
much  rather,  he  protested,  draw  in  their  defence,  to 
protect  them  from  injuries  ;  hartening  them  with  the 
knowledge  of  what  store  of  provisions  he  had  brought 
for  them,  viz.  sufficient  to  serve  foure  hundred  men 
for  one  whole  yeare. 

The  twelfth  of  June,  being  Tuesday,  the  Lord 
Governour  and  Captaine  Generall,  did  constitute,  and 
give  places  of  Office,  and  charge  to  divers  Captaines 
and  Gentlemen,  and  elected  unto  him  a  Counsell,  unto 
whom  he  did  administer  an  Oath,  mixed  with  the  oath 
of  Allegiance,  and  Supremacy  to  his  Majestic  :  which 
oath  likewise  he  caused  to  be  administred  the  next  day 
Colony  sworn,  after  to  every  particular  member  of  the  Colony,  of  Faith, 
Assistance,  and  Secrecy.  The  Counsaile  which  he 
elected  were.  Sir  Thomas  Gates  Knight,  Lieutenant 
Generall.  Sir  George  Summers  Knight,  Admirall.  Captaine 
Percy  Esquire,  and  in  the  Fort  Captaine  of  fifty.  Sir 
Ferdinando  Weinman  Knight,  Master  of  the  Ordnance. 
Captaine  Christopher  Newport,  Vice-admirall.  William 
Strachei  Esquire,  Secretary,  and  Recorder. 

As  likewise  the  Lord  Governour  and  Captaine 
Generall,  nominated  Captaine  John  Martin,  Master  of 
the  Battery  workes  for  Steele  and  Iron  :  and  Captaine 
George  Webb  Sergeant  Major  of  the  Fort  :  and 
especiall  Captaines  over  Companies,  were  these  appointed  ; 
Captaine  Edward  Bruster,  who  hath  the  command 
of  his  Honours  owne  Company.  Captaine  Thomas 
Lawson.  Captain  Thomas  Holecroft.  Captaine  Samuell 
ArgoU.  Captaine  George  Yardley,  who  commandeth  the 
Lieutenant  Generals  Company.  Divers  other  Officers 
were  likewise  made,  as  Master  Ralph  Hamer,  and 
Master  Browne,    Clarkes   of  the  Counsell,  and  Master 


chosen  i£ 


Sm   THOMAS   GATES  a.d. 


Daniell  Tucker,  and  Master  Robert  Wilde,  Clarkes  of 

the  Store,  &c. 

The  first  businesse  which  the  Lord  Governour  and 
Captaine  Generall  (after  the  setling  of  these  Officers) 
thought  upon,  was  to  advise  with  his  Counsell,  for  the 
obtaining  of  such  provisions  of  victuals  for  store,  and 
quality,  as  the  Countrey  afforded.  It  did  not  appeare, 
that  any  kinde  of  Flesh,  Deere,  or  what  else,  of  that 
kinde,  could  be  recovered  from  the  Indian,  or  to  be 
sought  in  the  Countrey,  by  the  travaile  or  search  of 
his  people,  and  the  old  dwellers  in  the  Fort  (together 
with  the  Indians  not  to  friend)  who  had  the  last 
winter,  destroyed  and  killed  up  all  the  Hogges,  inso- 
much, as  of  five  or  sixe  hundred  (as  it  is  supposed) 
there  was  not  one  left  alive  ;  nor  an  Henne,  nor  Chicke 
in  the  Fort  ;  and  our  Horses  and  Mares,  they  had 
eaten  with  the  first,  and  the  provision  which  the  Lord 
Governour,  and  Captaine  Generall  had  brought,  con- 
cerning any  kinde  of  flesh,  was  little  or  nothing ;  in 
respect  it  was  not  drempt  of  by  the  Adventurers  in 
England,  that  the  Swine  were  destroyed. 

In    Counsell    therefore    the    thirteenth    of   June,    it 
pleased  Sir  George  Summers  Knight,  Admirall,   to  pro-  Sir  G. 
pose  a  Voyage,  which   for   the   better   reliefe,  and  good  S""''"^" 
of  the  Colony,  he  would  performe  into   the  Bermudas,  i,^i„„^„. 
from    whence    he    would    fetch    six    moneths    provision  visions  from 
of  Flesh  and  Fish,  and  some  live   Hogges  to  store  our  Bermudas. 
Colony  againe  :  and  had  a  Commission  given  unto  him 
the  fifteenth  of  June,  16 10.  who  in    his  owne  Bermuda 
Pinnace,  the   Patience,  consorted  with   Captaine  Samuell 
ArgoU,  in   the   Discovery  (whom   the  Lord  Governour, 
and    Captaine    Generall,    made    of  the    counsell   before 
his     departure)     the     nineteenth    of    June,     fell     with 
the  Tyde  from  before  our  Towne,  and  the  twenty  two 
left  the  Bay,  or  Cape  Henry  a  sterne. 

And  likewise,  because  at  the  Lord  Governour,  and 
Captaine  General's  first  comming,  there  was  found  in 
our  owne  River  no  store  of  Fish  ;    after   many   trials, 






*Ad  Grtecas 
Can  a 
change  his 
spots?    Can  a 
remayning  a 
Savage  be 

IVere  not  wee 
our  selves 
made  and  not 
borne  civill  in 
our  Progeni- 
tors dayes  ? 
and  were  not 
Britaines  as 
brutish  as 
The  Romane 
swords  were 
best  teachers  of 
civilitie  to  this 
y  other 
neere  us. 


the  Lor4  Governour,  and  Captaifie  Generall,  dispatched 
in  the  Virginia,  with  instructions,  the  seventeenth  of 
June,  1 6 10.  Robert  Tyndall,  Master  of  the  De  la 
Warre,  to  fish  unto,  all  along,  and  betweene  Cape  Henry, 
and  Cape  Charles,  within  the  Bay ;  who  the  last  of  the 
said  moneth  returned  unto  us  againe,  but  as  ill  speeding 
as  the  former,  whom  our  Governour  (now  Lieutenant 
Generall)  had  addressed  thither  before  for  the  same 
purpose.  Nor  was  the  Lord  Governour,  and  Captaine 
Generall  in  the  meane  while  idle  at  the  Fort,  but  every 
day  and  night  hee  caused  the  Nets  to  be  hawled,  some- 
times a  dozen  times  one  after  another.  But  it  pleased 
not  God  so  to  blesse  our  labours,  that  we  did  at  any 
time  take  one  quarter  so  much,  as  would  give  unto  our 
people  one  pound  at  a  meale  a  peece,  by  which  we 
might  have  better  husbanded  our  Pease  and  Oatemeale, 
notwithstanding  the  great  store  we  now  saw  daily  in 
our  River :  but  let  the  blame  of  this  lye  where  it  is, 
both  upon  our  Nets,  and  the  unskilfulnesse  of  our  men 
to  lay  them. 

The  sixth  of  July  Sir  Thomas  Gates  Lieutenant 
Generall,  comming  downe  to  Point  Comfort,  the  North 
wind  (blowing  rough)  he  found  had  forced  the  long 
Boate  belonging  to  Algernoone  Fort,  to  the  other  shoare 
upon  Nansamund  side,  somewhat  short  of  Weroscoick  : 
which  to  recover  againe,  one  of  the  Lieutenant  Generals 
men  Humfrey  Blunt,  in  an  old  Canow  made  over, 
but  the  wind  driving  him  upon  the  Strand,  certaine 
Indians  (watching  the  occasion)  seised  the  poore  fellow, 
and  led  him  up  into  the  Woods,  and  sacrificed  him. 
It  did  not  a  little  trouble  the  Lieutenant  Governour, 
who  since  his  first  landing  in  the  Countrey  (how  justly 
soever  provoked)  would  not  by  any  meanes  be  wrought 
to  a  violent  proceeding  against  them,  for  all  the  practises 
of  villany,  with  which  they  daily  indangered  our  men, 
thinking  it  possible,*  by  a  more  tractable  course,  to 
winne  them  to  a  better  condition :  but  now  being 
startled  by  this,   he  well  perceived,   how   little    a    faire 




and  noble  intreatie  workes  upon  a  barbarous  dis- 
position, and  therefore  in  some  measure  purposed  to  be 

The  ninth  of  July,  he  prepared  his  forces,  and  early 
in  the  morning  set  upon  a  Towne  of  theirs,  some  foure 
miles  from  Algernoone  Fort,  called  Kecoughtan,  and 
had  soone  taken  it,  without  losse  or  hurt  of  any  of  his 
men.  The  Governour  and  his  women  fled  (the  young 
King  Powhatans  Sonne  not  being  there)  but  left  his 
poore  baggage,  and  treasure  to  the  spoyle  of  our 
Souldiers,  which  was  only  a  few  Baskets  of  old  Wheate, 
and  some  other  of  Pease  and  Beanes,  a  litde  Tobacco, 
and  some  few  womens  Girdles  of  Silke,  of  the  Grasse-  Grosse  silke. 
silke,  not  without  art,  and  much  neatnesse  finely 
wrought ;  of  which  I  have  sent  divers  into  England, 
(beeing  at  the  taking  of  the  Towne)  and  would  have 
sent  your  Ladiship  some  of  them,  had  they  beene  a 
Present  so  worthy. 

We  purposed  to  set  a  Frenchman  heere  a  worke  to 
pUnt  Vines,  which  grew  naturally  in  great  plentie. 
Some  few  Corne  fields  it  hath,  and  the  Corne  in  good 
forwardnesse,  and  wee  despaire  not  but  to  bee  able  (if 
our  men  stand  in  health)  to  make  it  good  against  the 

The  continuall  practices  of  the  subtle  King  Powhatan, 
doth  not  meanely  awaken  all  the  powers  and  workings 
of  vertue  and  knowledge,  in  our  Lord  Governour  and 
Captaine  Generall,  how  to  prevent  not  only  his  mischiefes, 
but  to  draw  him  upon  some  better  termes,  and  acknow- 
ledgement of  our  forces  and  spirits,  both  able  and  daring 
to  quit  him  in  any  valiant  and  martiall  course  what- 
soever, he  shall  dare  to  runne  with  us,  which  hee  doth 
yet  scarsly  beleeve.  For  this  therefore,  since  first, 
and  that  so  lately,  he  hath  set  on  his  people,  to 
attempt  us  with  private  Conspiracies  and  actuall  violence, 
into  the  one  drawing  his  Neighbour  Confederates  and 
under  Princes,  and  by  the  other  working  the  losse 
and   death    of  divers   of  our   men,  and    by    such    their 




losse  seising  their  Armes,  Swords,  Peeces,  &c.  of  which 
he  hath  gathered  into  his  store  a  great  quantitie  and 
English  number  by  Intelligence  above  two  hundred  Swords, 
Jrmes  besides  Axes,  and  Pollaxes,  Chissels,  Howes,  to  paire 
Pmhatan'^  and  clense  their  ground,  with  an  infinite  treasure  of 
Copper,  our  Lord  Governour  and  Captaine  Generall 
Message  to  sent  two  Gentlemen  with  an  Ambassie  unto  him,  letting 
Powhatan,  jij^j  j-o  understand  of  his  practises  and  outrage,  hitherto 
used  toward  our  people,  not  only  abroad  but  at  our 
Fort  also :  yet  flattering  him  withall  how  the  Lord 
Governour  and  Captaine  Generall  did  not  suppose,  that 
these  mischiefes  were  contrived  by  him,  or  with  his 
knowledge,  but  conceived  them  rather  to  be  the  acts  of 
his  worst  and  unruly  people,  his  Lordship  therefore  now 
complayning  unto  him  required,  that  hee  (being  so 
great  and  wise  a  King)  would  give  an  universall  order 
to  his  Subjects,  that  it  might  bee  no  more  so,  lest  the 
Lord  Governour  and  Captaine  Generall  should  be 
compelled  (by  defending  him  and  his)  to  offend  him, 
which  he  would  be  loath  to  do :  withall  he  willed  the 
Messengers  to  demand  of  him  the  said  Powhatan,  that 
he  would  either  punish  or  send  unto  his  Lordship  such 
of  his  people  whom  Powhatan  knew  well  not  long 
before,  had  assaulted  our  men  at  the  Block-house,  and 
but  newly  killed  foure  of  them,  as  also  to  demaund  of 
Powhatan,  willing  him  to  returne  unto  the  English 
Fort,  both  such  men  as  hee  detayned  of  ours,  and 
such  Armes  as  he  had  of  theirs  in  his  possession,  and 
those  conditions  performed,  hee  wiUed  them  to  assure 
unto  Powhatan  that  then  their  great  Werowance,  the 
Lord  Governour  and  Captaine  Generall  would  hold 
faire  quarter,  and  enter  friendship  with  him,  as  a  friend 
to  King  James  and  his  Subjects.  But  refusing  to 
submit  to  these  demands,  the  Lord  Governour  and 
Captaine  Generall  gave  in  charge  to  the  Messengers,  so 
sent  to  signifie  unto  Powhatan  that  his  Lordship  would 
by  all  meanes  publike  and  private,  seeke  to  recover 
from    him    such    of    the    English    as    he    had,    being 




Subjects    to    his    King    and    Master,    unto    whom    even  [IV.  ix. 
Powhatan     himselfe    had     formerly     vowed,     not     only  '756] 

friendship  but  homage,  receiving  from  his  Majestic 
therefore  many  gifts,  and  upon  his  knees  a  Crowne  and 
Scepter  with  other  Ornaments,  the  Symbols  of  CiviU 
State  and  Christian  Soveraigntie,  thereby  obliging  him- 
selfe to  Offices  of  dutie  to  his  Majestie.  Unto  all 
which  Powhatan  returned  no  other  answere,  but  that  Powhatans 
either  we  should  depart  his  Country,  or  confine  our  ii»"igi- 
selves  to  James  Towne  only,  without  searching  further 
up  into  his  Land,  or  Rivers,  or  otherwise,  hee  would 
give  in  command  to  his  people  to  kill  us,  and  doe 
unto  us  all  the  mischiefe,  which  they  at  their  pleasure 
could  and  we  feared :  withall  forewarning  the  said 
Messengers,  not  to  returne  any  more  unto  him,  unlesse 
they  brought  him  a  Coach  and  three  Horses,  for  hee 
had  understood  by  the  Indians  which  were  in  England, 
how  such  was  the  state  of  great  Werowances,  and  Lords 
in  England,  to  ride  and  visit  other  great  men. 

After  this  divers  times,  and  daily  hee  sent  sometimes 
two,  sometimes  three,  unto  our  Fort,  to  understand 
our  strength,  and  to  observe  our  Watch  &  Guard, 
and  how  our  people  stood  in  health,  and  what  numbers 
were  arrived  with  this  new  Weroance :  which  being 
soone  perceived  our  Lord  Governour  and  Captaine 
Generall  forewarned  such  his  Spies,  upon  their  owne 
perill,  to  resort  no  more  unto  our  Fort.  Howbeit, 
they  would  daUy  presse  into  our  Block-house,  and  come 
up  to  our  Pallizado  gates,  supposing  the  government  as 
well  now,  as  fantasticall  and  negligent  in  the  former 
times,  the  whilest  some  quarter  of  a  mile  short  of  the 
Block-house,  the  greatest  number  of  them  would  make 
assault,  and  lye  in  ambush  about  our  Glasse-house, 
whether,  divers  times  indeed  our  men  would  make 
out  either  to  gather  Strawberries,  or  to  fetch  fresh 
water;  any  one  of  which  so  stragled,  if  they  could  with 
conveniencie,  they  would  assault  and  charge  with  their 
Bowes  and  Arrowes,  in  which  manner  they  killed  many 

XIX  65  E 



of  our  men :  two  of  which  being  Paspaheans,  who  were 
ever  our  deadliest  enemies,  and  not  to  be  reconciled; 
at  length  being  apprehended  (and  one  of  them  a  notable 
villaine,  who  had  attempted  upon  many  in  our  Fort) 
the  Lord  Governour  caused  them  to  be  manacled,  and 
convented  before  him  and  his  Counsell,  where  it  was 
determined  that  hee  that  had  done  so  much  mischiefe 
should  have  his  right  hand  strooke  ofF,  sending  him 
away  withall,  with  a  message  to  Powhatan,  that  unlesse 
hee  would  yet  returne  such  Englishmen  as  he  detayned, 
together  with  all  such  their  Armes  (as  before  spoken  of) 
that  not  only  the  other  (now  Prisoner)  should  die,  but  all 
such  of  his  Savages  (as  the  Lord  Governour  and  Captaine 
Generall,  could  by  any  meanes  surprize)  should  runne 
the  same  course :  as  likewise  the  Lord  Governour  and 
Captaine  Generall  would  fire  all  his  Neighbour  Corne 
Fieldes,  Townes,  and  Villages,  and  that  suddenly, 
if  Powhatan  sent  not  to  contract  with  him  the 

What  this  will  worke  with  him,  wee  know  not  as 
yet,  for  this  was  but  the  day  before  our  ships  were 
now  falling  to  Point  Comfort,  and  so  to  set  sayle  for 
England :  which  ships  riding  before  Weroscoick  to  take 
in  their  fraight  of  Cedar,  Clap-boord,  Blacke  Wal-nut, 
and  Iron  Oare,  tooke  Prisoners  likewise  the  chiefe  King 
of  Weroscoick,  called  Sasenticum,  with  his  Sonne  Kainta, 
a  enprtsoner.  ^^j  ^^^  ^£  j^^^  chiefe  men.     And  the  fifteenth  day  of 

July,  in  the  Blessing  Captaine  Adams  brought  them  to 
Point  Comfort,  where  at  that  time  (as  well  to  take  his 
S«>  T.  Gates  leave  of  the  Lieutenant  Generall  Sir  Thomas  Gates, 
now  bound  for  England,  as  to  dispatch  the  ships)  the 
Lord  Governour  and  Captaine  Generall  had  pitched  his 
Tent  in  Algernoone  Fort. 

The  Kings  Sonne  Kainta  the  Lord  Governour  and 
Captaine  Generall,  hath  sent  now  into  England,  untill 
the  ships  arrive  here  againe  the  next  Spring,  dismissing 
the  old  Werowance,  and  the  other  with  all  tearmes  of 
kindnesse,  and  friendship,  promising  further  designes  to 


King  of 

bound  fir 



bee  effected  by  him,  to  which  hee  hath  bound  himselfe, 
by  divers  Savage  Ceremonies,  and  admirations. 

And  thus  (right  Noble  Ladie)  once  more  this  famous 
businesse,  as  recreated,  and  dipped  a  new  into  life  and  spirit, 
hath  raysed  it  (I  hope)  from  infamy,  and  shall  redeeme 
the  Staines  and  losses  under  which  she  hath  suffered, 
since  her  first  Conception :  your  Graces  still  accompany 
the  least  appearance  of  her,  and  vouchsafe  her  to  bee 
limmed  out,  with  the  beautie  which  wee  will  begge,  and 
borrow  from  the  faire  lips :  nor  feare  you,  that  shee 
will  returne  blushes  to  your  cheekes  for  praysing  her, 
since  (more  then  most  excellent  Ladie)  like  your  selfe 
(were  all  tongues  dumbe  and  envious)  shee  will  prayse 
her  selfe  in  her  most  silence :  may  shee  once  bee  but 
scene,  or  but  her  shadow  lively  by  a  skilfull  Workman 
set  out  indeed,  which  heere  (bungerly  as  I  am)  I  have 
presumed  (though  defacing  it)  in  these  Papers  to  present 
unto  your  Ladiship. 

After  Sir  Thomas  Gates  his  arrivall,  a  Booke  called 
A  true  Declaration  of  Virginia,  was  published  by  the 
Company,  out  of  which  I  have  heere  inserted  this  their 
publike  testimonie  of  the  causes  of  the  former  evils  and 
Sir  Thomas  Gates  his  Report  upon  Oath  of  Virginia. 

THe  ground  of  all  those  miseries,  was  the  permissive 
Providence  of  God,  who,  in  the  fore-mentioned 
violent  storm  e,  seperated  the  head  from  the  bodie,  all 
the  vitall  powers  of  Regiment  being  exiled  with  Sir 
Thomas  Gates  in  those  infortunate  (yet  fortunate)  Hands. 
The  broken  remainder  of  those  supplyes  made  a  greater 
shipwracke  in  the  Continent  of  Virginia,  by  the  tempest 
of  Dissention :  every  man  over-valuing  his  owne  worth, 
would  be  a  Commander :  every  man  underprizing 
anothers  value,  denied  to  be  commanded. 

The  next  Fountaine  of  woes  was   secure    negligence,  [IV.  ix. 
and    improvidence,    when    every    man    sharked    for    his  i757-] 

present  bootie,  but  was  altogether  carelesse  of  succeeding 
penurie.     Now,   I    demand  whether    Sicilia,  or   Sardinia 




(sometimes  the  Barnes  of  Rome)  could  hope  for  increase 
without  manuring  ?  A  Colony  is  therefore  denominated, 
because  they  should  be  Coloni,  the  Tillers  of  the  Earth, 
and  Stewards  of  fertilitie:  our  mutinous  Loyterers 
would  not  sow  with  providence,  and  therefore  they 
reaped  the  fruits  of  too  deere  bought  Repentance. 
An  incredible  example  of  their  idlenesse,  is  the  report 
of  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  who  affirmeth,  that  after  his  first 
comming  thither,  he  hath  scene  some  of  them  eat  their 
fish  raw,  rather  then  they  would  goe  a  stones  cast  to 
fetch  wood  and  dresse  it.  Dei  laboribus  omnia  vendunt, 
God  sels  us  all  things  for  our  labour,  when  Adam 
himselfe  might  not  live  in  Paradice  without  dressing 
the  Garden. 

Unto  idlenesse,  you  may  joyne  Treasons,  wrought  by 
those  unhallowed  creatures  that  forsooke  the  Colonic, 
and  exposed  their  desolate  Brethren  to  extreame  miserie. 
You  shall  know  that  eight  and  twentie  or  thirtie  of 
the  Company,  were  appointed  (in  the  ship  called  the 
Swallow)  to  trucke  for  Corne  with  the  Indians,  and 
having  obtained  a  great  quantitie  by  trading,  the  most 
seditious  of  them,  conspired  together,  perswaded  some, 
and  enforced  others,  to  this  barbarous  project.  They 
stole  away  the  ship,  they  made  a  league  amongst 
themselves  to  be  professed  Pirats,  with  dreames  of 
Mountaines  of  Gold,  and  happie  Robberies :  thus  at 
one  instant,  they  wronged  the  hopes,  and  subverted  the 
cares  of  the  Colonie,  who  depending  upon  their  returne, 
fore-slowed  to  looke  out  for  further  provision :  they 
created  the  Indians  our  implacable  enemies  by  some 
violence  they  had  offered:  they  carried  away  the  best 
ship  (which  should  have  beene  a  refuge  in  extremities:) 
they  weakened  our  forces,  by  subtraction  of  their  armes 
and  succours.  These  are  that  scumme  of  men  that 
sayling  in  their  Piracie,  that  being  pinched  with  famine 
and  penurie,  after  their  wilde  roving  upon  the  Sea,  when 
all  their  lawlesse  hopes  failed,  some  remayned  with 
other    Pirates,    they    met    upon    the    Sea,    the    others 




resolved  to  returne  for  England,  bound  themselves  by 
mutuall  Oath,  to  agree  all  in  one  report  to  discredit 
the  Land,  to  deplore  the  famine,  and  to  protest  that 
this  their  comming  away,  proceeded  from  desperate 
necessitie :  These  are  they,  that  roared  out  the  Tragicall 
Historie  of  the  man  eating  of  his  dead  Wife  in 
Virginia;  when  the  Master  of  this  ship  willingly  con- 
fessed before  fortie  witnesses,  that  at  their  comming 
away,  they  left  three  monethes  victuals,  and  all  the 
Cattell  living  in  the  Fort:  sometimes  they  reported 
that  they  saw  this  horrible  action,  sometimes  that 
Captaine  Davies  said  so,  sometimes  that  one  Beadle  the 
Lieutenant  of  Captaine  Davies  did  relate  it,  varying 
this  report  into  diversitie  of  false  colours,  which  hold 
no  likenesse  and  proportion  :  But  to  cleere  all  doubts, 
Sir  Thomas  Gates  thus  relateth  the  Tragedie. 

There  was  one  of  the  Company  who  mortally  hated 
his  Wife,  and  therefore  secretly  killed  her,  then  cut 
her  in  pieces  and  hid  her  in  divers  parts  of  his  House: 
when  the  woman  was  missing,  the  man  suspected,  his 
House  searched,  and  parts  of  her  mangled  bodie  were 
discovered,  to  excuse  himselfe  he  said  that  his  Wife 
died,  that  he  hid  her  to  satisfie  his  hunger,  and  that 
hee  fed  daily  upon  her.  Upon  this,  his  House  was 
againe  searched,  where  they  found  a  good  quantitie  of 
Meale,  Oat-meale,  Beanes  and  Pease.  He  thereupon 
was  arraigned,  confessed  the  Murder,  and  was  burned 
for  his  horrible  villany. 

Now  shall  the  scandalous  reports  of  a  viperous 
generation,  preponderate  the  testimonies  of  so  worthy 
Leaders .''  Shall  their  venemous  tongues,  blast  the 
reputation  of  an  ancient  and  worthy  Peere,  who  upon  i^ord 
the  ocular  certainty  of  future  blessings,  hath  protested  Lawarre. 
in  his  Letters,  that  he  will  sacrifice  himselfe  for  his 
Countrie  in  this  service,  if  he  may  be  seconded;  and 
if  the  Company  doe  give  it  over,  hee  will  yet  lay  all 
his  fortunes  upon  the  prosecution  of  the  Plantation  ? 

Unto  Treasons,  you  may  joyne  covetousnesse  in  the 




Mariners,  who  for  their  private  lucre  partly  imbezeled 
the  provisions,  partly  prevented  our  Trade  with  the 
Indians  making  the  Matches  in  the  night,  and  forestalling 
our  Market  in  the  day:  whereby  the  Virginians  were 
glutted  with  our  Trifles,  and  inhaunced  the  prices  of 
their  Corne  and  Victuall.  That  Copper  which  before 
would  have  provided  a  bushell,  would  not  now  obtaine 
so  much  as  a  Pottle. 

Joyne  unto  these  another  evill :  there  is  great  store 
of  Fish  in  the  River,  especially  of  Sturgeon;  but  our 
men  provided  no  more  of  them  then  for  present 
necessitie,  not  barrelling  up  any  store  against  that  season 
the  Sturgeon  returned  to  the  Sea.  And  not  to  dissemble 
their  folly,  they  suffered  fourteene  nets  (which  was  all 
they  had)  to  rot  and  spoyle,  which  by  orderly  drying 
and  mending  might  have  beene  preserved :  but  being 
lost,  all  helpe  of  fishing  perished. 

The  state  of  the  Colony,  by  these  accidents  began  to 
finde  a  sensible  declining :  which  Powhatan  (as  a  greedy 
Vulture)  observing,  and  boyling  with  desire  of  revenge, 
hee  invited  Captaine  Ratcliffe,  and  about  thirty  others 
to  trade  for  Corne,  and  under  the  colour  of  fairest 
friendship,  hee  brought  them  within  the  compasse  of 
his  ambush,  whereby  they  were  cruelly  murthered  and 
massacred.  For  upon  confidence  of  his  fidelitie,  they 
went  one  and  one  into  severall  houses,  which  caused 
their  severall  destructions,  when  if  but  any  sixe  had 
remained  together,  they  would  have  beene  a  Bulwarke 
for  the  generall  preservation.  After  this,  Powhatan  in 
the  night  cut  off^  some  of  our  Boats,  he  drave  away  all 
the  Deere  into  the  farther  part  of  the  Countrey,  hee 
and  his  people  destroyed  our  Hogs  (to  the  number  of 
about  sixe  hundred)  hee  sent  one  of  his  Indians  to  trade 
with  us,  but  layed  secret  ambushes  in  the  Woods,  that 
if  one  or  two  dropped  out  of  the  Fort  alone,  they  were 
[IV.  ix.  Cast  up  the  reckoning  together :  want  of  government, 

1758-]  store  of  idlenesse,  their    expectations    frustrated  by  the 




Traytors,  their  market  spoyled  by  the  Mariners,  our 
Nets  broken,  the  Deere  chased,  our  Boats  lost,  our  Hogs 
killed,  our  trade  with  the  Indians  forbidden,  some  of 
our  men  fled,  some  murthered,  and  most  by  drinking 
of  the  brackish  water  of  James  Fort  weakened  and 
indangered,  famine  and  sicknesse  by  all  these  meanes 
increased;  here  at  home  the  monyes  came  in  so  slowly, 
that  the  Lord  Laware  could  not  bee  dispatched  till  the 
Colony  was  worne  and  spent  with  difficulties :  Above 
all,  having  neither  Ruler,  nor  Preacher,  they  neither 
feared  God,  nor  man,  which  provoked  the  wrath  of  the 
Lord  of  Hosts,  and  pulled  downe  his  judgements  upon 
them.     Discite  justitiam  moniti. 

The  Councell  of  Virginia  (finding  the  smalnesse  of 
that  returne,  which  they  hoped  should  have  defrayed 
the  charge  of  a  new  supply)  entred  into  a  deepe  con- 
sultation, and  propounded  amongst  themselves,  whether 
it  were  fit  to  enter  into  a  new  contribution,  or  in  time 
to  send  for  home  the  Lord  La-ware,  and  to  abandon 
the  action.  They  resolved  to  send  for  Sir  Thomas 
Gates,  who  being  come,  they  adjured  him  to  deale  plainly 
with  them,  and  to  make  a  true  relation  of  those  things 
which  were  presently  to  be  had,  or  hereafter  to  be 
hoped  for  in  Virginia.  Sir  Thomas  Gates  with  a 
solemne  and  sacred  oath  replied,  that  all  things  before 
reported  were  true :  that  the  Countrey  yeelded  abundance 
of  Wood,  as  Oake,  Wainscot,  Walnut  Trees,  Bay  Trees, 
Ashe,  Sarsafrase,  live  Oake,  greene  aU  the  yeere,  Cedar 
and  Fir ;  which  are  the  materialls,  of  Soape  ashes,  and  Pot 
ashes,  of  Oyles  of  Walnuts,  and  Bayes,  of  Pitch  and 
Tar,  of  Clapboards,  Pipe-staves,  Masts  and  excellent 
boards  of  fortie,  fiftie,  and  sixtie  length,  and  three  foot 
breadth,  when  one  Firre  tree  is  able  to  make  the  maine 
Mast  of  the  greatest  Ship  in  England.  He  avouched 
that  there  are  incredible  varietie  of  sweet  woods,  especially 
of  the  Balsamum  tree,  which  distilleth  a  precious  Gumme  ; 
that  there  are  innumerable  white  Mulberry  trees,  which 
in  so  warme  a  climate  may  cherish  and  feede  millions  of 




Silke-wormes,  and  returne  us  in  a  very  short  time,  as 
great  a  plenty  of  Silke  as  is  vented  into  the  whole  world 
from  all  the  parts  of  Italy:  that  there  are  divers  sorts 
of  Minerals,  especially  of  Iron  oare  lying  upon  the 
ground  for  ten  Miles  circuite ;  (of  which  wee  have  made 
a  triall  at  home,  that  it  maketh  as  good  Iron  as  any  is 
in  Europe :)  that  a  kinde  of  Hempe  or  Flaxe,  and  Silke 
Grasse  doe  grow  there  naturally,  which  will  affoord  stufFe 
for  all  manner  of  excellent  Cordage:  That  the  River 
swarmeth  with  all  manner  of  Sturgeon :  the  Land 
aboundeth  with  Vines ;  the  Woods  doe  harbour  ex- 
ceeding store  of  Beavers,  Foxes,  and  Squirrels;  the 
Waters  doe  nourish  a  great  encrease  of  Otters,  all 
which  are  covered  with  precious  Furres :  that  there  are 
in  present  discovered  Dyes  and  Drugges  of  sundry 
qualities;  that  the  Orenges  which  have  beene  planted, 
did  prosper  in  the  winter,  which  is  an  infallible  argu- 
ment, that  Lemmons,  Sugar  Canes,  Almonds,  Rice, 
Anniseede,  and  all  other  commodities  which  wee  have 
from  the  Straights,  may  be  supplied  to  us  in  our  owne 
Countrey,  and  by  our  owne  industry:  that  the  Corne 
yeeldeth  a  terrible  encrease  more  then  ours:  and  lastly, 
that  it  is  one  of  the  goodliest  Countries  under  the 
Sunne;  enterveined  with  five  maine  Rivers,  and 
promising  as  rich  entrals  as  any  Kingdome  of  the 
earth,  to  whom  the  Sunne  is  no  neerer  a  neighbour. 




Chap.    VII. 

The  Voyage  of  Captaine  Samuel  Argal,  from 
James  Towne  in  Virginia,  to  seeke  the  lie 
of  Bermuda,  and  missing  the  same,  his 
putting  over  toward  Sagadahoc  and  Cape 
Cod,  and  so  backe  againe  to  James  Towne, 
begun  the  nineteenth  of  June,   16 10. 

Ir  George  Summers,  being  bound  for  the 
He  of  Bermuda  with  two  Pinnaces,  the 
one  called  the  Patience,  wherein  he  sailed 
himselfe,  set  saile  from  James  Towne  in 
Virginia,    the  ninteenth    of  June,    16 10.  June  19. 
The    two    and    twentieth    at    noone    we  '6 10. 
came   to   an   anchor   at  Cape  Henry,  to 
take   more   balast.     The  weather  proved  very  wet :    so 
wee   road   under   the   Cape   till   two  of  the  clocke,  the 
three  and  twentieth  in  the  morning.     Then  we  weighed 
and   stood    off   to    Sea,  the  wind   at    South-west.     And 
till    eight    of   the   clocke   at  night  it  was  all  Southerly, 
and   then   that   shifted    to    South-west.     The  Cape  then 
bearing  West,  about  eight  leagues  off.     Then  wee  stirred 
away  South-east.     The    foure   and   twentieth,   at    noone 
I  observed    the  Sunne,  and  found    my  selfe   to  bee   in 
thirtie  sixe  degrees,  fortie  seven  minutes,  about  twentie 
leagues    off    from    the    Land.      From    the    foure    and 
twentieth  at  noone,  to  the  five  and  twentieth  at  noone, 
sixe  leagues  East,  the  wind  Southerly,  but  for  the  most 
part   it   was   calme.      From    the    five    and    twentieth   at 
noone,   to   the    sixe   and    twentieth    about    sixe    of    the 
clocke  in  the  morning,  the  winde  was  all  Southerly,  and 
but   little.     And    then    it  beganne  to  blow  a  fresh  gale 
at   West   South-west.     So  by  noone  I  had  sailed  four- 
teene  leagues  East,  South-east  pricked.     From  the  sixe 
and  twentieth  at   noone,  to  the   seven  and  twentieth  at 
noone,    twentie    leagues    East,   South-east.      The   wind 




shifting  from  the  "West,  South-west  Southerly,  and  so 
to  the  East,  and  the  weather  faire,  but  close.  From  the 
seven  and  twentieth  at  noone,  to  the  eight  and  twentieth 
at  noone,  sixe  and  twentie  leagues  East,  South-east,  the 
wind  shifting  backe  againe  from  the  East  to  the  West. 
Then  by  mine  observation  I  found  the  ship  to  be  in 
thirtie  five  degrees  fiftie  foure  minutes.  From  the  eight 
and  twentieth  at  noone,  to  the  nine  and  twentieth  at 
[IV.  ix.  noone,  thirtie  sixe  leagues  East  by  South,  the  wind  at 

>7S9-]  West,  North-west.  Then  by  my  observation  I  found 
the  ship  to  be  in  thirtie  five  degrees,  thirtie  minutes 
pricked.  From  the  nine  and  twentieth  at  noone,  to 
the  thirtieth  at  noone,  thirtie  five  leagues  East,  South- 
east. The  winde  shifting  betweene  West,  North-west, 
and  West,  South-west,  blowing  a  good  fresh  gale.  Then 
by  my  observation  I  found  the  ship  to  be  in  thirtie  foure 
degrees,  fortie  nine  minutes  pricked.  From  the  thirtieth 
of  June  at  noone,  to  the  first  of  July  at  noone,  thirtie 
leagues  South-east  by  East,  the  winde  at  west,  then 
I  found  the  ship  in  thirtie  foure  degrees  pricked. 

From  the  first  of  July  at  noone,  to  the  second  at 
noon,  twentie  leagues  East,  South-east  southerly,  the- 
wind  West,  then  I  found  the  ship  to  bee  in  thirtie  three 
degrees,  thirtie  minutes  pricked,  the  weather  very  faire. 
From  the  second  at  noone,  to  the  third  at  foure  of  the 
clocke  in  the  afternoone  it  was  calme,  then  it  beganne 
to  blow  a  resonable  fresh  gale  at  South-east  :  so  I  made 
account  that  the  ship  had  driven  about  sixe  leagues  In 
that  time  East.  The  sea  did  set  all  about  the  West. 
From  that  time  to  the  fourth  at  noone,  seventeene 
leagues  East  by  North,  the  wind  shifting  betweene 
South-east  and  South  South-west,  then  I  found  the  ship 
to  bee  in  thirtie  three  degrees,  fortie  minutes,  the  weather 
continued  very  faire.  From  the  fourth  at  noone,  to 
the  fifth  at  noone,  ten  leagues  South-east,  the  wind  and 
weather  as  before,  then  I  found  the  ship  to  be  in  thirtie 
three  degrees,  seventeene  minutes  pricked.  From  the 
fift  at  noone,  to  the  sixt  at  noone,  eight  leagues  South- 




west,  then  I  found  the  ship  to  be  in  thirtie  two  degrees, 
fiftie  seven  minutes  pricked ;  the  wind  and  weather 
continued  as  before,  only  we  had  a  small  showre  or 
two  of  raine.  From  the  sixt  at  noone,  to  the  seventh 
at  noone,  seventeene  leagues  East  by  North,  then  I 
found  the  ship  to  be  in  thirtie  three  degrees,  the  wind 
and  weather  as  before.  From  the  seventh  at  noon, 
to  the  eight  at  noone,  fourteene  leagues  North-east, 
then  I  found  the  ship  to  be  in  thirtie  three  degrees, 
thirtie  two  minutes,  the  wind  and  weather  continued 
as  before.  From  the  eight  at  noon  to  the  ninth  at 
noone,  five  leagues  South-east,  there  I  found  the  ship 
to  be  in  thirtie  three  degrees,  twentie  one  minutes,  33.  degrees, 
the  wind  at  South-west,  the  weather  very  faire.  From  21- »«»«'"• 
the  ninth  at  noone,  to  the  tenth  at  noone,  five  leagues 
South,  the  wind  westerly  ;  but  for  the  most  part  it  was 
calme,  and  the  weather  very  faire.  From  the  tenth 
at  noone,  to  the  eleventh  at  noone  it  was  calme,  and  Calm. 
so  continued  untill  nine  of  the  clocke  the  same  night, 
then  it  began  to  blow  a  reasonable  fresh  gale  at  South- 
east, and  continued  all  that  night  betweene  South-east 
and  South,  and  untill  the  twelfth  day  at  noone  :  by 
which  time  I  had  sailed  fifteene  leagues  West  southerly  : 
then  I  found  the  ship  in  thirtie  three  degrees,  thirtie  33.  degrees, 
minutes.  From  that  time  to  foure  of  the  clocke  the  3°-  minutes. 
twelfth  day  in  the  morning  twelve  leagues  West  by 
North,  the  wind  all  southerly,  and  then  it  shifted 
betweene  South  and  South-west,  then  wee  tacked  about 
and  stood  South-east,  and  South-east  by  South :  so 
by  noone  I  had  sayled  five  leagues  South-east  by  East ; 
then  I  found  the  ship  in  thirtie  three  degrees  ten  minutes. 
From  the  thirteenth  at  noone,  to  the  fourteenth  at 
noone,  twenty  leagues  South-east  by  East,  the  wind 
shifting  betweene  the  South-west,  and  West  South- 
west, then  I  found  the  ship  to  be  in  thirtie  two  degrees, 
thirtie  five  minutes.  From  the  fourteenth  at  noone, 
to  the  fifteenth  at  noone,  twentie  leagues  South-east, 
then  I  found  the  ship  to  be  in  thirty  two  degrees,  the  32-  degrees. 




wind  as  before  :  then  we  tacked  about,  and  lay  North- 
west by  West.  From  the  fifteenth  at  noone,  to  the 
sixteenth  at  noone,  twelve  leagues  North  by  West,  the 
wind  shifting  betweene  South-west  and  West,  and 
the  weather  very  stormy,  with  many  sudden  gusts  of 
wind  and  rayne. 

And  about  sixe  of  the  clocke  in  the  afternoone,  being 
to  windward  of  our  Admirall  I  bare  up  under  his  lee  : 
He  speakes      who   when   I   hayled   him,  told   me  that  he  would  tack 
with  the         it    up    no   longer,    because   hee  was   not   able  to  keepe 
Admirall.        ^^   ^^^  ^^^  longer,   for  lacke   of  a    road    and   water : 
but  that  hee  would  presently  steere  away  North  North- 
They  saile       west,    to    see    if  he    could    fetch    Cape    Cod.      Which 
toward  Cape    vvithout    delay    he    put    in    execution.      His    directions 
■  I    followed  :    so    from    the    sixteenth    day  at   noone,  to 

the  seventeenth  at  noone  I  had  sailed  thirtie  eight 
leagues  North  North-west  :  then  I  found  my  ship 
to  be  in  thirtie  foure  degrees,  ten  minutes.  The 
seventeenth  and  eighteenth  dayes  were  very  wet  and 
stormy,  and  the  winds  shifting  all  points  of  the 
Compasse.  The  nineteenth  day,  about  foure  of  the 
clocke  in  the  morning  it  began  to  cleere  up,  and  then 
we  had  a  very  stifFe  gale  betweene  East  and  North- 
east. From  the  seventeenth  at  noone,  to  the  nineteenth 
at  noone,  I  had  sayled  fiftie  five  leagues  North 
North-west,  then  I  found  the  ship  to  be  thirtie  sixe 
degrees,  thirty  minutes.  From  the  nineteenth  at  noone, 
to  the  twentieth  at  noone,  thirty  five  leagues  North-west : 
then  I  was  in  thirty  seven  degrees,  fifty  two  minutes, 
the  weather  now  was  fairer  and  the  wind  all  easterly. 
From  the  twentieth  at  noone,  to  the  twentie  one  at 
noone,  we  sayled  twenty  leagues  North  by  West,  the 
wind  betweene  East  and  South-east,  and  the  weather 
very  faire  :  At  the  sunne  setting  I  observed,  and 
Westerly  found  thirteene  degrees,  and  an  halfe  of  westerly 
X'T^rVa  variation,  and  untiU  midnight  we  had  a  reasonable 
j^aljr_  fresh    gale    of    wind    all    southerly,    and    then    it    fell 

calme    and    rained,    and    so    continued    very   little  wind 




untill    the    two    and    twentieth    at    noone,    and    shifting 

all  the  points  of  the  Compasse  :  yet  by  mine  observation 

that    I    made    then,    I    found    that    the    ship    had    run 

twentie    five    leagues    North,    for    I    found    her    to    be 

in  forty  degrees,  one  minute,  which  maketh  me  thinke  40.  degrees, 

that    there    was    some    tide    or    current    that    did    set   ■•  »"»"'^- 

Northward.     Againe,   those   that   had  the   second  watch     fI'"^',L 
i-<i  •         1     •  1-1  setting  10  tne 

did    say,    That    m    their    watch    they    did    see    a    race,  j^orthward. 

and   that   the  ship  did   drive  apace  to  the  Northward, 

when  she  had  not  a  breath  of  wind. 

From    the    two    and    twentieth    at    noone,    untill    ten  [IV.  ix. 

of  the   clocke   at   night,   we   had   a  fresh  gale  of  wind,  1760.] 

betweene    East    and    South-east,    and    then    it    shifted 

all  westerly,  and  so  continued  untill  two  of  the  clocke 

the   twenty    three    in  the  morning  :    and  then   it  began 

to    be    very    foggy    and    but    little    wind,    yet    shifting  A  great  fog. 

all    the    points    of   the    Compasse,    and    so    continued 

untill    ten    of  the    clocke,   and   then  it  began  to  cleere 

up.     At    twelve    of   the    clocke    I    observed,    and    then 

I  found  the  ship  to  be  in  fortie  degrees  fiftie  minutes  :   4°-  ^'&-  5°- 

so    from    the    twenty    two    at    noone,    to    the    twenty  '"'• 

three  at  noone  I  had  sayled  twenty  leagues  Northward. 

From   the   twenty   three  at  noone,  to  the  twenty  foure, 

at  three   of   the   clocke   in   the   morning   it   was   calme, 

and   then   we   had   a   reasonable   fresh   gale   of  wind  all 

southerly,    and    so    it    continued    untill   noon   southerly, 

in    which    time    I    had    sailed    twelve    leagues    North. 

And   about   foure   of  the   clocke   in   the   afternoone,  we 

had  forty   seven   fathoms  of  water,  which  water  we  did  M- fathoms 

find  to  be  changed  into  a  grasse  green  in  the  morning,  ^"^'  ,-, 

yet  we  would  not   heave  a  lead,  because  our  Admirall  unto  a  greene 

was  so  farre  on   head   of  us  :    who  about  three  of  the  grasse. 

clocke    in    the    afternoone    lay    by    the    lee,    and    fished  They  take  fish. 

till    I    came    up    to    him  :    and    then    I    fitted  my  selfe 

and    my    boat,    and    fished    untill    sixe    of   the    clocke. 

And    then    the    Admirall    fitted  .his    sailes,    and    stirred 

away   North,    whom    I    followed   with    all   the   speed  I 

could.     But  before   seven   of  the  clocke  there  fell  such 



A  great  fog. 


Great  fig  < 

100.  Cods' 

The  Skip 

They  stand  fir 
the  River  of 


a  myst,  that  I  was  faine  to  shoot  off  a  Peece,  which 
he  answered  with  a  Cornet  that  he  had  aboord.  So 
with  hallowing  and  making  a  noyse  one  to  another 
all  the  night  we  kept  company.  About  two  of  the 
clocke,  the  twenty  five  day  in  the  morning  we  tooke 
in  all  our  sailes,  and  lay  at  Hull  untill  five  of  the 
clocke  :  and  then  finding  but  small  store  of  fish, 
we  set  saile  and  stirred  away  North-west,  to  fetch 
the  mayne  land  to  relieve  our  selves  with  wood  and 
water,  which  we  stood  in  great  need  of  About  two 
of  the  clocke  in  the  afternoone  we  tooke  in  all  our 
sailes  and  lay  at  Hull,  at  which  time  I  heaved  the 
lead  three  times  together,  and  had  three  sundry  kindes 
of  soundings.  The  first  a  blacke  peppery  sand,  full 
of  peble  stones.  The  second  blacke  peppery,  and 
no  stones  :  The  third  blacke  peppery,  and  two  or 
three  stones. 

From  the  fourth  at  noone,  to  the  twentie  five,  at 
two  of  the  clocke  in  the  afternoone,  I  sayled  thirteene 
leagues  West  North-west :  and  the  weather  continuing 
very  foggy,  thicke,  and  rainy,  about  five  of  the  clocke 
it  began  to  cease,  and  then  we  began  to  fish,  and 
so  continued  untill  seven  of  the  clocke  in  betweene 
thirty  and  forty  fathoms,  and  then  we  could  fish 
no  longer.  So  having  gotten  betweene  twentie  and 
thirty  Cods,  we  left  for  that  night :  and  at  five  of 
the  clocke,  the  twenty  sixe  in  the  morning  we  began 
to  fish  againe,  and  so  continued  untill  ten  of  the 
clocke,  and  then  it  would  fish  no  longer :  in  which 
time  we  had  taken  neere  one  hundred  Cods,  and 
a  couple  of  HoUybuts.  All  this  while  wee  had  betweene 
thirty  and  forty  fathoms  water  :  before  one  of  the 
clocke  in  the  afternoone  we  found  the  ship  driven 
into  one  hundred  and  twenty  fathoms,  and  soft  blacke 
Ose.  Then  Sir  George  Somers  sent  me  word,  that 
he  would  set  saile,  and  stand  in  for  the  River  of 
Sagadahoc  ;  whose  directions  I   followed. 

Before   two   of  the   clocke   we   set   saile,  and  stirred 




away  North-west  by  North,  the  wind  South  South-west, 
and  the  weather  continued  very  fogy.  About  eight 
of  the  cloclce  wee  tooke  in  all  our  sailes,  and  lay  at  Hull 
at  that  night.  The  seven  and  twentieth,  about  seven 
of  the  clocke  in  the  morning  we  heaved  the  lead,  and 
had  no  ground  in  one  hundred  and  twentie  fathoms. 
Then  I  shot  off  a  Peece,  but  could  not  heare  none  Veriefiggie 
answere  from  our  Admirall :  and  the  weather  was  so  weather. 
thicke,  that  we  could  not  see  a  Cables  length  from  our 
ship.  Betweene  nine  and  ten  of  the  clock  we  did  thinke 
that  we  did  heare  a  Peece  of  Ordnance  to  windward  : 
which  made  me  suppose  our  Admirall  had  set  saile, 
and  that  it  was  a  warning  piece  from  him.  So  I  set 
sayle  and  stood  close  by  the  wind,  and  kept  an  hollowing 
and  a  noise  to  try  whether  I  could  find  him  againe  : 
the  wind  was  at  South-west,  and  I  stood  away  West 
North-west.  From  the  sixe  and  twentieth,  at  two  of  The  thick  fog 
the  clocke  in  the  afternoone,  to  eight  of  the  clocke  at  cmtinueth. 
night  I  had  sayled  nine  leagues  North-west.  The 
seven  and  twentieth  at  noone  I  heaved  the  Lead,  in 
one  hundred  and  twenty  fathoms,  and  had  no  ground. 
Then  I  stirred  away  North-west,  till  foure  of  the  clocke 
at  night :  then  I  heaved  the  Lead  againe  one  hundred 
and  twenty  fathoms,  and  had  no  ground.  Then  I  tooke 
all  my  sailes  and  lay  at  Hull,  and  I  had  sayled  seven 
leagues  North-west.  The  eight  and  twentieth,  at  seven 
of  the  clocke  in  the  morning  I  did  sound  in  one  hundred 
and  twenty  fathoms,  and  had  no  ground.  Then  I  set 
sayle  againe,  and  steered  away  North,  and  North  by 
West.  At  noone  I  heaved  in  one  hundred  and  twenty 
fathoms  againe,  and  had  no  ground.  So  I  steered  on 
my  course  still,  the  wind  shifted  betweene  South  and 
South-west,  and  the  fog  continued.  At  foure  of  The  fog 
the  clocke  in  the  afternoone,  I  heaved  one  hundred  "ntinueth. 
twenty  fathoms  againe,  and  had  no  ground  :  so  I  stood 
on  untill  eight  of  the  clocke,  by  which  time  I  had  sailed 
twelve  leagues  :  then  I  heaved  the  Lead  againe,  and 
had   blacke    Ose,   and   one   hundred  thirty  five  fathoms 




water.  Then  I  tooke  in  all  my  sayles  and  lay  at  huU 
untill  the  nine  and  twentieth,  at  five  of  the  clocke  In 
the  morning.  Then  I  set  saile  againe,  and  steered  away 
North,  and  North  by  West.  At  eight  of  the  clocke 
I  heaved  the  Lead  againe,  and  had  blacke  Ose  in  one 
hundred  and  thirty  fathoms  water.  Betweene  eleven 
and  twelve  of  the  clocke  it  began  to  thunder,  but  the 
The  fog  fogge  continued   not   still.      About   two   of  the   clocke 

cmmueth.  -^^  ^^^  afternoone,  I  went  out  with  my  Boat  my  selfe 
and  heaved  the  Lead,  and  had  blacke  Ose  in  ninety 
fathoms  water  :  by  which  time  I  had  sailed  six  leagues 
North  by  West  more.  Then  I  tooke  in  all  my  sayles 
saving  my  Fore-course  and  Bonnet,  and  stood  in  with 
[IV.  ix.  those  sailes  onely.     About  sixe  of  the  clocke  I  sounded 

1761-]  againe,  and  then  I  had  sixty  five  fathoms  water.     Assoone 
as  I  came  aboord  it  cleered  up,  and  then  I  saw  a  small 
Hand,  which  bare  North  about  two  leagues  off;  where- 
upon I   stood   in   untill   eight  of  the  clocke :  And  then 
I  stood  off  againe  untill  two  of  the  clocke  in  the  morn- 
ing  the   thirtieth    day.     Then    I    stood    in    againe,   and 
about  eight  of  the  clocke  I  was  faire  aboord   the  Hand. 
Then   I   manned  my   Boat  and   went  on  shoare,   where 
I  found  great  store  of  Seales :  And  I  killed  three  Scales 
A  Rocke  of     with  my  hanger.     This  Hand  Is  not  halfe  a  mile  about, 
Tmtkatut     ^"'^   nothing   but  a   Rocke,  which    seemed  to   be   very 
full  of  Seales.  ^"^^^    Marble   stone.      And   a    South    South-west    Moon 
maketh   a  full    Sea.     About  ten   of  the  clocke    I    came 
aboord  againe,  with  some  Wood  that  I  had  found  upon 
the  Hand,  for  there  had  beene  some  folkes  that  had  made 
fiers  there.     Then   I   stood  over  to  another   Hand  that 
did  beare  North  off  me  about  three  leagues;  this  small 
Thesmalrocky  rockie  Hand  lyeth  in  forty  foure  degrees.     About  seven 
Ikndlieth  in   ^f  ^j^g  ^i^^^^  ^j^^^     -^^^  j   ^^^^  ^^  ^^  anchor  among 
44.  degrees.  ti      j      •         ■    1       r    1  1  °. 

Many  Hands    i"any  Hands  m  eight  fathoms  water :   and  upon  one  of 

In  eight  these  Hands  I  fitted  my  selfe  with  Wood  and  Water, 

fathoms  water,  and  Balast. 

Augfist  3.  The  third  day  of  August,  being  fitted   to   put  to   Sea 

againe,  I  caused   the    Master  of  the  ship  to  open  the 




boxe  wherein  my  Commission  was,  to  see  what  directions 
I  had,  and  for  what  place  I  was  bound  to  shape  my 
course.  Then  I  tried  whether  there  were  any  fish  there 
or  not,  and  I  found  reasonable  good  store  there ;  so  Resonable 
I  stayed  there  fishing  till  the  twelfth  of  August:  and  store  of fsh. 
then  finding  that  the  fishing  did  faile,  I  thought  good 
to  returne  to  the  Hand  where  I  had  killed  the  Seales, 
to  see  whether  I  could  get  any  store  of  them  or  not ; 
for  I  did  find  that  they  were  very  nourishing  meate, 
and  a  great  reliefe  to  my  men,  and  that  they  would  be 
very  well  saved  with  salt  to  keepe  a  long  time.  But 
when  I  came  thither  I  could  not  by  any  meanes  catch 
any.  The  fourteenth  day  at  noone  I  observed  the  Sun, 
and  found  the  Hand  to  lie  in  forty  three  degrees,  forty  Seale  Rocke  in 
minutes.  Then  I  shaped  my  course  for  Cape  Cod,  to  43-  deg.  +1. 
see  whether  1  could  get  any  fish  there  or  not :  so  by  ""• 
the  fifteenth  that  noone,  I  had  sailed  thirty  two  leagues  ^ 
South-west,  the  wind  for  the  most  part  was  betweene 
North-west  and  North.  From  the  fifteenth  at  noone, 
to  the  sixteenth  at  noone  I  ran  twenty  leagues  South, 
the  wind  shifting  betweene  West  and  South-west.  And 
then  I  sounded  and  had  ground  in  eighteene  fathoms 
water,  full  of  shels  and  peble  stones  of  divers  colours, 
some  greene,  and  some  blewish,  some  like  diamants,  and 
some  speckled.  Then  I  tooke  in  all  my  sayles,  and  set 
all  my  company  to  fishing,  and  fished  till  eight  of  the 
clocke  that  night:  and  finding  but  little  fish  there,  I 
set  sayle  againe,  and  by  the  seventeenth  at  noone  I  had 
sayled  ten  leagues  West  by  North,  the  wind  shifting 
betweene  South  and  South-west.  From  noone,  till  sixe 
of  the  clocke  at  night,  foure  leagues  North-west,  the 
wind  shifting  betweene  West  and  South-WesL  Then 
it  did  blow  so  hard  that  I  tooke  in  all  my  sayles,  and 
lay  at  hull  all  that  night,  untill  five  of  the  clock  the 
eighteenth  day  in  the  morning:  and  then  I  set  saile 
againe,  and  by  noone  I  had  sailed  foure  leagues  North- 
west, the  wind  betweene  West  and  South-west.  From 
the  eighteenth  at  noone,  to  the  nineteenth  at  noone  ten 

XIX  81  F 



leagues  West  by  West,  the  wind  shifting  betweene  South 

and  South-west,  and  the  weather  very  thick  and  foggy. 

Thick  and  About  seven  of  the  clocke  at  night  the  fogge  began 

figgie weather.  ^  breake  away,  and  the  wind  did  shift  westerly,  and  by 

midnight  it  was  shifted  to  the  North,  and  there  it  did 

blow   very   hard   untill   the   twenty  at   noone:    but  the 

weather  was  very  cleere,  and  then  by  my  observation  I 

41.  deg.  4|.    found   the   ship   to   bee   in    the    latitude   of   forty   one 

""■  degrees,  forty  foure   minutes,  and  I  had  sailed  twenty 

leagues  South-west  by  West.     From  the  nineteenth  at 

noone,   to   the    twentieth    at    noone :    about   two  of  the 

clocke  in  the  afternoone  I  did  see  an  Hed-land,  which 

did  beare  off  me  South-west,  about  foure  leagues :  so  I 

Cape  Cod.       steered  with  it,  taking  it  to  bee  Cape  Cod ;  and  by  foure 

The  sholdes  of  of  the  clocke  I  was  fallen  among  so  many  shoales,  that 

Cape  Cod.       jj  ^^g  gyg  Q^  j.jjg  clocke  the  next   day  in  the  morning 

before  I  could  get  cleere  of  them,  it  is  a  very  dangerous 

place  to  fall  withall :  for  the  shoales  lie  at  the  least  ten 

leagues  off  from    the    Land ;    and   I   had    upon  one  of 

them  but  one  fathom  and  an  halfe  water,  and  my  Barke 

did  draw  seven  foot.     This  Land  lyeth  South-west,  and 

North-east,  and  the  shoales  lie  off  from  it  South  and 

South  by   West,  and   so   along  toward   the   North.     At 

the  North-west  by  West  Guards  I  observed  the  North- 

starre,  and  found  the  ship  to  be  in  the  latitude  of  fortie 

The  middle  of  One  degrees,  fiftie  minutes,  being  then  in  the  middle  of 

the  Sholdes  in   the    Sholdes :    and    I    did    finde    thirteene    degrees    of 

41.  deg.  50.     -westerly    variation    then     likewise.      Thus    finding    the 

1 5.  degrees  of  pl^ce  not  to  be  for  my  turne,  assoon  as  I  was  cleere  of 

westerly  these    dangers,    I    thought   it   fit    to    returne   to   James 

Variation.       Towne  in  Virginia,  to  the  Lord  De-lawarre,  my  Lord 

Governour,    and    there    to    attend    his  command:    so    I 

shaped    my  course   for   that   place.     And   the   one  and 

twentieth  day  by  noone  I  had  brought  my  selfe  South 

South-west  thirtie  three  leagues  from  this  Cape:  and  I 

had   the   wind   shifting   all   this   while   betweene   North 

and  North-west,  and  the  weather  very  faire  and  cleere. 

From    the    one    and    twentieth    at    noone,    to    the   two 




and   twentieth   at   noone,    I   ran   thirtie  leagues   South- 
West  by  West,  and  then  by  mine  observation  I  found 
the  ship  to  be  in  thirtie  nine  degrees,  thirtie  sixe  minutes : 
and  I  had   twelve   degrees   westerly   variation,   and   the  \z.  degrees  of 
wind  shifting  betweene  North  and  North-east,  and  the  ^"''J'h 
weather    very    faire    and    cleere.      From    the    two    and 
twentieth    at    noone,    to    the    three    and    twentieth    at 
noone,   nine   leagues   South-west    by   West;    and   then 
by   observation    I    did    find    the    ship    in    thirtie    nine 
degrees,    twentie    foure    minutes,    and    I    had    eleven  ' '  •  degrees  of 
degrees  of  westerly  variation :    and  there  did  blow  but  ^"^'^^^ 
very  little  wind,  and  shifting  betweene  West  and  North, 
and  the  weather  very  faire  and  cleere.     From  the  three  [IV.  ix. 
and  twentieth    at    noone  to  the  foure  and  twentieth  at  1762] 

noone  eighteene  leagues  South-west,  and  then   I  found 
the   shippe    to   be   in   thirtie    eight   degrees   fortie   two 
minutes:  and  I  had  twelve  degrees  of  Westerly  Varia-  \z.  degrees  of 
tion,  and  the  wind  shifting  betweene  North  and  West,  tf^esterly 
and  the  weather  very  faire.  variation. 

From  the  foure  and  twentieth  at  noone,  to  the  five 
and  twentieth  at  noone,  two  and  twentie  leagues  West 
by  South,  the  wind  shifting  betweene  North  and  East. 
And  then  I  found  the  ship  to  bee  in  thirtie  eight  degrees 
five  and  twentie  minutes,  and  the  same  Variation  that  I 
had  before,  and  the  weather  very  faire. 

From  the  five  and  twentieth  at  noone,  to  the  six  and 
twentieth  at   noone,  five  and  twentie  leagues  Westerly, 
the   wind   all   shifting   betweene  South  and   South-west. 
And  I   had  thirteene  degrees  five  and   twentie  minutes  ii.deg.zi^. 
of  Westerly  Variation.     About  sixe  of  the  clocke  at  night  ""•  "f 
the  water  was  changed,  and  then  I  sounded  and  had  red  j,J^'^[ig„ 
sandie   ground   in   twelve   fathomes  water   about  twelve 
leagues  from  the  shore. 

The  seven  and  twentieth  by  day  in  the  morning,  I 
was  faire  aboord  the  shore,  and  by  nine  of  the  clocke 
I  came  to  an  Anchor  in  nine  fathomes  in  a  very  great 
Bay,  where  I  found  great  store  of  people  which  were 
very  kind,  and  promised  me  that  the  next  day  in  the 




morning  they   would   bring   me   great   store  of  Come. 

But   about    nine   of    the    clocke   that   night   the   winde 

shifted    from    South-west    to    East    North-east.     So    I 

weighed    presently,   and    shaped    my    course    to    Cape 

Charles.     This   Bay   lyeth    in   Westerly   thirtie  leagues. 

And  the  Souther  Cape  of  it  lyeth  South  South-east  and 

North  North-west,  and  in  thirtie  eight  degrees  twentie 

minutes  of  Northerly  Latitude. 

The   eight   and    twentieth   day,    about   foure   of   the 

clocke  in  the  afternoone  I  fell  among  a  great  many 
Many  shales  of  shoales,  about  twelve  leagues  to  the  Southward  of 
12.  leagues  to  Cape  La  Warre.  So  there  I  came  to  an  Anchor  in 
'qJ^^II  "^  three  fathomes  water,  the  winde  beeing  then  all  Easterly, 
Wane.  ^"^  rode  there  all  that  Night. 

The  nine  and   twentieth    in   the   morning   I   weighed 

againe,  the  wind  being  all  Southerly,  and  turned  until! 

night,  and  then  I  came  to  an  Anchor  in  seven  fathomes 

water  in  the  offing  to  Sea. 

How  the  tyde  did  set  there,  or  whether  that  there 

did  run  any  current  or  not,  I  cannot  say ;  but  I  could 

find  neither  current  nor  tyde. 

The  thirtieth  in  the  morning  I  weighed  againe,  the 

wind  still  Southerly,  and  turned  all  that  day,  but  got 

very  little,    so   at   Evening   I    stood   ofF   to   Sea   untill 

midnight,  and  then  stood  in  againe. 

The  one  and  thirtieth,  about  seven  of  the  clocke  at 
Cape  Charles,  night  I  came  to  an  Anchor  under  Cape  Charles  in  foure 

fathomes,  and  one  third  part  water,  and  rode  there  all 

that  night. 




Chap.  VIII. 

A  short  Relation  made  by  the  Lord  De-La- Warre, 
to  the  Lords  and  others  of  the  Counsel!  of 
Virginia,  touching  his  unexpected  returne 
home,  and  afterwards  delivered  to  the  generall 
Assembly  of  the  said  Company,  at  a  Court 
holden  the  twentie  five  of  June,  1 6 1 1 .  Pub- 
lished by  authoritie  of  the  said  Counsell. 

My  Lords,  &c. 

Eing  now  by  accident  returned  from  my 
Charge  at  Virginia,  contrary  either  to 
my  owne  desire  or  other  mens  expecta- 
tions, who  spare  not  to  censure  mee, 
in  point  of  dutie,  and  to  discourse  and 
question  the  reason,  though  they  appre- 
hend not  the  true  cause  of  my  returne, 
I  am  forced  (out  of  a  willingnesse  to  satisfie  every  man) 
to  deliver  unto  your  Lordships,  and  the  rest  of  this 
Assembly,  briefly  (but  truly)  in  what  state  I  have  lived, 
ever  since  my  arrivall  to  the  Colonie ;  what  hath  beene 
the  just  occasion  of  my  sudden  departure  thence;  and 
in  what  termes  I  have  left  the  same :  The  rather  because 
I  perceive,  that  since  my  comming  into  England,  such 
a  coldnesse  and  irresolution  is  bred  in  many  of  the 
Adventurers,  that  some  of  them  seeke  to  withdraw 
those  payments,  which  they  have  subscribed  towards 
the  Charge  of  the  Plantation,  and  by  which  that  Action 
must  be  supported  and  mayntained,  making  this  my 
returne,  the  colour  of  their  needlesse  backwardnesse  and 
unjust  protraction.  Which,  that  you  may  the  better 
understand,  I  must  informe  your  Lordships,  that  pre- 
sendy  after  my  arrivall  in  James  Towne,  I  was  wel- 
commed  by  a  hot  and  violent  Ague,  which  held  me  a 
time,   till    by    the    advice    of    my    Physition,   Doctour 




Lawrence  Bohun  (by  bloud  letting)  1  was  recovered  as 

in  my  first  Letters  by  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  I  have  informed 

you.     That  Disease  had  not  long  left  me,  till  (within 

three   weekes   after   I    had    gotten   a   little   strength)  I 

Lord  La  began  to  be  distempered  with  other  grievous  sicknesses, 

^chle's'se^""'^  which  successively  and  severally  assailed  mee  :  for  besides 

a   relapse   into   the   former   Disease,    which   with    much 

more  violence  held  me  more  then  a  moneth,  and  brought 

[IV.  ix.         me  to   great   weaknesse,  the   Flux   surprized   mee,  and 

1763]  kept  me  many  dayes ;    then   the  Crampe  assaulted  my 

weake   bodie,  with    strong   paines ;    and   afterwards  the 

Gout   (with    which   I   had    heretofore    beene    sometime 

troubled)    afflicted   me   in    such    sort,    that   making   my 

bodie   through   weaknesse    unable   to    stirre,    or  to  use 

any    manner   of  exercise,    drew   upon    me    the   Disease 

called    the    Scurvy ;    which   though   in   others   it   be  a 

sicknesse  of  slothfulnesse,  yet    was   in  me  an  effect  of 

weaknesse,  which  never  left  mee,  till  I  was   upon  the 

point  to  leave  the  World. 

These  severall  Maladies  and  Calamities,  I  am  the  more 
desirous  to  particularise  unto  your  Lordshippes  (although 
they  were  too  notorious  to  the  whole  Colonic)  lest  any 
man  should  misdeeme  that  under  the  generall  name  and 
common  excuse  of  sicknesse,  I  went  about  to  cloke  either 
sloth,  or  feare,  or  any  other  base  apprehension,  unworthy 
the  high  and  Honorable  Charge,  which  you  had 
entrusted  to  my  Fidelitie. 

In  these  extremities  I  resolved  to  consult  my  friends, 
Who  finding  Nature  spent  in  mee,  and  my  body  almost 
consumed,  my  paines  likewise  daily  encreasing,  gave  me 
advise  to  prefer  a  hopefuU  recovery,  before  an  assured 
ruine,  which  must  necessarily  have  ensued,  had  I  lived 
but  twentie  dayes  longer  in  Virginia  :  wanting  at  that 
instant,  both  food  and  Physicke,  fit  to  remedy  such  extra- 
ordinary Diseases,  and  restore  that  strength  so  desperately 

Whereupon,  after  a  long  consultation  held,  I  resolved 
by  generall  consent  and  perswasion,  to  ship  my  selfe  for 


LORD   DE   LA  WARRE  a.d. 


Mevis,  an  Island  in  the  West  Indies,  famous  for  wholse- 

some   Bathes,   there   to    try   what   helpe    the    Heavenly 

Providence  would   afFoord    mee,  by  the  benefit   of  the 

hot  Bath  :    but  God,  who  guideth  all  things,  according 

to  his  good  will  and  pleasure,   so  provided,  that  after 

we  had  sayled  an  hundred  Leagues,  we  met  with  Southerly 

windes  which  forced  mee  to  change  my  purpose  (my  bodie 

being  altogether  unable  to  endure  the  tediousnesse  of  a 

long  Voyage)  and  so  steere  my  course  for  the  Westerne 

Hands,  which  I  no  sooner  recovered,  then  I  found  helpe  for 

my  health,  and  my  sicknesse  asswaged,  by  meanes  of  fresh 

Diet,  and  especially  of  Orenges  and  Lemons,  an  undoubted  Orenges  and 

remedy  and  medicine  for  that  Disease,  which  lastly,  and  so  ^'^<^J.  i""^ 

long,  had  afflicted  me  :  which  ease  as  soone  as  I  found,  I  Scurvie. 

resolved  (although  my  body  remayned   still  feeble  and 

weake)  to  returne  backe  to  my  charge  in  Virginia  againe, 

but  I  was  advised  not  to  hazard  my  selfe  before  I  had 

perfectly  recovered  my  strength,  which  by  counsell  I  was 

perswaded  to  seeke  in  the  naturall  Ayre  of  my  Countrey, 

and  so  I  came  for  England.     In  which  Accident,  I  doubt 

not  but  men  of  reason,  and  of  judgement  will  imagine, 

there  would  more  danger  and  prejudice  have  happened 

by    my    death    there,    then    I    hope    can    doe    by    my 


In  the  next  place,  I  am  to  give  account  in  what  estate  I 

left  the  Colonic  for  government  in  my  absence.     It  may 

please  your  Lordships  therefore  to  understand,  that  upon 

my  departure  thence,  I  made  choice  of  Captaine  George  Master 

Percie  (a  Gentleman  of  honour  and  resolution,  and  of  George  Perde 

no  small  experience  in  that  place)  to  remayne  Deputie  ^^P"^*^ '^^^ 
/-  •!,       1  •  /-      1        •»«       1    11    n-     the  commtng  of 

vjovernour,   untill    the    commmg    of    the    Marshall   Sir  j^y  j'  d^i^ 

Thomas  Dale,    whose    Commission    was    likewise   to   be  Marshall. 

determined,    upon    the    arrivall    of    Sir   Thomas   Gates, 

according  to   the  intent   and    order  of  your  Lordships, 

and  the  Councell  here. 

The  number   of  men   I  left   there,   were    upward    of  200.  left 

two  hundred,   the   most   in   health,   and  provided   of  a  '^""e- 

least  ten  moneths  victuals,  in  their  Store-house  (which 



Trade  by  Cap. 

Three  Torts. 

Sir  T.  Gates 
his  second 


is  daily  issued  unto  them)  besides  other  helps  in  the 
Countrey,  lately  found  out  by  Captaine  Argoll  by- 
trading  with  pettie  Kings  in  those  parts,  who  for  a 
small  returne  of  a  piece  of  Iron,  Copper,  &c.  have 
consented  to  trucke  great  quantities  of  Corne,  and 
willingly  imbrace  the  intercourse  of  TrafEque,  shewing 
unto  our  people  certaine  signes  of  amitie  and  affection. 

And  for  the  better  strengthening  and  securing  of  the 
Colonie,  in  the  time  of  my  weaknesse  there,  I  tooke 
order  for  the  building  of  three  severall  Forts,  two  of 
which  are  seated  neere  Point  Comfort,  to  which  adjoyneth 
a  large  circuit  of  ground,  open,  and  fit  for  Corne  :  the 
third  Fort  is  at  the  Falls,  upon  an  Hand  invironed  also 
with  Corne  ground.  These  are  not  all  manned,  for  1 
wanted  the  commoditie  of  Boats,  having  but  two,  and 
one  Barge,  in  all  the  Countrey,  which  hath  beene  cause 
that  our  fishing  hath  beene  (in  some  sort)  hindered  for 
want  of  those  provisions,  which  easily  will  be  remedied 
when  we  can  gaine  sufficient  men  to  bee  imployed  about 
those  businesses,  which  in  Virginia  I  found  not :  but  since 
meeting  with  Sir  Thomas  Gates  at  the  Cowes  neere  Ports- 
mouth, (to  whom  I  gave  a  particular  account  of  all  my 
proceedings,  and  of  the  present  estate  of  the  Colonie 
as  I  left  it)  I  understood  those  wants  are  supplyed  in  his 

The  Country  is  wonderfuU  fertile  and  very  rich,  and 
makes  good  whatsoever  heretofore  hath  beene  reported  of 
it,  the  Cattell  alreadie  there,  are  much  encreased,  and 
thrive  exceedingly  with  the  pasture  of  that  Countrie : 
The  Kine  all  this  last  Winter,  though  the  ground  was 
covered  most  with  Snow,  and  the  Season  sharpe,  lived 
without  other  feeding  then  the  grasse  they  found,  with 
which  they  prospered  well,  and  many  of  them  readie 
to  fall  with  Calve  :  Milke  beeing  a  great  nourishment 
and  refreshing  to  our  people,  serving  also  (in  occasion)  as 
well  for  Physicke  as  for  food,  so  that  it  is  in  no  way  to 
be  doubted,  but  when  it  shall  please  God  that  Sir  Thomas 
Dale,  and  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  shall  arrive  in  Virginia,  with 


LORD   DE   LA    WARRE  a.d. 

their  extraordinary  supply  of  one  hundred  Kine,  and  two  loo.Kineand 
hundred  Swine,  besides  store  of  all  manner  of  other  provi-  ^°°-  ^"'"^ 
sions  for  the  sustenance  and  maintenance  of  the  Colonic,  ""'' 
there  will  appeare  that  successe  in  the  Action  as  shall  give 
no  man  cause  of  distrust  that  hath  alreadie  adventured, 
but  encourage  every  good  minde  to  further  so  worthy  [IV.  ix. 
a  worke,  as  will  redound  both  to  the  glory  of  God,  to  1764-] 

the  credit  of  our  Nation,  and  to  the  comfort  of  all 
those  that  have  beene  Instruments  in  the  furthering 
of  it. 

The  last  Discovery,  during  my  continuall  sicknesse, 
was  by  Captaine  Argoll,  who  hath  found  a  Trade  with 
Patamack  (a  King  as  great  as  Powhatan,  who  still  K.  and  R. 
remaynes  our  Enemie,  though  not  able  to  doe  us  P"'"""":^- 
hurt.)  This  is  in  a  goodly  River  called  Patomack, 
upon  the  borders  whereof  there  are  growne  the  goodliest 
Trees  for  Masts,  that  may  bee  found  else-where  in  the 
World  :  Hempe  better  then  English  :  growing  wild  in 
abundance  :  Mynes  of  Antimonie  and  Lead. 

There  is  also  found  without  our  Bay  to  the  Northward 
an  excellent  fishing  Banke  for  Cod  and  Ling,  as  good  as 
can  be  eaten,  and  of  a  kind  that  will  keepe  a  whole  yeere 
in  ships  hold,  with  little  care  ;  a  triall  whereof  I  now  have 
brought  over  with  me.  Other  Hands  there  are  upon  our 
Coasts,  that  doe  promise  rich  Merchandize,  and  will 
further  exceedingly  the  establishing  of  the  Plantation,  by 
supply  of  many  helpes,  and  will  speedily  afFoord  a  returne 
of  many  worthy  commodities. 

I  have  left  much  ground  in  part  manured  to  receive 
Corne,  having  caused  it  the  last  Winter  to  be  sowed 
for  Roots,  with  which  our  people  were  greatly  releeved. 
There  are  many  Vines  planted  in  divers  places,  and 
doe  prosper  well,  there  is  no  want  of  any  thing,  if  the 
action  can  be  upheld  with  constancie  and  resolution. 

Lastly,  concerning  my  selfe  and  my  course,  though  the 
World  may  imagine  that  this  Countrie  and  Climate,  will 
(by  that  which  I  have  suffered  beyond  any  other  of  that 
Plantation)  ill  agree  with  the  state  of  my  bodie,  yet  I  am 




so  farre  from  shrinking  or  giving  over  this  honourable 
Enterprize,  as  that  I  am  willing  and  readie  to  lay  all  that 
I  am  worth  upon  the  adventure  of  the  Action,  rather  then 
so  Honourable  a  Worke  should  faile,  and  to  returne  with 
all  the  convenient  expedition  I  may,  beseeching  your 
Lordships  and  the  rest,  not  onely  to  excuse  my  former 
wants,  happened  by  the  Almightie  Hand  :  but  to  second 
my  Resolutions  with  your  friendly  indevours  :  that  both 
the  State  may  receive  Honour,  your  selves  Profit,  and 
I  future  Comfort,  by  beeing  imployed  (though  but  as 
a  weake  Instrument)  in  so  great  an  Action. 

And  thus  having  plainly,  truly,  and  briefly  delivered  the 
cause  of  my  returne,  with  the  state  of  our  aflaires,  as 
we  now  stand,  I  hope  every  worthy  and  indifferent  hearer, 
will  by  comparing  my  present  resolution  of  returne,  with 
the  necessitie  of  my  comming  home,  rest  satisfied  with 
this  true  and  short  Declaration. 

Chap.   IX. 

Letter  of  Sir  Samuell  Argoll  touching  his 
Voyage  to  Virginia,  and  Actions  there : 
Written  to  Master  Nicholas  Hawes.  June 

Aster  Hawes,  within  seven  weekes  after 
my  departure  from  the  Coast  of  England, 
being  the  three  and  twentieth  of  July, 
161 2.  I  fell  with  the  Coast  of  Virginia, 
in  the  Latitude  of  fortie  degrees.  The 
twelfth  of  September,  with  all  my  men  in 
good  health,  the  number  being  sixtie  two, 
and  all  my  victuals  very  well  conditioned  :  my  course  being 
fiftie  leagues  to  the  Northward  of  the  Azores.  The 
seventeenth,  I  arrived  at  Point  Comfort,  where  by  the 
Sir  T.  Gates,  discreet  and  provident  government  of  Sir  Thomas  Gates, 
Sir  T.  Dak.  and  great  paines  and  hazard  of  Sir  Thomas  Dale,  I  found 
both  the  Countrey  and  people  in  farre  better  estate  there, 




then  the  report  was  by  such  as  came  home  in  Sir  Robert 

Mansfields   ship.     From   my  arrivall   untill   the  first  of 

November,  I  spent  my  time  in  helping  to  repaire  such 

ships  and  Boats,  as  I  found  heere  decayed  for  lacke  of 

Pitch  and  Tarre  :   and  in  pursuing  the  Indians  with  Sir 

Thomas  Dale,  for  their  Corne,  of  which  we  got   some 

quantitie,   which    we    were    like    to    have    bought   very 

deerely  :    for   by  the  Providence    of  God,   Sir  Thomas 

Dale   escaped   killing   very    narrowly.     Then    about  the  The 

beginning  of  November,  by  the  advice  of  Sir  Thomas  Delwerance. 

Gates,  I  carried  Sir  Thomas  Dale  to  Sir  Thomas  Smiths  ^^^  j^^^^^  ^ 

Hand,  to  have  his  opinion  of  the  inhabiting  of  it  :  who,  Namamund. 

after  three  dayes  march  in  discovering  it,  approved  very  His  Voyage  to 

well  of  the  place  :  and  so  much  the  better,  because  we  ^'J'  J-  ^'""'" 

found  abundance  of  fish  there,  and  very  great  Cod,  which 

we  caught  in  five  fathome  water,  of  which  we  are  in  hope 

to  get  a  great  quantitie  this  Summer,  for  the  reliefe  of 

our  men,  as  also  to  find  safe  passage  for  Boats  and  Barges 

thither,  by  a  cut  out  of  the  bottome  of  our  Bay,  into  the 

De  la  Warre  Bay.     For  which  fishing  and  better  Dis-  ^e  la  War 

covery,   I   have    my   ship  readie,  with    my   Company  in      •''■ 

as   good    health,    as   at   my   arrivall,  and   as   they    have 

continued   ever   since  :   for   which,  God   be   glorified,   to 

whom   we    give    daily   thankes,   for   the  continuance   of 

his  mercy. 

After  my  returne  from  Sir  Thomas  Smiths   Hand,  I  His  first 
fitted    my   ship   to    fetch   Corne   from   Patowomeck,   by  ^'oyg' " 
trading  with  the  Indians,  and  so  set  sayle  from  Point  and p""" ok 
Comfort  the  first  of  December  :   and  being  entred   into  River. 
Penbrooke  River,  I   met  with   the  King  of  Pastancie  a  Ayapassus  the 
hunting,  who  went  presently  aboord  with  me,  seeming  to  ^^roance  of 
be  very  glad  of  my  comming,  and  told  me  that  all  the  ^'"'''""'• 
Indians  there  were  my  very  great  friends,  and  that  they 
had  good  store  of  Corne  for  mee,  which  they  had  provided 
the  yeere  before,  which  we  found  to  be  true.     Then  I 
carried  my  ship  presently  before  his  Towne,  and  there 
built  me  a  stout  shallop,  to  get  the  Corne  aboord  withall,  [IV.  ix. 
which  being  done,  and  having  concluded  a  peace  with  '765] 


*Caf.  Web, 
Ensigne  Sttii/t, 
i^  Rob. 
Sparkesl^  two 

iioo.  bushels 
of  Come. 

The  second 
voyage  to  Pen- 
brooke  River. 

Great  store  of 
Oxen  in 

A  Myne. 

A  medicinable 

A  water  that 
hath  the  taste 
of  Allum. 

An  Earth  like 


A  red  Earth 

like  Terra 


The  great 




divers  other  Indian  Lords,  and  likewise  given  and  taken  * 
Hostages  :  I  hasted  to  James  Towne,  beeing  the  first 
of  January,  and  arrived  at  Point  Comfort  the  first  of 

In  this  Voyage  I  got  iioo.  bushels  of  Corne,  which  I 
delivered  into  the  severall  Store- houses,  according  unto  the 
direction  of  Sir  T.  Gates  :  besides  the  quantitie  of  300. 
bushels,  reserved  for  mine  Company.  As  soone  I  had 
unladen  this  Corne,  I  set  my  men  to  the  felling  of  Timber, 
for  the  building  of  a  Frigat,  which  I  left  halfe  finished  in 
the  hands  of  the  Carpenters  at  Point  Comfort,  the  19.  of 
March  :  and  returned  my  selfe  with  the  ship  into  Pem- 
brook  River,  and  so  discovered  to  the  head  of  it,  which  is 
about  65.  leagues  into  the  Land,  and  navigable  for  any 
ship.  And  then  marching  into  the  Countrie,  I  found 
great  store  of  Cattle  as  big  as  Kine,  of  which,  the  Indians 
that  were  my  guides,  killed  a  couple  which  wee  found  to 
be  very  good  and  wholsome  meate,  and  are  very  easie  to 
be  killed,  in  regard  they  are  heavy,  slow,  and  not  so  wild 
as  other  beasts  of  the  Wildernesse.  In  this  journie  I  like- 
wise found  a  Myne,  of  which  I  have  sent  a  triall  into 
England  :  and  likewise  a  strange  kind  of  Earth,  the 
vertue  whereof  I  know  not ;  but  the  Indians  eate  it 
for  Physicke,  alleaging  that  it  cureth  the  sicknesse  and 
paine  of  the  belly.  I  likewise  found  a  kind  of  water 
issuing  out  of  the  Earth,  which  hath  a  tart  taste  much 
like  unto  Allum-water,  it  is  good  and  wholsome  :  for  my 
men  did  drinke  much  of  it,  and  never  found  it  otherwise. 
I  also  found  an  earth  like  a  Gumme,  white  and  cleere; 
another  sort  red,  like  Terra  sigillata  ;  another  very  white, 
and  of  so  light  a  substance,  that  being  cast  into  the  water, 
it  swimmeth. 

Whilst  I  was  in  this  businesse,  I  was  told  by  certaine 
Indians,  my  friends,  that  the  Great  Powhatans  Daughter 
Pokahuntis  was  with  the  great  King  Patowomeck, 
whether  I  presently  repaired,  resolving  to  possesse  my 
selfe  of  her  by  any  stratagem  that  I  could  use,  for  the 
ransoming  of  so  many  Englishmen  as  were  prisoners  with 




Powhatan  :  as  also  to  get  such  armes  and  tooles,  as  hee, 
and  other  Indians  had  got  by  murther  and  stealing  from 
others  of  our  Nation,  with  some  quantitie  of  Corne, 
for  the  Colonies  reliefe.  So  soone  as  I  came  to  an 
anchor  before  the  Towne,  I  manned  my  Boate  and 
sent  on  shoare,  for  the  King  of  Pastancy  and  Ensigne  Ensile  Swift. 
Swift  (whom  I  had  left  as  a  pledge  of  our  love  and  truce, 
the  Voyage  before)  who  presently  came  and  brought 
my  pledge  with  him  :  whom  after  I  had  received,  I 
brake  the  matter  to  this  King,  and  told  him,  that  if 
he  did  not  betray  Pokohuntis  into  my  hands ;  wee 
would  be  no  longer  brothers  nor  friends.  Hee  alleaged, 
that  if  hee  should  undertake  this  businesse,  then  Pow- 
hatan would  make  warres  upon  him  and  his  people ; 
but  upon  my  promise,  that  I  would  joyne  with  him 
against  him,  hee  repaired  presently  to  his  brother,  the 
great  King  of  Patowomeck,  who  being  made  acquainted 
with  the  matter,  called  his  Counsell  together  :  and  after 
some  few  houres  deliberation,  concluded  rather  to  deliver 
her  into  my  hands,  then  lose  my  friendship :  so  presently, 
he  betrayed  her  into  my  Boat,  wherein  I  carried  her  PocahuntU 
aboord  my  ship.  This  done,  an  Indian  was  dispatched  ^ 
to  Powhatan,  to  let  him  know,  that  I  had  taken  his 
Daughter  :  and  if  he  would  send  home  the  Englishmen 
(whom  he  deteined  in  slaverie,  with  such  armes  and 
tooles,  as  the  Indians  had  gotten,  and  stolne)  and  also 
a  great  quantitie  of  Corne,  that  then,  he  should  have 
his  daughter  restored,  otherwise  not.  This  newes  much 
grieved  this  great  King,  yet,  without  delay,  he  returned 
the  messenger  with  this  answer.  That  he  desired  me 
to  use  his  Daughter  well,  and  bring  my  ship  into  his 
River,  and  there  he  would  give  mee  my  demands  ;  which 
being  performed,  I  should  deliver  him  his  Daughter,  and 
we  should  be  friends. 

Having  received  this  answere,  I  presently  departed 
from  Patowomeck,  being  the  13.  of  ApriU,  and  repayred 
with  all  speed  to  Sir  T.  Gates,  to  know  of  him  upon  what 
condition   he   would   conclude  this  peace,  and  what  he 



7.  men  freed. 

His  third 

Kerned  Salt 

May  12. 


would  demand  :  to  whom  I  also  delivered  my  prisoner, 
towards  whose  ransome  within  few  dayes,  this  King  sent 
home  seven  of  our  men,  who  seemed  to  be  very  joyful! 
for  that  they  were  freed  from  the  slavery  and  feare  of 
cruell  murther,  which  they  daily  before  lived  in.  They 
brought  also  three  pieces,  one  broad  Axe,  and  a  long 
Whip-saw,  and  one  Canow  of  Come.  I  beeing  quit 
of  my  prisoner,  went  forward  with  the  Frigat  which 
I  had  left  at  Point  Comfort,  and  finished  her. 

Thus  having  put  my  ship  in  hand  to  be  fitted  for 
an  intended  fishing  Voyage,  I  left  that  businesse  to  be 
followed  by  my  Master  with  a  ginge  of  men,  and  my 
Lieutenant  fortified  on  shoare  with  another  ginge  to 
fell  timber,  and  cleave  plankes  to  build  a  fishing  Boat ; 
my  Ensigne  with  another  ginge  was  imployed  in  the 
Frigat,  for  getting  of  fish  at  Cape  Charles,  and  trans- 
porting it  to  Henries  Towne  for  the  reliefe  of  such 
men  as  were  there  :  and  my  selfe  with  a  fourth  ginge 
departed  out  of  the  River  in  my  shallop,  the  first  of 
May,  for  to  discover  the  East  side  of  our  Bay,  which 
I  found  to  have  many  small  Rivers  in  it,  and  very 
good  harbours  for  Boats  and  Barges,  but  not  for  ships 
of  any  great  burthen  :  and  also  great  store  of  Inhabitants, 
who  seemed  very  desirous  of  our  love,  and  so  much  the 
rather,  because  they  had  received  good  reports  from  the 
Indians  of  Pembrock  River,  of  our  courteous  usage 
of  them,  whom  I  found  trading  with  me  for  Corne, 
whereof  they  had  great  store.  We  also  discovered  a 
multitude  of  Hands  bearing  good  Medow  ground,  and 
as  I  thinke,  Salt  might  easily  be  made  there,  if  there 
were  any  ponds  digged,  for  that  I  found  Salt  kerned 
where  the  water  had  over-flowne  in  certaine  places.  Here 
Is  also  great  store  of  fish,  both  shel-fish  and  other.  So 
having  discovered  along  the  shore  some  fortie  leagues 
Northward,  I  returned  againe  to  my  ship,  the  twelfth 
of  May,  and  hasted  forward  my  businesse  left  In  hand 
at  my  departure  :  and  fitted  up  my  ship,  and  built  my 
fishing  Boate,  and  made  readle  to  take  the  first  oppor- 




tunitie  of  the  wind  for  my  fishing  Voyage,  of  which  I 
beseech  God  of  his  mercy  to  blesse  us. 

Chap.  X.  [IV.  ix. 

^  1766.] 

Notes   of   Virginian   Affaires    in    the    government 

of  Sir  Thomas  Dale  and  of  Sir  Thomas  Gates 

till  Anno  16 14.     Taken  out  of  Master  Ralph 

Hamor  (Secretary  to  the  Colonic)  his  Booke. 

E  found  the  Colonic  at  our  arrivall  there, 

from    the   Bermudas,    not    living    above 

threescore    persons     therein,    and    those 

scarce   able   to   goe    alone,    of    wel-nigh 

six     hundred,    not    full     ten     monethes 

before.     The   reason    hereof  is  at   hand,  Epery  mans 

for  formerly,  when  our  people  were  fed  '^'"''  "  ""    . 

out  of  the  common   store,  and  laboured  ioyntly  in  the  ^1":!  JltZl.- 
r    1  111        •         ^  •'  11  Ue  ts  a  proper 

manurmg  or  the  ground,  and  planting  Corne,  glad  was  painestaker. 

that  man  that  could  slip  from  his  labour  ;  nay,  the  most 

honest  of  them  in  a  generall  businesse,  would  not  take  so 

much  faithfiill  and  true  paines,  in  a  weeke,  as  now  hee 

will  doe  in  a  day,   neither  cared  they  for  the  increase, 

presuming   that   howsoever  their  harvest   prospered,  the 

generall  store  must  maintayne  them.     By  which  meanes 

we  reaped  not  so  much  Corne  from  the  labours  of  thirtie 

men,  as  three  men  have  done  for  themselves.    To  prevent 

which  mischiefe  hereafter  Sir  Thomas  Dale  hath  taken  Sir  Thom 

a  new  course,  throughout  the  whole  Colonie,  by  which  Dales  ffiod 

meanes,  the  generall  store  (apparell  onely  excepted)  shall  S'^'"'^^"'- 

not  bee  charged  with  any  thing  :  and  this  it  is,  hee  hath 

allotted  to  every  man  in  the  Colonie,  three  English  Acres 

of  cleere  Corne  ground,  which  every  man  is  to  mature 

and  tend,  being  in  the  nature  of  Farmers  (the  Bermuda 

undertakers  onely  excepted)  and  they  are  not  called  unto 

any  service  or  labour  belonging  to  the  Colonie,  more  then 

one  moneth  in  the  yeere,  which  shall  neither  be  in  Seed 

time,  or  in   Harvest,   for  which,  doing   no  other   dutie 




Deere  have  3. 
or  4.  Fawnes 
at  a  time. 



to  the  Colonic,  they  are  yeerely  to  pay  into  the  store  two 
barrels  and  a  halfe  of  Corne  :  there  to  bee  reserved  to 
keepe  new  men,  which  shall  bee  sent  over  the  first  yeere 
after  their  arrivall :  and  even  by  this  meanes  I  dare  say, 
our  store  will  bee  bountifully  furnished,  to  maintayne 
three  or  foure  hundred  men,  whensoever  they  shall  be 
sent  thither  to  us. 

Concerning  the  undertaking  of  the  Bermuda  Citie,  a 
businesse  of  greatest  hope,  ever  begun ne  in  our  Terri- 
tories there,  their  Patent,  doth  apparently  demonstrate, 
upon  what  termes  and  conditions  they  voluntarily  have 
undertaken  that  imployment.  The  Land  is  stored  with 
plentie  and  varietie  of  wild  Beasts,  Lions,  BeareS,  Deere 
of  all  sorts,  onely  differing  from  ours  in  their  increase, 
having  usuall,  three  or  foure  Fawnes  at  a  time,  none  that 
I  have  seene  or  heard  of  under  two  :  the  reason  whereof 
some  of  our  people  ascribe  to  the  vertue  of  some  grasse 
or  herbe  which  they  eate,  because  our  Goates  oftentimes 
bring  forth  three,  and  most  of  them  two  :  for  my  part  I 
rather  impute  their  fecunditie  to  the  Providence  of  God, 
who  for  every  mouth  provideth  meate,  and  if  this  increase 
were  not,  the  Naturals  would  assuredly  starve  :  for  of  the 
Deere  they  kill  (as  doe  we  Beefes  in  England)  all  the 
yeere  long,  neither  sparing  young  nor  olde,  no  not 
the  Does  readie  to  fawne,  nor  the  young  Fawnes,  (if 
but  two  dayes  olde)  Beavers,  Otters,  Foxes,  Racounes, 
almost  as  bigge  as  a  Foxe,  as  good  meate  as  a  Lambe, 
Hares,  wild  Cats,  Muske  Rats,  Squirrels  flying,  and  other 
of  three  or  four  sorts,  Apossumes  of  the  bignesse  and 
likenesse  of  a  Pigge  of  a  moneth  old,  a  beast  of  as  strange 
incredible  nature,  she  hath  commonly  seven  young  ones, 
sometimes  more  and  sometimes  lesse,  which  at  her  plea^ 
sure  till  they  be  a  moneth  old  or  more  shee  taketh 
up  into  her  belly,  and  putteth  forth  againe  without 
hurt  to  her  selfe  or  them.  Of  each  of  these  beasts, 
the  Lion  excepted,  my  selfe  have  many  times  eaten, 
and  can  testifie  that  they  are  not  onely  tasteful!,  but 
also  wholsome  and  nourishing  food. 




There  are  fowle  of  divers  sorts,  Eagles  wild  Turkeyes  Strange  store 
much   bigger   then    our   English   Cranes,   Herons    white  "ffi'^^^.' " 
and  russet  Hawkes,  wilde  Pidgeons  (in  Winter  beyond  q^'i'jI" 
number   or   imagination,  my  selfe  have   scene  three  or 
foure   houres    together   flockes   in    the   Aire,    so   thicke 
that    even    they    have    shadowed    the    Skie    from    us) 
Turkeyes,  Buzzards,  Partridge,  Snipes,  Owles,  Swannes, 
Geese,  Brants,  Ducke  and  Mallard,  Droeis,  Shel-drakes, 
Cormorants,  Teale,   Widgeon,   Curlewes,    Puits,    besides 
other  small  birds,  as  Black-birds,  Hedge-Sparrowes,  Oxe- 
eyes,  Wood-peckers,   and   in  Winter  about  Christmasse 
many  flockes  of  Parakertoths. 

For  fish,  the  Rivers  are  plentifully  stored,  with  Stur- 
geon,  Porpasse,   Base,   Rockfish,   Carpe,  Shad,   Herring, 
Ele,    Catfish,    Perch,     Flat-fish,     Trout,     Sheepes-head, 
Drummers,    Jarfish,     Crevises,     Crabbes,     Oysters     and 
divers  other   kindes,   of  all  which   my   selfe   hath  scene 
great   quantitie    taken,    especially    the    last    Summer   at 
Smiths  Hand,  at  one  hale  a  Frigots  lading  of  Sturgion,  A  Frigats 
Base   and   other    great    fish    in    Captaine   Argals    Saine  :  l^dingtakenat 
and  even  at  the  very  place  which  is  not  above  fifteene  °"'  '^""^  '' 
miles  from  Point   Comfort,   if  we   had  beene  furnished 
with  salt,   to    have   saved  it,   wee  might   have  taken  as 
much    fish     as    would     have     served     us     that    whole 

To  goe  yet  a  little  further,  I  my  selfe  know  no  one 
Countrey  ycelding  without  Art  or  industry  so  many 
fruits ;  Grapes,  Strawberries,  Mulberries,  Maricocks,  of 
fashion  of  a  Lemmon,  whose  blosiome  may  admit  com- 
parison with  our  most  delightsome  and  beautifuU  Flowers,  Talre  flowres. 
and  the  fruit  exceeding  pleasant  and  tastfuU :  Chesnut-  [IV.  ix. 
trees  towardes  the  Falls  as  many  as  Oakes,  and  as  fertill,  '  /^y-] 

many  goodly  Groves  of  Chincomen-trees,  with  a  huske 
like  unto  a  Chesnut,  raw  or  boiled,  luscious  and  heartie 
meat :  Walnuts  of  three  or  foure  sorts,  whereof  there 
might  bee  yeerely  made  great  quantitie  of  Oyles,  as  use- 
full  and  good  as  that  of  Olives :  Some  Filberds  have  I 
scene,  Crabs  great  store,  lesse,  but  not  so  sower  as  ours,  Crabs. 

XIX  97  G 


Sir  Tho.  Daks 
going  to 
A.  161 1,  in 

eight  weekes. 



His  care  and 

R.  Nansa- 


Wise  severitie 

remedie  to 




which   grafted   with    the   Siens   of  English  Apple-trees, 
without  question  would  beare  very  good  fruit. 

In  May,  161 1.  Sir  Thomas  Dale,  with  a  prosperous 
passage,  not  full  eight  weekes  arrived  there,  with  him 
about  three  hundred  people,  such  as  for  the  present  speed 
and  dispatch  could  then  bee  provided,  of  worse  condition 
then  those  formerly  there,  who  I  sorrow  to  speake  it,  were 
not  so  provident,  though  once  before  bitten  with  hunger 
and  penury,  as  to  put  Corne  into  the  ground  for  their 
Winters  bread,  but  trusted  to  the  store,  then  furnished 
but  with  eight  months  provision.  His  first  care  therefore 
was  to  imploy  all  hands  about  setting  of  Corne  at  the  two 
Forts,  seated  upon  Kecoughtan,  Henry  and  Charles, 
whereby  the  season  then  not  fully  past,  though  about 
the  end  of  May,  we  had  there  an  indifferent  Crop  of 
good  Corne. 

This  businesse  taken  order  for,  and  the  care  and  trust  of 
it  committed  to  his  under  Officers ;  to  James  Towne  hee 
hastened,  where  the  most  company  were,  and  their  daily 
and  usuall  workes  bowling  in  the  streets,  these  he 
imployed  about  necessary  workes,  as  felling  of  Timber, 
repairing  their  houses  ready  to  fall  upon  their  heads, 
and  providing  Pailes,  Posts  and  Railes,  to  impaile  his 
purposed  new  Towne,  which  by  reason  of  his  ignorance 
in  those  parts,  but  newly  arrived  there,  he  had  not 
resolved  where  to  seat.  For  his  better  knowledge 
therefore  of  those  parts,  himselfe  with  an  hundreth 
men  spent  some  time  in  the  discovery,  first  of  Nan- 
samund  River,  which  in  despight  of  the  Indians,  then 
our  enemies,  hee  discovered  to  the  Head,  after  that,  our 
owne  River  to  the  Falls,  where  upon  a  high  Land, 
invironed  with  the  maine  River,  some  sixteene  or  twentie 
miles  from  the  Head  or  the  Falls,  neere  to  an  Indian 
Towne  called  Arsahattocke,  hee  resolved  to  plant  his 
new  Towne,  and  so  did,  whereof  in  his  due  place  I  shall 
make  a  briefe  relation. 

It  was  no  meane  trouble  to  him,  to  reduce  his  people 
so  timely  to  good  order,  being  of  so  ill  a  condition  as  may 



well  witnesse  his  severe  and  strict  Imprinted  booke  of 
Articles,  then  needfUU  with  all  severitie  and  extremitie 
to  bee  executed,  now  much  mitigated ;  for  more  deserved 
death  in  those  dayes,  then  doe  now  the  least  punishment, 
so  as  if  the  law  should  not  have  restrained  by  execution, 
I  see  not  how  the  utter  subversion  and  ruine  of  the 
Colony  should  have  beene  prevented,  witnesse  Webbes 
and  Prises  designe  in  the  first  yeere,  since  that  Abbots, 
and  others  more  dangerous  then  the  former,  and  even  in 
this  Summer,  Coles  and  Kitchins  Plot,  with  three  more, 
bending  their  course  towards  the  Southward,  to  a  Spanish 
plantation  reported  to  be  there,  who  had  travelled  (it 
being  now  a  time  of  peace)  some  five  daies  journey  to 
Ocanahoen,  there  cut  off  by  certaine  Indians,  hired  by  us 
to  hunt  them  home  to  receive  their  deserts. 

Thus  much  obviously  I  proceed  in  his  indevours,  untill 
Sir  Thomas  Gates  his  happy  arrivall,  which  was  onely  in 
preparing  Timber,  Pales,  Posts,  and  Railes  for  the  present 
impailing  this  new  Towne  to  secure  himselfe,  and  men 
from  the  malice  and  treacherie  of  the  Indians,  in  the 
midst  and  heart  of  whom  he  was  resolved  to  set  downe. 
But  before  he  could  make  himselfe  readie  for  that  busi- 
nesse,  Sir  Thomas  Gates  happily  arrived  about  the  second  -Arrivall  of 
of  August,   with  sixe  good   Ships,  men,   provisions  and  ^     "' .  , 

'^^^"^'  _  sixe  ships. 

The  worthies  being  met,  after  salutation  and  welcome 
given  and  received,  Sir  Thomas  Dale  acquainted  Sir 
Thomas  Gates,  both  with  such  businesses  as  he  had 
affected  since  his  arrivall,  and  also  of  his  resolution 
to  build  a  new  Towne  at  the  Fales :  which  designe  and 
purpose  of  his,  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  then  principall  Gover- 
nour  in  Virginia,  well  approving,  furnished  him  with 
three  hundred  and  fiftie  men,  such  as  himselfe  made 
choice  of,  and  in  the  beginning  of  September,  161 1. 
hee  set  from  James  Towne,  and  in  a  day  and  a  halfe 
landed  at  a  place  where  hee  purposed  to  seat  and  build, 
where  hee  had  beene  ten  daies  before  hee  had  verie 
strongly    impaled    seven    English  Acres   of    ground    for 



1 6 14. 

a  Towne,  which  in  honour  of  the  Noble  Prince  Henry 
(of  ever  happy  and  blessed  memory,  whose  Royall  heart 
was  strongly  affected  to  that  action)  hee  called  by  the 
Henrico  built  name  of  Henrico.  In  foure  moneths  space,  he  had 
by  Sir  T.  ^ade  Henrico  much  better,  and  of  more  worth  then  all 
the  worke  ever  since  the  Colony  began,  therein  done.  I 
should  bee  too  tedious  if  I  should  give  up  the  account  of 
every  daies  labour,  which  therefore  I  purposely  omit,  and 
will  onely  describe  the  Towne,  in  the  very  state  and 
perfection  which  I  left  it,  and  first  for  the  situation,  it 
stands  upon  a  necke  of  a  very  high  Land,  three  parts 
thereof  invironed  with  the  maine  River,  and  cut  out 
between  two  Rivers  with  a  strong  Pale,  which  maketh 
the  neck  of  Land  an  Hand.  There  are  in  this  Town 
three  streets  of  well  framed  houses,  a  handsome  Church  & 
the  foundation  of  a  more  stately  one  laid  of  Brick,  in 
length  an  hundred  foot,  and  fiftie  foot  wide,  besides 
Store-houses,  Watch-houses,  and  such  like:  there  are 
also,  as  ornaments  belonging  to  this  Towne,  upon  the 
Verge  of  this  River,  five  faire  Block-houses,  or  Com- 
manders, wherein  live  the  honester  sort  of  people,  as 
in  Farmes  in  England,  and  there  keepe  continuall 
centinell  for  the  Townes  securitie,  and  about  two  miles 
from  the  Towne  into  the  Main,  a  Pale  of  two  miles 
in  length  cut  over  from  River  to  River,  guarded  like- 
wise with  severall  Commanders,  with  great  quantitie  of 
Corne  ground  impaled,  sufficient  if  there  were  no  more 
in  the  Colony  secured,  to  maintaine  with  but  easie  manur- 
[IV.  ix.  ing,  and  husbandry,  more  men,  then  I  suppose  will  be 
1768.]  addressed  thither  (the  more  is  the  pittie)  these  three 

For  the  further  enlargement  yet  of  this  Towne,  on  the 
other  side  of  the  River,  by  impaling  likewise:  for  we 
make  no  other  fence,  is  secured  to  our  use,  especially  for 
our  hogges  to  feed  in,  about  twelve  English  miles  ot 
ground,  by  name,  Hope  in  Faith,  Coxen-Dale,  secured  by 
five  Forts,  called  Charity  Fort,  Mount  Malado,  a  Retreat 
or  Guest-house  for  sicke  people,  a  high  seate,  and  whol- 

RALPH   HAMOR  a.d. 


some  ayre,  Elizabeth  Fort,  and  Fort  Patience  :  and  here 
hath  Master  Whitacres  chosen  his  Parsonage,  or  Church- 
land,  some  hundred  Acres  impaled,  and  a  faire  framed 
Parsonage  house  built  thereupon,  called  Rocke  Hall. 
Of  this  Towne,  and  all  the  Forts  thereunto  belonging, 
hath  Captaine  James  Davis  the  principall  Command  and 

I  proceed  to  our  next  and  most  hopefull  habitation, 
whether  wee  respect  commoditie  or  securitie  (which  we 
principally  ayme  at)  against  forraine  designes  and  invasion, 
I  meane  the  Bermuda  Citie,  begun   about  Christmasse  Bermuda  a 
last,  which  because  it  is  the  neerest  adjoyning  to  Henrico,  "O'- 
though  the  last  undertaken,  I  hold  it  pertinent  to  handle 
in  the  next  place.     This  Towne,  or  Plantation  is  seated 
by  Land,  some  five  miles  from  Henrico,  by  water  four- 
teene,   being   the    yeere   before    the    habitation    of    the 
Appamatucks,    to    revenge    the    treacherous    injurie   of 
those   people  done   unto  us,   taken  from   them,   besides 
all  their  Corne,   the  former  before  without  the  losse  of 
any,  save  onely  some  few  of  those  Indians  (pretending 
our  hurt)  at  what  time  Sir  Thomas  Dale,  being  himselfe 
upon  that  service,  and  duely  considering   how  commo- 
dious a  habitation  and  seate  it  might  be  for  us,  tooke 
resolution   to   possesse   and    plant   it,   and   at  that   very 
instant,  gave  it  the  name  of  the  new  Bermudas,  where-  Hundreds  set 
unto  he   hath  laid  out,   and  annexed   to  bee  belonging  out  and 
to  the  Freedome,  and  Corporation  for  ever,  many  miles  '^^f''"^"^'^- 
of  Champion,  and  Wood-land,  in  severall  Hundreds,  as  dlsplanud. 
the  upper  and   nether   Hundreds,   Roch-dale  Hundred,  Long 
Wests  Sherly  Hundred,  and  Digges  his  Hundred.  discourses 

Captaine     Argalls     Northward     discoveries    towardes  fij^o^^^ ^"^^e 
Sacadehoc,   and   beyond   to   Port    Royall,   Sancta   Crux,  yir^„ia  is 
and  thereabout   may   not   bee  concealed:    In  which  his  brought  to  such 
adventures,    if    he   had   brought   home    no   commoditie  '^^  abridge- 
to  the  Colony   (which  yet  he  did  very  much,  both  of  ""/"J '^"^^ 
apparell,    victualls,     and    many    other    necessaries)    the  tTfillotv  him 
honour  which   he  hath   done  unto  our  Nation,   by  dis-  or  others  in 
planting  the  French,  there  beginning  to  seat  and  fortifie  t/""  kind. 



within  our  limits,  and  taking  of  their  Ship  &  Pinnace, 
which  he  brought  to  James  Towne,  Would  have  been 
reward  enough  for  his  paines,  and  will  ever  speake  loud 
his  honour,  and  approved  valour. 

Chap.  XI. 
A  Letter  of  Sir  Thomas  Dale,  and  another  of 
Master  Whitakers,  from  James  Towne  in 
Virginia,  June  18.  16 14.  And  a  piece  of 
a  Tractate,  written  by  the  said  Master 
Whitakers  from  Virginia  the  yeere  before. 

To  the  R.  and  my  most  esteemed  friend,  M.  D.  M. 
at  his  house  at  F.  Ch.  in   London. 

Ight  Reverend  Sir,  by  Sir  Thomas  Gates  I 
wrote  unto  you,  of  such  occasions  as  then 
presented  themselves,  and  now  againe  by 
this  worthy  Gentleman  Captaine  Argall  I 
salute   you:    for    such    is    the   reverend 
regard  I  have  of  you,  as  I  cannot  omit 
any    occasion    to     expresse     the    sincere 
affection    I    beare    you.      You    have    ever    given    mee 
encouragements  to  persevere  in  this  Religious  Warfare, 
untill   your   last   Letters ;    not   for   that    you    are    now 
lesse  well  affected  thereunto:    but  because  you  see  the 
Action  to  be   in  danger  of  their  non-performances  who 
undertooke  the  businesse.     I  have  undertaken,  and  have 
as  faithfully,  and  with  all  my  might  indeavoured  the  pro- 
secution with  all  alacritie,  as  God  that  knoweth  the  heart 
can  beare  me  record,  what  recompence,  or  what  rewards, 
by  whom,   or  when  I  know  not  where   to  expect ;  but 
from  him  in  whose  Vineward  I  labour,   whose  Church 
with  greedy  appetite    I  desire    to    erect.      My  glorious 
Prince  Henry.  Master  is   gone,    that   would   have  ennamelled  with  his 
favours   the   labors   I   undertake,   for    Gods    cause,   and 
his   immortall   honour.      Hee   was   the    Great   Captaine 
of  our  Israel,  the  hope  to  have  builded  up  this  heavenly 


new  Jerusalem,  he  interred  (I  thinke)  the  whole  frame  of 
this  businesse,  fell  into  his  grave  :  for  most  mens  forward 
(at  least  seeming  so)  desires  are  quenched,  and  Virginia 
stands  in  desperate  hazard.  You  there  doe  your  duties, 
I  will  no  way  omit  mine,  the  time  I  promised  to  labour, 
is  expired :  it  is  not  a  yoke  of  Oxen  hath  drawne  mee 
from  this  feast :  it  is  not  the  marriage  of  a  wife  makes  me 
hast  home,  though  that  sallat  give  mee  an  appetite  to 
cause  me  returne.  But  I  have  more  care  of  the  Stock, 
then  to  set  upon  a  Dye,  and  rather  put  my  selfe  to  the 
curtesie  of  noble  and  worthy  censures,  then  ruine  this 
Worke;  and  have  a  Jury  (nay  a  million)  of  foule 
mouthed  detracters,  scan  upon  my  endeavours,  the  ends 
whereof  they  cannot  dive  into.  You  shall  briefly  under- 
stand what  hath  betide  since  my  last,  and  how  we  now 
stand,  and  are  likely  to  grow  to  perfection,  if  wee  be  not  [IV.  ix. 
altogether  neglected,  my  stay  grounded  upon  such  reason,  '769-] 

as  had  I  now  returned,  it  would  have  hazarded  the  ruine 
of  all. 

Sir    Thomas    Gates    having    imbarked    himselfe    for  Sir  T.  Daks 
England,  I  put  my  selfe  into  Captaine  Argalls  ship,  with  jo^niy  to 
a  hundred  and  fiftie  men  in  my  frigot,  and  other  boats     °"'  f.''"ip,- 
went  unto  Pamaunkie  River,  where  Powhatan   hath   his  is  more  at /urge 
residence,    and    can    in    two    or    three    dayes,    draw    a  delhered,with 
thousand  men  together;  with  me  I  carried  his  daughter,  the  particular 
who  had  beene  long   prisoner  with  us,  it  was  a  day  or  "rcumstances 
two  before  wee  heard  of  them  :  At  length  they  demanded  i^evitie  have 
why  wee  came ;    I    gave    for    answere,  that    I    came    to  omitted)  by 
bring  him  his  daughter,  conditionally  he  would  (as  hath  ^-  Hamor. 
beene    agreed    upon    for    her    ransome)    render    all   the 
Armes,  Tooles,  Swords,  and    men    that    had   run  away, 
and    to   give    me   a  ship    full  of  Corne,  for  the  wrong 
hee    had    done    unto    us :    if  they  would  doe  this,  wee 
would   be   friends,  if  not   burne   all.     They   demanded 
time  to  send  to  their  King;    I  assented,  I  taking,  they 
receiving   two    pledges,  to   carry  my   message    to    Pow- 
hatan.    All   night  my   two  men  lay  not  farre  from  the 
■water   side,  about  noone  the  next   day  they  told   them 




the  great  King  was  three  dales  journey  ofF,  that 
Opochankano  was  hard  by,  to  whom  they  would  have 
had  them  deliver  their  message,  saying,  That  what  hee 
agreed  upon  and  did,  the  great  King  would  confirme. 
This  Opocankano  is  brother  to  Powhatan,  and  is  his 
and  their  chiefe  Captaine :  and  one  that  can  as  soone 
(if  not  sooner)  as  Powhatan  command  the  men.  But 
my  men  refused  to  doe  my  message  unto  any  save 
Powhatan,  so  they  were  brought  backe,  and  I  sent 
theirs  to  them ;  they  told  me  that  they  would  fetch 
Simons  to  me,  who  had  thrice  plaid  the  runnagate, 
whose  lyes  and  villany  much  hindred  our  trade  for 
Corne :  But  they  delayed  us,  so  as  we  went  ashore  they 
shot  at  us,  we  were  not  behinde  hand  with  them,  killed 
some,  hurt  others,  marched  into  the  Land,  burnt  their 
houses,  tooke  their  Corne,  and  quartered  all  night 

The  next  day  we   went    further   up    the    River,  they 
dogged  us  and   called   to  know  whither  we  went ;    wee 
answered,   To   burne  all,  if  they  would   not  doe  as  we 
demanded,   and    had   beene  agreed    upon.     They  would 
they    said,    bring   all   the    next    day    so    we   forbare   all 
hostilitie,    went    ashoare,    their    men    in    good    numbers 
comming  amongst  us,   but  we  were  very  cautious,  and 
Pocahuntas       Stood  to  our  Armes.     The  Kings  daughter  went  ashoare, 
behaviour  and  but  would  not  talke  to  any  of  them,  scarce  to  them  of 
report.  ^^   best    sort,    and   to    them    onely,   that   if  her   father 

had  loved  her,  he  would  not  value  her  lesse  then  old 
Swords,  Peeces,  or  Axes :  wherefore  shee  should  still 
dwell  with  the  English  men,  who  loved  her.  At  last 
came  one  from  Powhatan,  who  told  us,  that  Simons 
was  run  away,  to  Nonsowhaicond,  which  was  a  truth, 
as  afterwards  appeared,  but  that  the  other  English  man 
was  dead,  that  proved  a  lie  (for  since  M.  Hamor,  whom 
I  employed  to  Powhatan  brought  him  to  mee)  our 
Peeces,  Swords,  and  Tooles  within  fifteene  dayes,  should 
be  sent  to  James  Towne,  with  some  Corne,  and  that 
his  daughter  should  be  my  child,  and  ever  dwell  with 




mee,  desiring  to  be   ever   friends,  and   named  such  of 

his  people,  and  neighbour   Kings,  as  hee  desired  to  be 

included,  and  have  the  benefit  of  the  peace,  promising 

if  any  of  our  men    came    to    him,  without  leave   from 

mee,   he  would   send  them   backe :    and   that  if  any  of 

his  men  stale  from   us,  or  killed  our  cattell,  hee  would 

send  them   to   us   to   bee  punished  as  wee   thought  fit. 

With    these    conditions   wee   returned,    and    within    the 

time  limitted,  part  of  our  Armes  were  sent,  and  twentie 

men  with   Corne,   and   promised   more,  which    he   hath 

also    sent.      Opachankano    desired    I    would    call    him  Opachankano 

friend,  and  that  he  might  call  me  so,  saying,  Hee  was  rtow their hng, 

a  great  Captaine,  and  did  alwayes  fight :   that  I  was  also  ,,  ^"l  '^°{ 
D  „    f     .      '        ,      ,         rill  11         *"'  massacre. 

a  great  Laptame,  and  thererore  he  loved  mee ;  and  that 

my  friends  should  bee  his  friends.     So  the  bargaine  was 

made,  and  every  eight  or  ten   dayes,   I   have  messages 

and  presents  from  him,  with  many  appearances  that  he 

much  desireth  to  continue  friendship. 

Now  may  you  judge  Sir,  if  the  God  of  Battailes  had 

not   a    helping    hand    in    this,  that  having    our    Swords 

drawne,   killing   their    men,  burning    their    houses,    and 

taking   their   corne :    yet    they    tendred    us   peace,    and 

strive    with   all   alacritie   to   keepe    us   in   good  opinion 

of  them  ;  by  which  many  benefits  arise  unto  us.     First, 

part  of  our  Armes,   disgracefully  lost  long   agoe   (kept 

by   the   Savages   as    Monuments   and   Trophies   of  our 

shames)  redelivered,  some  repaire  to  our  Honor.     Our 

catell    to    increase,   without   danger    of  destroying,    our 

men  at  libertie  to  hunt  freely  for  Venison,  to   fish,  to 

doe  any  thing  else,  or  goe  any  whither  without  danger ; 

to  follow  the  husbanding  of  our  corne  securely,  whereof 

wee  have  above   five   hundred  Acres  set,   and   God   be 

praised,  in  more  forwardnesse  then  any  of  the  Indians, 

that   I  have  seene   or   heard  of  this  yeeres.  Roots  and 

Hearbs  we   have   abundance ;    all    doubt  of  want  is  by 

Gods  blessing  quite  vanished,  and  much  plentie  expected. 

And  which  is  not  the  least  materiall,  wee  may  by  this 

peace   come    to   discover  the   Countrey  better,   both    by 




our   owne  travells,  and  by  the  relation  of  the  Savages, 

as  we  grow  in  familiaritie  with  them. 

Pocahuntas  Powhatans  daughter  I  caused  to  be  carefully  instructed 

Matoallff  ^"    Christian   Religion,   who   after   she_  had   made    some 

have  heard  she  good  progresse  therein,  renounced  publikely  her  Countrey 

was  properly     Idolatry,  openly  confessed   her  Christian   Faith,  was,  as 

named)  at  first  ghge  desired,  baptized,  and  is  since  married  to  an  English 

calledRebecca.  Gentleman  of  good  understanding  (as  by  his  Letter  unto 

me,  containing  the  reasons  of  his   marriage  of  her  you 

may    perceive)    another    knot   to    binde   this    peace   the 

stronger.     Her  Father  and  friends  gave  approbation  to 

it,  and  her  Uncle  gave  her  to  him  in  the  Church :  shee 

lives   civilly   and   lovingly   with    him,   and   I    trust   will 

increase  in  goodnesse,  as  the  knowledge  of  God  increaseth 

in  her.     Shee  will  goe  into  England  with  mee,  and  were 

it  but  the  gaining  of  this  one  soule,  I  will  thinke  my 

time,  toile,  and  present  stay  well  spent. 

Since  this  accident,  the  Governours  and  people  of 
Checkahomanies,  who  are  five  hundred  Bow-men,  and 
better,  a  stout  and  warlike  Nation,  have  made  meanes 
to  have  us  come  unto  them,  and  conclude  a  peace,  where 
all  the  Governours  would  meet  me.  They  having  thus 
three  or  foure  times  importuned  me,  I  resolved  to  goe; 
so  having  Captaine  Argall,  with  fiftie  men  in  my  Frigot 
[IV.  ix.  and   Barge  I   went  thither :    Captaine  Argall  with  forty 

1770-]  men  landed,  I  kept  aboord  for  some  reasons.  Upon 
the  meeting  they  told  Captaine  Argall  they  had  longed 
to  be  friends,  that  they  had  no  King,  but  eight  great 
men,  who  governed  them.  He  told  them  that  we  came 
to  be  friends,  asked  them  if  they  would  have  King 
James  to  be  their  King,  and  whether  they  would  be 
his  men  ?  They  after  some  conference  betweene  them- 
selves, seemed  willing  of  both,  demanding  if  we  would 
fight  against  their  enemies;  he  told  them  that  if  any 
did  them  injury,  they  should  send  me  word,  and  I  would 
agree  them,  or  if  their  adversaries  would  not,  then  I 
would  let  them  have  as  many  men  as  they  would  to 
helpe  them :  they  liked  weU  of  that,  and  told  him  that 




all  their  men   should  helpe   us.     All  this   being  agreed 

upon,  Captaine  Argall  gave  every  Counsellour  a  Tama- 

hawk,  and  a  peece  of  Copper,  which  was  kindely  taken : 

they  requested  further,  that  if  their  Boates  should  happen 

to  meete  with  our  Boates,  and  that  they  said  they  were 

the  Chikahominy  Englishmen,  and  King  James  his  men.  They  called 

wee  would  let  them   passe :   we  agreed  unto  it,  so  that  '-^^  English 

they  pronounced  themselves  Englishmen,  and  King  James     ""/"^'^^'h 

his  men,  promising  within  fifteene  dayes  to  come  unto  themselves  be 

James  Towne  to  see  me,  and  conclude  these  conditions ;  called.    The 

every  Bowman  being  to  give  me  as  a  Tribute  to  King  particulars 

Tames   two   measures   of  Corne  every   harvest,  the  two        "rtic  es  of 
•'  .    .  111  J         1    !/•  J    T  agreement  are 

measures  contammg  two   bushels  and  a  halre,  and  1  to  i„M.Hamors 

give  every  Bowman  a  small  Tamahawke,  and  to  every  Booke;  here 

Counseller  a  suit  of  red  cloath,  which  did  much  please  omitted. 

them.    This  people  never  acknowledged  any  King  before, 

no  nor  ever  would  acknowledge  Powhatan  for  their  King ; 

a  stout  people  they  be,  and  a  delicate  seate  they  have. 

Now  Sir  you  see  our  conditions,  you,  and  all  worthy 

men  may  judge,   whether  it  would   not  be  a  griefe   to 

see  these  faire  hopes  frostbitten,  and  these  fi-esh  budding 

plants  to  wither }  which   had  I  returned,  had  assuredly 

followed :  for  here  is  no  one  that  the  people  would  have 

governe  them,  but  my  selfe :  for  I  had  now  come  away,  5;^.  7-.  D^ks 

had  I   not  found  a  generall  desire  in  the  best  sort  to  report  of 

returne  for  England :   Letter  upon  Letter,  request  upon  Vir^nia.    In 

request  from  their  friends  to  returne,  so  as  I  knew  not  '"'"»"'^"^'' 

~  ,  f  ,  I     ,  .      .       .  .      to  the  Com- 

upon  whom   to  conrerre  the  care   or    this   busmesse   m  „,i(tees  he 

my  absence :  whom  I  thought  fit  was  generally  distasted,  writeth  that 

so  as  seeing  the  eminent  ensuing  danger,  should  I  have  M^'  "/'^^ 

left  this  multitude,  not  yet  fully  refined,  I  am  resolved  test  Kingdoms 

.,,     ,  '      ,       ^         •      -^      J      1  1         1  ■  of  Christen- 

to   Stay    till    harvest   be  got  in,  and    then    settle    things  ^lome  put  all 

according   to   my  poore  understanding,  and   returne :    if  together,  may 

in    the    interim    there    come    no    authorised    Governour  »"  «"^y  '^'""- 

from  England.  TultfVthir 

Consider  I  pray  you,  since  things  be  brought  to  this  ^,.  commo- 
passe,  as  you   see,  and  that  I  should  have  come  away,  dities,  or good- 
if  then    through    their    factions,    humors,    mutinies,    or  "i"^  ofsoile. 




indiscretion  of  the  Chiefes  I  had  left  behinde,  this  should 
fall  to  ruine :  I  then  should  receive  the  imputation,  and 
incurre  the  blame,  for  quitting  the  Plantation,  although 
I  might  doe  it,  both  with  my  honour,  my  promised 
stay  of  time  being  expired,  and  having  warrant  from 
my  Soveraigne,  the  Kings  Majesty:  but  the  precedent 
reasons  moved  mee  and  that  this  action  of  such  price, 
such  excellency  and  assured  profit  to  mine  owne  know- 
ledge should  not  dye  to  the  scorne  of  our  Nation,  and 
to  give  cause  of  laughter  to  the  Papists,  that  desire  our 
ruine.  I  can  assure  you,  no  Country  of  the  world  affords 
more  assured  hopes  of  infinite  riches,  which  both  by 
mine  owne  peoples  discovery,  and  the  relation  of  such 
Savages,  whose  fidelity  we  have  often  found,  assureth 
me.  Oh  why  should  so  many  Princes  and  Noblemen 
ingage  themselves,  and  thereby  intermedling  herein,  have 
caused  a  number  of  soules  transport  themselves,  and  be 
transported  hither  ?  Why  should  they  (I  say)  relinquish 
this  so  glorious  an  Action :  for  if  their  ends  be  to  build 
God  a  Church,  they  ought  to  persevere :  if  otherwise, 
yet  their  honour  ingageth  them  to  be  constant.  How- 
soever they  stand  affected,  here  is  enough  to  content 
them,  let  their  ends  be  either  for  God,  or  Mammon. 

These  things  having  animated  me  to  stay  for  a  little 
season,  to  leave  those  I  am  tied  in  conscience  to  returne 
unto,  to  leave  the  assured  benefits  of  my  other  fortunes, 
the  sweete  society  of  my  friends  and  acquaintance,  with 
all  mundall  delights,  and  reside  here  with  much  turmoile, 
which  I  will  constantly  doe,  rather  then  see  Gods  glory 
diminished,  my  King  and  Countrey  dishonored,  and 
these  poore  people,  I  have  the  charge  of,  ruined.  And 
so  I  beseech  you  to  answer  for  me,  if  you  heare  me 
taxed  for  my  staying,  as  some  may  justly  doe,  and 
that  these  are  my  chiefe  motives  God  I  take  to  witnesse. 
Remember  me,  and  the  cause  I  have  in  hand,  in  your 
daily  meditations,  and  reckon  me  in  the  number  of 
those  that  doe  sincerely  love  you  and  yours,  and  will 
ever  rest  in  all  offices  of  a  friend,  to  doe  you  service. 




To  my  very  deere  and  loving  Cosen  M.  G.      Master 

Minister  of  the  B.  F.  in  London.  ivhUahrwas 

Sir,    the    Colony    here   is    much    better.     Sir  Thomas  'on  to  that 
Dale,    our    Religious    and    valiant    Governour,    hath  ^^ig^i'lu 
now  brought  that  to  passe,  which  never  before  could  be  Dw'me  Doctor 
effected.     For  by  warre  upon   our   enemies,  and    kinde  Whitaker 
usage    of   our    friends,  he  hath  brought  them   to   seeice  Master  of  S. 
for   peace    of   us,  which    is    made,    and    they   dare    not  q"^i^i^„ 
breake.     But    that    which    is    best,    one    Pocahuntas    or  wi^^f 
Matoa    the    daughter   of  Powhatan,    is    married    to    an  shadowes  of 
honest  and  discreete    English    Gentleman  Master  Rolfe,  '"'"  "J'^  '''f 
and  that  after  she  had   openly  renounced  her  Country  J'^'^^jz/L 
Idolatry,  professed   the   faith  of  Jesus    Christ,   and  was  ^g/t  deserving 
baptised  ;  which  thing  Sir  Thomas  Dale  had  laboured  a  should  neede 
long  time  to  ground  in  her.  apolo^es 

Yet  notwithstanding,  are  the  vertuous  deedes   of  this  *"""^  \   „ 
worthy    Knight,    much    debased,    by   the   Letters   which  j^/j^y  ^i^i^j^ 
some  wicked  men  have  written  from  hence,  and  especially  for  doingsuffer 
by  one  C.  L.     If  you   heare  any  condemne  this   noble  ^^h  cry  whore 
Knight,  or  doe  feare  to  come  hither,  for  those  slanderous  ■^"''    .     ^ 
Letters,  you  may  upon  my  word  boldly  reprove  ^^"^^  justice  seek  to 
You   know    that   no   malefactors   can  abide  the  face  of  he  just. 
the  Judge,  but  themselves  scorning  to  be  reproved,  doe  [IV.  ix. 
prosecute   with    all    hatred,  all    those    that   labour   their  '77'-] 

amendment.  I  marvaile  much  that  any  men  of  honest 
life,  should  feare  the  Sword  of  the  Magistrate,  which  is 
unsheathed  onely  in  their  defence. 

But  I  much  more  muse,  that  so  few  of  our  English 
Ministers  that  were  so  hot  against  the  Surplis  and  sub- 
scription :  come  hither  where  neither  spoken  of.  Doe 
they  not  either  wilfully  hide  their  Tallents,  or  keepe 
themselves  at  home  for  feare  of  loosing  a  few  pleasures  ? 
Be  there  not  any  amongst  them  of  Moses  his  minde, 
and  of  the  Aposties,  that  forsooke  all  to  follow  Christ .'' 
But  I  referre  them  to  the  Judge  of  all  hearts,  and  to 
the  King  that  shall  reward  every  one  according  to  the 
gaine  of  his  Talent.     But  you  my  cosen,  hold  fast  that 




which  you  have,  and  I,  though  my  promise  of  thre 
yeeres  service  to  my  Countrey  be  expired,  will  abide 
in  my  vocation  here  untill  I  be  lawfully  called  from 
hence.  And  so  betaking  us  all  unto  the  mercies  of  God 
in  Christ  Jesus,  I  rest  for  ever. 

Part  of  a  Tractate  written  at  Henrico  in  Virginia, 
by  Master  Alex,  Whitaker,  Minister  to  the 
Colony  there,  which  then  governed  by  Sir 
T.  Dale,   161 3. 

THey  acknowledge  that  there   is  a  great  good  God, 
but  know  him  not,  having  the  eyes  of  their  under- 
standing   as    yet    blinded:     wherefore    they    serve    the 
Divell  for   feare,   after  a  most    base   manner,   sacrificing 
sometimes   (as  I   have   here   heard)  their  owne   Children 
to   him.     I   have   sent   one   Image  of  their   god   to  the 
Counsell  in   England,   which    is  painted   upon  one    side 
of  a  toad-stoole,  much  like  unto  a  deformed   monster. 
Their  Priests        Their  Priests  (whom  they  call  Quiokosoughs)  are  no 
and  manner  of  ot]\Qx:  but  such  as  our  English  Witches  are.     They  live 
hmng.  naked  in  body,  as  if  their  shame  of  their  sinne  deserved 

no  covering :  Their  names  are  as  naked  as  their  body : 
they  esteeme  it  a  vertue  to  lye,  deceive,  and  steale,  as 
their  Master  the  Divell  teacheth  them.  Much  more 
might  be  said  of  their  miserable  condition,  but  I 
referre  the  particular  narration  of  these  things  to  some 
other  season. 

These  men  are  not  so  simple  as  some  have  supposed 
them :  for  they  are  of  body  lusty,  strong,  and  very 
nimble :  they  are  a  very  understanding  generation,  quicke 
of  apprehension,  suddaine  in  their  dispatches,  subtile  in 
their  dealings,  exquisite  in  their  inventions,  and  indus- 
trious in  their  labour.  I  suppose  the  world  hath  no 
better  marke-men  with  their  Bowes  and  Arrowes  then 
they  be;  they  will  kill  Birds  flying.  Fishes  swimming, 
and  Beasts  running :  they  shoote  also  with  mervailous 
strength,  they   shot   one    of  our    men    being   unharmed 



quite  through   the  body,  and  nailed  both  his  armes  to 

his  body  with  one  Arrow :  one  of  their  Children  also, 

about  the  age  of  twelve  or  thirteene  yeeres,  killed  a  Bird 

with  his  Arrow  in  my  sight.     The  service  of  their  God 

is  answerable  to  their  life,  being  performed  with  a  great 

feare   and  attention,   and    many   strange   dumbe   shewes 

used   in    the   same,    stretching   forth    their    limbes,    and 

straining  their  body,  much  like  to  the  counterfeit  women 

in  England,  who  faine  themselves  bewitched,  or  possessed 

of  some  evill  spirit. 

They   stand   in    great    awe   of  the   Quiokosoughs  or 

Priests,  which  are  a  generation  of  Vipers,  even  of  Sathans 

owne  brood.     The  manner  of  their  life  is  much  like  to 

the  Popish  Hermits  of  our  age ;  for  they  live  alone  in  the 

woods,  in   houses   sequestred  from  the  common  course 

of  men,  neither  may  any  man  be  suffered  to  come  into 

their  house  or  to  speake  with  them,  but  when  this  Priest 

doth  call  him.     He  taketh  no  care  for  his  victuals,  for 

all  such  kinde  of   things  both   Bread  and    Water,   &c. 

are  brought  unto  a  place    neere    unto    his  cottage,  and 

there  are  left,  which  hee  fetcheth  for  his  proper  neede. 

If  they  would  have  raine,  or  have  lost  any  thing,  they 

have  their   recourse    to    him,   who   conjureth    for   them, 

and   many   times   prevaileth.      If  they   be    sicke,    he    is 

their  Physician ;  if  they  be  wounded,  he  sucketh  them. 

At  his  command    they   make   warre  and   peace,   neither 

doe   they   any  thing   of  moment   without  him.     I   will 

not   be   tedious    in    these    strange    Narrations,    when    I 

have   more    perfectly    entered    into    their    secrets,   you 

shall  know   all.     Finally,   there    is   a   civill   government 

amongst    them   which    they    strictly    observe,    and   shew 

thereby  that  the  law  of  Nature  dwelleth   in  them  :   for  y-gt  Naman- 

they  have  a  rude  kinde  of  Common-wealth,  and  rough  tack  in  his 

government   wherein    they   both    honour  and  obey  their  retm-ne  was 

Kings,  Parents,  and  Governours,  both  greater  and  lesse,  ''t^^^^ '"  Ber- 

they    observe    the    limits    of    their    owne    possessions,  another 

Murther  is  scarsly  heard  of:  Adultery  and  other  offences  Savage  his 

severely  punished.  felhw. 



The  whole  Continent  of  Virginia  situate  within  the 
degrees  of  34.  and  47.  is  a  place  beautified  by  God, 
with  all  the  ornaments  of  nature,  and  enriched  with  his 
earthly  treasures:  that  part  of  it,  which  we  already 
possesse,  beginning  at  the  Bay  of  Chaesapheac,  and 
stretching  it  selfe  in  Northerly  latitude  to  the  degrees 
of  39,  and  40.  is  interlined  with  seven  most  goodly 
Jsi^.ori6.  Rivers,  the  least  whereof  is  equall  to  our  River  of 
mi/es.  Thames:    and  all   these   Rivers   are    so    neerely  joyned, 

as  that  there  is  not  very  much  distance  of  dry  ground 
betweene  either  of  them,  and  those  severall  maine  lands 
are  every  where  watered  with  many  veines  or  creekes  of 
water,  which  sundry  waies  doe  overthwart  the  land,  and 
make  it  almost  navigable  from  one  River  to  the  other. 
[IV.  ix.  Xhe  commodity  whereof  to  those  that  shall  inhabite  this 

'^^^■'  land  is  infinite,  in  respect  of  the  speedy  and  easie  trans- 
portance  of  goods  from  one  River  to  the  other,  I 
cannot  better  manifest  it  unto  you,  but  in  advising  you 
to  consider  whether  the  water  or  land  hath  beene  more 
beneficiall  to  the  Low-Countries.  To  the  River  which 
we  inhabit  (commonly  called  Powhatans  River)  ebbeth 
and  floweth  one  hundred  and  forty  miles  into  the 
maine ;  at  the  mouth  whereof  are  the  two  Forts  of 
Henrico  and  Charles:  two  and  forty  miles  upward  is 
the  first  and  Mother-Christian  Towne  seated,  called 
James-Towne ;  and  seventy  miles  beyond  that  upward, 
is  the  new  Towne  of  Henrico  built,  and  so  named  in 
the  memory  of  Noble  Prince  Henry  of  lasting  and 
blessed  memory :  tenne  miles  beyond  this  is  a  place 
called  the  Fals,  because  the  River  hath  there  a  great 
descent  falling  downe  between  many  minerall  Rockes 
which  be  there :  twelve  miles  farther  beyond  this  place 
Christall  is  there  a  Christall  Rocke  wherewith  the  Indians  doe 
Rock.  head  many  of  their  Arrowes :  three  dayes  journey  from 

thence  is  there  a  Rock  or  stony  hill  found,  which  is 
in  the  top  covered  all  over  with  a  perfect  and  most  rich 
Silver  oare.  Our  men  that  went  to  discover  those  parts 
had  but  two  Iron  Pickaxes  with  them,  and  those  so  ill 


tempered,  that  the  points  of  them  turned  againe,  and 
bowed  at  every  stroake,  so  that  we  could  not  search 
the  entrailes  of  the  place,  yet  some  triall  was  made  of 
that  oare  with  good  successe,  and  argument  of  much 
hope.  Six  dayes  journey  beyond  this  Mine  a  great 
ridge  of  high  hils  doe  runne  along  the  maine  land,  not 
farre  from  whom  the  Indians  report  a  great  Sea  doth 
runne,  which  we  commonly  call  a  South  Sea,  but  in 
respect  of  our  habitation  is  a  West  Sea,  for  there  the 
Sun  setteth  from  us.  The  higher  ground  is  much  like 
unto  the  molde  of  France,  clay  and  sand  being  pro- 
portionably  mixed  together  at  the  top ;  but  if  we  digge 
any  depth  (as  we  have  done  for  our  Bricks)  we  finde 
it  to  be  red  clay,  full  of  glistering  spangles.  There  be 
many  rockie  places  in  all  quarters;  &  more  then  pro- 
bable likelihoods  of  rich  Mines  of  all  sorts :  though  I 
knew  all,  yet  it  were  not  convenient  at  this  time  that  I 
should  utter  all,  neither  have  wee  had  meanes  to  search 
for  any  thing  as  we  ought,  thorough  present  want  of 
men,  and  former  wants  of  provision  for  the  belly.  As 
for  Iron,  Steele,  Antimonium,  and  Terrasigillata,  they 
have  rather  offered  themselves  to  our  eyes  and  hands, 
then  bin  sought  for  of  us.  The  Ayre  of  the  Countrey  y^yre  and 
(especially  about  Henrico  and  upward)  is  very  temperate  Seasons. 
and  agreeth  well  with  our  bodies.  The  extremity  of 
Summer  is  not  so  hot  as  Spaine,  nor  the  cold  of  Winter 
so  sharpe  as  the  frosts  of  England.  The  Spring  and 
Harvest  are  the  two  longest  seasons  and  most  pleasant, 
the  Summer  and  Winter  are  both  but  short.  The  Winter 
is  for  the  most  part  dry  and  faire,  but  the  Summer 
watered  often  with  many  great  and  sodaine  showers  of 
raine;  whereby  the  cold  of  Winter  is  warmed,  and  the 
heate  of  Summer  cooled.  Many  have  died  with  us 
heretofore  thorough  their  owne  filthinesse  and  want  of 
bodily  comforts  for  sicke  men;  but  now  very  few  are 
sicke  among  us:  not  above  three  persons  amongst  all 
the  inhabitants  of  Henrico;  I  would  to  God  our  soules 
were  no  sicker  then  our  bodies. 

XIX  113  H 



The  naturall  people  of  the  Land  are  generally  such 
as  you  heard  of  before.     A  people  to  be  feared  of  those 
that   come   upon   them   without    defensive   Armor,    but 
otherwise  faint-hearted  (if  they  see    their  Arrowes  can- 
not pierce)  and  easie  to  be  subdued.     Shirts  of  Male, 
or   quilted    cotten   coates   are   the   best   defence   against 
them.     There  is  but  one  or  two  of  their  petty  Kings, 
that  for   feare  of  us  have   desired   our  friendship;   and 
those  keepe  good  quarter  with   us,  being  very  pleasant 
amongst  us,  and    (if  occasion    be)    serviceable   unto   us. 
Our  eldest  friends  be  Pipisco  and  Choapoke,  who  are  our 
overthwart  neighbours  at  James-Towne,  and  have  beene 
Note  mil.       friendly  to    us   in    our   great   want.     The    other   is  the 
Werowance  of  Chescheak,  who   but   lately  traded   with 
us   peaceably.     If  we   were  once   the   masters   of  their 
Feare  is  the     Country,  and   they   stood  in  feare  of  us   (which   might 
^iifn"*^°'^    with   few    hands    imployed    about    nothing    else,   be   in 
cimlity.  short  time  brought  to  passe)  it  were  an  easie  matter  to 

make  them  willingly  to  forsake  the  Divell,  to  embrace 
the  faith  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  to  be  baptized.  Besides, 
you  cannot  easily  judge  how  much  they  would  be 
What  use  may  availeable  to  us  in  our  Discoveries  of  the  Countrey,  in 
be  made  of  the  q^.  Buildings  and  Plantings,  and  quiet  provision  for 
our  selves,  when  we  may  peaceably  passe  from  place 
to  place  without  neede  of  Armes  or  Guard. 

The  meanes  for  our  people  to  live  and  subsist  here 
of  themselves  are  many  and  most  certaine  both  for  Beasts, 
Birds,  and  Hearbes.  The  Beasts  of  the  Countrey  are 
for  the  most  part  wilde :  as  Lyons,  Beares,  Wolves  and 
Deere :  Foxes  blacke  and  red,  Rakowns,  Bevers,  Pos- 
sowns,  Squerrels,  Wilde-Cats,  whose  skins  are  of  great 
price,  and  Muske-Rats  which  yeelde  Muske  as  the 
Muske-Cats  doe.  There  be  two  kindes  of  Beasts 
amongst  these  most  strange ;  one  of  them  is  the  female 
Possotun  a  Possowne,  which  will  let  forth  her  yong  out  of  her 
strange  beast,  belly,  and  take  them  up  into  her  belly  againe  at  her 
pleasure  without  hurt  to  her  selfe;  neither  thinke  this 
to  be  a  Travellers  tale,  but  the  very  truth ;  for  nature 




hath  framed  her  fit  for  that  service,  my  eyes  have  beene 
witnesse  unto  it,  and  we  have  sent  of  them  and  their 
yong  ones  into  England.     The  other  strange  conditioned 
creature  is  the  flying  Squirrell,  which  thorough  the  helpe  Flying 
of  certaine  broad  flaps  of  skin  growing  on  each  side  of  Squtrre/s. 
her  forelegs,  will  flye  from  tree  to  tree  twenty  or  thirty 
paces  at  one  flight  and  more,  if  she  have  the  benefit  of 
a  small  breath  of  winde.     Besides  these,  since  our  com- 
ming  hither,  we  have  brought  both  Kine,  Goates,   and 
Hogges,  which  prosper  well,  and  would  multiply  exceed- 
ingly, if  they  might  be   provided   for.     This  Countrey 
besides  is  replenished  with  Birds  of  all  sorts,  which  have 
bin  the  best  sustenance  of  flesh,  which  our  men  have 
had  since  they  came ;  also  Eagels  and  Haulces  of  all  sorts,  [IV.  ix. 
amongst  whom   are  Auspreys,   fishing  Hauke,  and  the  '773] 

Cormorant.  The  woods  be  every  where  full  of  wilde 
Turkies,  which  abound,  and  will  runne  as  swift  as  a 
Greyhound.  In  winter  our  fields  be  full  of  Cranes,  Fotale. 
Herons,  Pigeons,  Partridges  and  Blackbirds:  the  Rivers 
and  creekes  be  over-spread  every  where  with  water  foule 
of  the  greatest  and  least  sort,  as  Swans,  flockes  of  Geese 
and  Brants,  Ducke  and  Mallard,  Sheldrakes,  Dyvers,  &c. 
besides  many  other  kindes  of  rare  and  delectable  Birds, 
whose  names  and  natures  I  cannot  yet  recite,  but  we 
want  the  meanes  to  take  them.  The  Rivers  abound  with 
Fish  both  small  and  great;  the  Sea-fish  come  into  our  Fisi. 
Rivers  in  March,  &  continue  untill  the  end  of  September: 
great  sculls  of  Herings  come  in  first :  Shads  of  a  great 
bignesse,  and  Rock-fish  follow  them.  Trouts,  Base, 
Flounders,  and  other  dainty  fish  come  in  before  the  other 
be  gone :  then  come  multitudes  of  great  Sturgeons, 
whereof  we  catch  many,  and  should  do  more,  but  that 
we  want  good  Nets  answerable  to  the  breadth  and  deapth 
of  our  Rivers  :  besides,  our  channels  are  so  foule  in  the 
bottome  with  great  logges  and  trees,  that  we  often  breake 
our  Nets  upon  them  :  I  cannot  reckon  nor  give  proper  Neis. 
names  to  the  divers  kindes  of  fresh  fish  in  our  Rivers  ;  I 
have  caught  with  mine  Angle,  Pike,  Karpe,  Eele,  Perches 




of  six  severall  kindes,  Crea-fish,  and  the  Torope  or  little 
Turtle,  besides  many  smaller  kindes,  &c. 

Chap.   XII. 

Of  the  Lottery  :  Sir  Thomas  Dales  returne  :  the 
Spaniards  in  Virginia.  Of  Pocahantas  and 
Tomocomo  :  Captain e  Yerdley  and  Captaine 
ArgoU  (both  since  Knighted)  their  Govern- 
ment ;  the  Lord  La-Warrs  death,  and  other 
occurrents  till  Anno   161 9. 

Itherto  you  have  heard  the  Authors  them- 
selves speak  of  their  owne  affaires.  Now 
we  must  for  continuation  and  consumma- 
tion of  our  Story,  borrow  a  few  Collections 
from  others,  where  the  Authors  themselves 
have  not  comne  to  our  hands.  Wherein 
that  industrious  Gentleman  Captaine  John 
Smith  still  breathing  Virginia,  and  diligent  enquiry  and 
writing,  as  sometime  by  discovery  and  doing  to  shew 
his  zeale  to  this  action  (for  seeing  he  cannot  there  be 
employed  to  performe  Virginian  exploits  worthy  the 
writing,  here  he  employeth  himselfe  to  write  Virginian 
affaires  worthy  the  reading)  having  compiled  a  long 
History  of  that  and  the  Summer  Hand  plantation,  and 
of  New  England  in  six  Bookes,  hath  gently  communi- 
cated the  same  to  mine,  that  is  to  thine,  as  intended  to 
the  Worlds  use.  Out  of  his  rich  fields  I  have  gleaned 
these  handfuls,  adding  thereto  the  crop  also  of  mine  owne 

Sir  Thomas  Gates  returned  from  Virginia  in  March, 
and  Captaine  Argall  in  June  following  16 14.  and  so 
animated  by  their  hopefuU  reports  the  Adventurers,  that 
The  Lottery,  the  great  standing  Lottery  was  drawne  Anno  161 5.  in  the 
West  end  of  Pauls  Churchyard  (where  before,  as  in  many 
other  places  after,  a  running  Lottery  of  smaller  adventures 
had  beene  used)  in  which  the  Prizes  were  proportioned 




from    two    crownes   (which    was    the    least)   to    divers 
thousands,   arising   in    ordinary    assents    and    degrees*,  *To  loo. 
casually  accruing  as  the  lot  fell,  and  paid  in  money  or  ^°°-  ^°°-  ^ 

T-.1  1  r        1  •  -111  •/-  1  1000.    2000. 

m  Plate  there  set  torth  to  view,  provided  that  ir  any  chose  and  the  highest 
money  rather  then  Plate  or  goods  for  paiment,  in  summes  4500. 
above  ten  crownes,  he  was  to  abate  the  tenth  part.     The  crownes. 
orders  of  this  Lottery  were  published,  and  courses  taken 
to  prevent  frauds. 

Whiles  Sir  Thomas  Dale  was  in  Virginia,  it  chanced 
that  a  Spanish   Ship  beate  up  and  downe  before  Point  Spanish  Ships 
Comfort,  and  sent  ashoare  for  a  Pilot.     Captaine  James  "'  ^^r^ma. 
Davies  sent  them  one,  with  whom  they  presently  sailed 
away,  leaving  three  of  their  company  behinde.     These, 
upon    examination,    confessed     that     having    lost    their 
Admirall,  accident   had   forced   them   into    those   parts ; 
two  of  them  said  they  were  Captaines  of  chiefe  command  ^^s}"j  ^'^* 
in  the  Fleete.     They  received  good  usage  there,  till  one  ^^^^^. 
of  them  was  found  to  be  an  Englishman,  which  in  the  suspended  and 
great  Fleete  1588.  had  bin  a  Pilot  to  the  Spaniards,  and  exalted 
now  exercised  his  wonted  trechery,  having  induced  some  "g'^^^^ 
malecontents  to  runne  away  with  a  small  Barke.     This  ^^^LmV 
darknesse   being   brought  to   light,  some  of  them   were 
executed,  and  he  expecting  no  better,  confessed  that  two 
or  three  Spanish  Ships  were  at  Sea,  on  purpose  to  discover 
the  state  of  the  Colony:  but  their  Commission  was  not 
to  be  opened  till  they  arrived  in  the  Bay,  so  that  he  knew 
no  further.     One  of  the  Spaniards  died,  the  other  was 
sent  for  England,  and  this  fellow  was  now  reprived,  but 
(as  became  such  a  Pilot)  was  hanged  at  Sea  in  Sir  Thomas 
Dales  returne.     The  English  Pilot  which  they  had  carried 
away  to  Spaine,  after  long  imprisonment  by  much  'suite 
recovered  his  liberty  and  Country. 

Sir  Thomas  Dale  having  thus  established  things  as  you 
have  heard,  returned  thence,  appointing  Captaine  George  Cap.  Tardly 
Yardly  his  deputy  Governour  in  his  absence,  and  arrived  t^eputy 
at  Plimmouth  in  May  or  June  4.  1616.  to  advance  the  ^'^^>'«"'^- 
good  of  the  Plantation,  Master  Rolfe  also  with  Rebecca 
his    new     convert     and     consort,    and     Uttamatamakin 



[IV.  ix. 

1 774-] 
Hitherto  from 
Capt.  Smith. 

See  my  Pil. 
I.  8.  c.  5. 

See  my  Pilg. 
ubi  sup. 
yeers  which 
occasioned  the 
conceits  of 
their  longevity. 


(commonly  called  Tomocomo)  one  of  Pohatans  Coun- 
sellours  came  over  at  the  same  time.  With  this  Savage 
I  have  often  conversed  at  my  good  friends  Master  Doctor 
Goldstone,  where  he  was  a  frequent  guest ;  and  where  I 
have  both  seen  him  sing  and  dance  his  diabolicall 
measures,  and  heard  him  discourse  of  his  Countrey  and 
Religion,  Sir  Tho.  Dales  man  being  the  Interpretour,  as  I 
have  elsewhere  shewed.  Master  Rolfe  lent  mee  a  dis- 
course which  he  had  written  of  the  estate  of  Virginia 
at  that  time,  out  of  which  I  collected  those  things  which  I 
have  in  my  Pilgrimage  delivered.  And  his  wife  did  not 
onely  accustome  her  selfe  to  civilitie,  but  still  carried  her 
selfe  as  the  Daughter  of  a  King,  and  was  accordingly 
respected,  not  onely  by  the  Company,  which  allowed 
provision  for  her  selfe  and  her  sonne,  but  of  divers 
particular  persons  of  Honor,  in  their  hopefuU  zeale  by 
her  to  advance  Christianitie.  I  was  present,  when  my 
Honorable  &  Reverend  Patron,  the  L.  Bishop  of  London, 
Doctor  King  entertained  her  with  festivall  state  and 
pompe,  beyond  what  I  have  scene  in  his  great  hospitalitie 
afforded  to  other  Ladies.  At  her  returne  towards 
Virginia  she  came  at  Gravesend  to  her  end  and  grave, 
having  given  great  demonstration  of  her  Christian 
sinceritie,  as  the  first  fruits  of  Virginian  conversion, 
leaving  here  a  godly  memory,  and  the  hopes  of  her 
resurrection,  her  soule  aspiring  to  see  and  enjoy 
presently  in  heaven,  what  here  shee  had  joyed  to  heare 
and  beleeve  of  her  beloved  Saviour.  Not  such  was 
Tomocomo,  but  a  blasphemer  of  what  he  knew  not,  and 
preferring  his  God  to  ours,  because  he  taught  them  (by 
his  owne  so  appearing)  to  weare  their  Devill-lock  at  the 
left  eare  ;  hee  acquainted  mee  with  the  manner  of  that 
his  appearance,  and  beleeved  that  this  Okee  or  Devil 
had  taught  them  their  husbandry,  &c.  Powhatan  was 
at  this  time  of  their  comming  gone  Southwards,  for  feare 
(as  some  thought)  least  Opachancanough  his  brother 
should  joyne  with  the  English  against  him.  His  age 
was  not  so  great  as  some  have  reported,  they  reckoning 




every  Spring  and  Autumne  for  distinct  yeeres.  Tomo- 
como  was  as  wise  in  computation  of  his  sailing,  reckoning 
each  night  (when  hee  expected  they  should  have  anchored 
by  the  shoare)  as  another  day.  Hee  is  said  also  to 
have  set  up  with  notches  on  a  stick  the  numbers  of  men, 
being  sent  to  see  and  signifie  the  truth  of  the  multitudes 
reported  to  his  Master.  But  his  arithmetike  soone  failed, 
and  wonder  did  no  lesse  amaze  him  at  the  sight  of  so 
much  Corne  and  Trees  in  his  comming  from  Plimmouth 
to  London,  the  Virginians  imagining  that  defect  thereof 
here  had  brought  us  thither. 

But  let  us  returne  to  Captaine  Smiths  Relations.  The 
new  Governour  applied  himselfe  to  the  readiest  way  of 
gaine  in  planting  Tobacco  ;  and  though  Sir  Tho.  Dale 
had  caused  much  Corne  to  be  planted,  yet  the  new 
supplies  easing  them  of  that  superfluitie,  hee  sent  to  the 
Chickahaminies  for  the  tribute  Corne  which  Sir  Thomas 
Dale  and  Captaine  Argall  had  conditioned  with  them, 
but  received  a  bad  answere.  Whereupon  hee  gathered 
a  hundred  men,  and  twelve  of  them  were  slaine,  twelve 
others  captived,  and  returned  to  James  Towne  with  three 
Boats  laden  with  corne,  of  which  one  hasting  to  bring  the 
newes  was  overset,  and  eleven  men,  together  with  the 
goods  drowned.  Captaine  Spelman  by  his  language  did 
them  good  service.  This,  together  with  the  league  which 
they  had  with  Opachankanough  enemy  to  the  former,  put 
them  so  in  feare,  that  ours  followed  their  labours  quiedy, 
and  other  Nations  also  brought  them  provisions  and 
would  hunt  for  them.  Captaine  Yeardly  is  taxed  for 
suffering  two  of  his  Savages  to  use  the  Peece  in  their 
game  and  therein  to  grow  expert ;  a  thing  reported  to 
have  beene  practised  by  some  others.  Yet  whiles  hee 
staied  in  the  government  they  lived  quietly  with  the 
Savages,  but  grudges  grew  amongst  themselves. 

A.  16 1 7.  Captaine  Yeardly  returned  for  England,  after 
the  arrivall  of  Captaine  Argall,  sent  thither  to  be  deputie  ^  jg 
Governour.  cap.  Jrgolls 

Captaine  Argall  was  sent  in  the  George,  and  with  Capt.  government. 





Great  drought. 

L.  De-la- 
Wars  last 
voyages  and 

Ploming  and 
Come  in 


[IV.  ix. 



Hamor  his  Vice-Admirall,  in  May,  16 17.  arrived  at 
James  Towne,  where  hee  found  things  in  much  disorder^ 
which  hee  sought  to  redresse.  Their  cattell  were  now 
well  encreased,  and  both  of  their  owne  growing,  and  from 
the  Savages  they  had  store  of  Corne,  A.  16 18.  happened 
a  great  drought,  and  such  a  cruell  storme  of  haile,  that  it 
did  much  hurt  to  their  Corne  and  Tobacco.  The  Maga- 
zine that  came  in  the  George,  being  five  moneths  in  her 
passage  proved  badly  conditioned. 

To  supply  them,  the  Company  furnished  and  set  forth 
in  Aprill  a  Ship  of  two  hundred  and  fiftie  tunnes,  with 
two  hundred  people.  The  Lord  De-la-war  went  therein, 
and  at  the  Hand  of  Saint  Michael  was  honourably  feasted. 
Departing  from  thence,  they  were  long  troubled  with 
contrary  windes,  in  which  time  many  fell  sicke,  thirtie 
died,  one  of  which  was  that  honourable  Lord  of  noble 
memory.  The  rest  refreshed  themselves  on  that  Coast 
of  New  England,  with  Fish,  Fowle,  Wood,  and  Water, 
and  after  sixteene  weekes  spent  at  Sea,  arrived  in 

The  Ship  called  the  Treasurer  not  long  after  came 
thither  with  fortie  Passengers,  before  the  other  Ship  was 
gone.  They  now  had  used  the  Plow,  and  reaped  good 
Corne,  and  they  writ  for  more  Plow-harnesse  to  be 
sent  them. 

.  Richard  Killingbeck  with  foure  others,  going  to  trade 
secretly  with  the  people  of  Chickahaminias,  either  for 
revenge  of  some  before  slaine  in  Captaine  Yerdlyes 
expedition,  or  for  covetousnesse  of  their  goods  were 
assaulted  by  the  Savages,  one  of  which  had  a  Peece 
furnished  and  therewith  shot  Killingbeck  dead  ;  the  rest 
also  were  all  slaine,  stripped,  and  spoyled.  Other 
murthers  also  were  done  by  other  Savages,  which 
Opachankanough  excused  by  ignorance,  and  for  the 
former,  hee  sent  a  basket  of  earth,  in  token  of  the 
gift  and  possession  of  that  Towne  where  they  dwelt^ 
to  Captaine  Argal,  desiring  him  not  to  revenge  the  fault 
of  a  few,  which  for  feare  of  revenge  were  fled   to    the 



Woods,  on  their   innocent   neighbours.     Sam.  Arg.  Jo. 

Master  Rolfe  writ,  June  15.  1618.  that  Powhatan  Powhatam 
died  in  Aprill  before,  Itopatan  his  second  brother  ^"''^• 
succeeded,  who  with  Opachanckanough  had  confirmed 
the  league  with  the  Colony.  May  11.  happened  at 
James  Towne  in  the  night,  a  terrible  storme  which 
lasted  about  halfe  an  houre,  and  poured  downe  haile- 
stones  eight  or  nine  inches  about. 

A.  1 61 9.  Sir  Edwin  Sands  being  chosen  Treasurer,  Sir  Edwin 
Captaine  Yerdley  was  knighted  and  sent  Governour  ^""'^^ 
into  Virginia.  A  little  Pinnace  had  arrived  some 
twelve  dayes  before  him,  in  which  Captaine  Argall 
returned,  leaving  in  his  place  Captaine  Nathaniel  Powel. 
As  for  their  digusts  given  the  Company  (in  their 
apprehension)  by  Captaine  Argall,  I  am  not  fully 
informed,  or  lust  to  bee  the  Informer. 

Sir  George  Yerdly  arriving  Aprill  18.  filled  the  Colony  Sir  George 
with  joyfull    hopes   of  better   successe    at    his    arrival!,  Terdley 
and   I   freely   acknowledge   the   Treasurers   great  study  '^o"^'''"""'- 
and  care   was   worthy   (had  God  so  pleased)  of  better 
events,     then     by     unexpected     accidents     have     since 

Captaine  West,  Captaine  Powel,  Master  Pory,  Master 
Rolfe,  Master  Wickam,  Master  Macock,  were  added  to 
the  Councell.     A  Pinnace  of  Captaine  Bargrave,  another 
of  Captaine    Lawnes,    and    a    third    of   Master    Evans, 
and   the    Marget   of  Bristol  arrived.     Some  scandalous 
Letters,  which  laid  a  false  imputation  on  the  Countrey, 
caused   enquiry    to    bee   made,    where   by  men  of  best 
experience    was    found,    that    an    industrious    man    not  Pro^t  to  be 
otherwise  imployed,  may  well  husband  foure  Acres  of  made  in 
Come,  and  one  thousand  Plants  of  Tobacco,  of  which  ^"'S'"'"- 
many  to  have  much,   neglect  the  goodnesse  (in  suffer- 
ing too  many  leaves  to  grow  on  one  stalke)  and  many 
Tobaccomongers   in  England  are  said  to   sell  the   best 
of  it  in  other  names,   calling  all  their  trash  Virginian, 
and  so  at  once  rob  both  England  and  Virginia.     June 



25.  the  Triall  came  in  with  Corne  and  Cattell.  The 
Governour  and  Counsell  caused  Burgesses  to  be  chosen 
in  all  places,  and  a  general!  assembly  was  held  for 
consultation  about  the  Colonies  good.  The  ancient 
Planters  being  set  free  chose  places  to  their  content, 
and  sweetnesse  of  proprietie  made  them  emulous  to 
exceed  each  other  in  building  and  planting.  Many 
good  instructions  were  sent  from  the  Company,  to  amend 
the  Virginian  abuses  and  competencie  of  provision  was 
appointed  for  Officers. 

But  leave  we  awhile  our  Captaines  Notes,  and  let  us 
listen  to  that  which  the  Company  published,  A.   1620. 

Chap.  XIII. 

The  estate  of  the  Colony,  A.  1620.  and  Master 
Dermers  Letter  to  mee  from  Virginia,  touch- 
ing his  Voyage  for  the  South  Sea. 

Ow  touching  the  present  estate  of  our 
Colony  in  that  Countrey,  We  have 
thought  it  not  unfit  thus  much  briefly 
to  declare.  There  have  beene  sent  thither 
this  last  yeere,  and  are  now  presently 
in  going,  twelve  hundred  persons  and 
upward,  as  particularly  appeareth  in  the 
note  above  specified  :  and  there  are  neere  one  thousand 
more  remaining  of  those  that  were  gone  before.  The 
men  lately  sent,  have  beene  most  of  them  choice  men, 
borne  and  bred  up  to  labour  and  industry.  Out  of 
Devonshire,  about  an  hundred  men,  brought  up  to 
Husbandry.  Out  of  Warwickshire  and  Staffordshire, 
about  one  hundred  and  ten ;  and  out  of  Sussex,  about 
fortie ;  all  framed  to  Iron-workes :  the  rest  dispersedly 
out  of  divers  Shires  of  the  Realme.  There  have  beene 
also  sundry  persons  of  good  qualitie,  much  commended 
for  sufficiency,  industry  and  honestie,  provided  and 
sent   to   take   charge  and  government  of  those  people. 



The  care  likewise  that  hath  beene  taken  by  directions, 
instructions,  Charters  and  Commissions  to  reduce  the 
people  and  affaires  in  Virginia  into  a  regular  course, 
hath  been  such  and  so  great,  that  the  Colony  beginneth 
now  to  have  the  face  and  feshion  of  an  orderly  State,  and 
such  as  is  likely  to  grow  and  prosper.  The  people  are 
all  divided  into  severall  Burroughes  ;  each  man  having  Severall. 
the  shares  of  Land  due  to  him  set  out,  to  hold  and  Burroughs. 
enjoy  to  him  and  his  Heires.  The  publike  Lands  for 
the  Company  here,  for  the  Governour  there,  for  the 
CoUedge,  and  for  each  particular  Burrough,  for  the 
Ministers  also,  and  for  divers  other  necessary  Officers, 
are  likewise  laid  out  by  order  and  bounded.  The  par- 
ticular Plantations  for  divers  private  Societies,  are  setled 
in  their  Seates,  being  allotted  to  their  content,  and  each 
in  convenient  distance.  The  rigour  of  Martiall  Law, 
wherewith  before  they  were  governed,  is  reduced  within 
the  limits  prescribed  by  his  Majesty  ;  and  the  laudable 
forme  of  Justice  and  government  used  in  this  Realme, 
established,  and  followed  as  neere  as  may  be.  The 
Governour  is  so  restrained  to  a  Counsell  joyned  with 
him,  that  he  can  doe  wrong  to  no  man,  who  may  not 
have  speedy  remedy.  Each  Burrough,  and  each  particular 
Plantation,  partly  hath,  partly  is  bound  to  have  in  short 
time  a  sufficient  Minister :  for  whom  maintenance  is 
ordained,  to  each  of  two  hundred  pounds  a  yeere  value. 
Which  orderly  proceeding  there,  by  direction  from  hence, 
hath  caused  the  Colony  now  at  length  to  settle  themselves 
in  a  firme  resolution  to  perpetuate  the  Plantation.  They  [iv.  ix. 
fall  to  building  of  Houses,  each  for  his  owne  private;  1776] 

and  the  Generality  to  the  rearing  of  publike  Guest- 
houses, for  entertaining  of  new  men  upon  their  first 
arrivall.  They  fall  to  set  up  their  Ploughes,  to  the 
planting  of  Vineyards  ;  to  the  pursuing  of  the  Staple 
Commodities  furnished  and  commended  from  hence.  In 
summe,  they  are  now  so  full  of  alacrity  and  cheerefiil- 
nesse,  that  in  a  late  generall  Assembly,  they  have  in  the 
name   of  the   Colony   presented    their   greatest   possible 




thankes  to  the  Company,  for  the  care  that  hath  beene 
taken  for  the  setling  of  the  Plantation.  Neither  is  it  to 
be  omitted,  the  care  which  hath  beene  had  here  lately  at 
home,  for  the  reducing  of  all  the  proceedings  and  affaires 
of  the  Company,  to  an  orderly  course  of  good  govern- 
ment and  Justice.  Wherein  to  begin  with  the  Fountaine 
thereof,  his  Majesties  authoritie  and  pleasure,  there  hath 
beene  a  collection  made  of  all  the  branches  of  the  same. 
Potent  three  dispersed  in  his  Letters  Patents,  now  three  times  renewed  : 
times  renewed,  as  also  out  of  Other  instructions  proceeding  from  his 
Majestie.  Out  of  both  which,  together  with  such  other 
Orders  as  (authorized  by  his  Majestie)  the  Companie 
themselves  have  thought  necessary  to  make,  hath  beene 
compiled  a  booke  of  standing  Orders  and  Constitutions, 
approved  by  the  generall  consent  of  all  the  Companie  : 
whereby  both  the  Company  here,  and  the  Colony  in 
Virginia,  have  their  businesse  carried  regularly,  industri- 
ously, and  justly,  every  man  knowing  both  his  right  and 
dutie,  to  their  generall  great  content,  and  the  great 
advancement  of  the  Action.  And  whereas  the  Colony 
likewise  have  been  often  Sutors  in  eifect,  to  reduce  into  a 
compendious  and  orderly  forme  of  writing,  the  Lawes  of 
England  proper  for  the  use  of  that  Plantation,  with 
addition  of  such  other,  as  the  nature  of  the  place,  the 
novelty  of  the  Colony,  and  other  important  circumstances 
should  necessarily  require  :  A  course  is  likewise  taken  for 
the  effecting  of  this  worke  ;  yet  so  as  to  submit  it  first  to 
his  Majesties  view  and  approbation  ;  it  being  not  fit  that 
his  Majesties  Subjects  should  bee  governed  by  any  other 
Lawes,  then  such  as  receive  the  influence  of  their  life 
from  him. 

And  now  to  come  to  that  which  concerneth  the 
Adventurors  in  particular,  by  whose  charges,  care,  and 
labour  (next  unto  his  Majesties  especiall  grace)  this 
famous  Plantation  hath  not  onely  beene  undertaken,  but 
through  so  many  difficulties  upheld  and  continued  :  wee 
should  bee  very  greatly  injurious  to  them,  if  we  should 
not   acquaint   them    with    this    seasonable   time,  for   the 




reaping  of  that  benefit  and  reward  which  is  due  unto 
them.  Wee  therefore  let  them  know,  that  in  this  last 
yeere  now  ended,  there  have  beene  granted  by  the 
Company  under  their  legall  Seale,  eleven  severall  Patents 
for  particular  Plantations  ;  and  more  are  in  hand  to  bee 
passed  this  next  Quarter-Court.  It  is  not  unprobable 
that  upon  each  of  these  Patents,  divers  hundreds  of 
persons  will  soone  Plant  in  Virginia  :  there  have  beene 
already  transported  upon  the  first,  above  three  hundred 
men.  These  and  other  like  Planters,  having  priority  of 
time,  will  have  priority  also  in  choice  of  the  Seat  of  their 
Plantations.  Seeing  therefore  the  onely  matter  of  retri- 
bution to  the  Adventurors,  is  by  a  faire  proportion  of 
Land  to  them  and  their  heires,  namely,  of  one  hundred 
Acres  for  every  share  of  twelve  pounds  and  ten  shillings, 
upon  a  first  division  ;  and  as  much  more  upon  a  second, 
the  first  being  peopled  ;  with  fiftie  Acres  for  every  person 
(to  bee  doubled  in  like  manner)  which  at  their  own 
charges  they  shall  transport  to  inhabite  in  Virginia  before 
the  foure  and  twentieth  of  June,  1625.  if  hee  continue 
there  three  yeeres,  either  at  one  or  severall  times,  or 
die  after  he  is  shipped  for  that  voyage  :  It  standeth  them 
upon,  who  are  not  willing  to  be  the  least  in  the  benefit  to 
be  partaked,  not  to  be  the  last  in  setting  forth  to  the 
choice  and  peopling  of  their  Land.  Wherein  what  favour 
or  assistance  may  by  us  bee  given  them,  they  shall  bee 
well  assured  of  it,  in  equall  proportion  with  our  selves, 
as  their  charges  and  long  expectance  have  well  deserved. 
And  to  the  end  that  not  onely  the  Adventurors  now 
living,  but  the  Heires  also  of  the  deceased,  may  take 
certaine  notice  of  the  severall  proportion  of  Land,  which 
ratably  to  their  Adventures  in  money  are  due  and 
belonging  to  them. 




A  Note  of  the  Shipping,  Men,  and  Provisions  sent 
to  Virginia,  by  the  Treasurer  and  Company,  in 
the  yeere  1619. 

Ships.  '~n*He  Bona  Nova  of  two  hundred  Tun,  sent  in  August 

J.  1 61 9.  with  one  hundred  and  twenty  persons.  The 
Duty,  of  seventy  Tun,  sent  in  January  1619.  with 
fiftie  one  person's.  The  Jonathan  of  three  hundred 
and  fiftie  Tun,  sent  in  February  1619.  with  two  hun- 
dred persons.  The  Triall,  of  two  hundred  Tun,  sent  in 
February  1619.  with  fortie  persons,  and  sixtie  Kine. 
The  Faulcon,  of  one  hundred  and  fiftie  Tun,  sent  in 
February  161 9.  with  thirtie  sixe  persons,  fiftie  two  Kine, 
and  foure  Mares.  The  London  Merchant,  of  three 
hundred  Tun,  sent  in  March  1619.  with  two  hundred 
persons.  The  Swan  of  Barnstable,  of  one  hundred 
Tunne,  sent  in  March,  1619.  with  seventie  one  persons. 
The  Bonaventure  of  two  hundred  and  fortie  Tun,  sent  in 
April,  1620.  with  one  hundred  and  fiftie  three  persons. 
Besides  these,  set  out  by  the  Treasurer  and  Company, 
there  hath  beene  set  out  by  particular  Adventures  for 
private  Plantations.  The  Garland  of  two  hundred  and 
fiftie  Tun,  sent  in  June,  1619.  for  M.  John  Ferrars 
Plantation,  with  fortie  five  persons.  Who  are  yet 
detained  in  the  Summer  Hands.  A  Ship  of  Bristoll, 
of    eightie    Tun,    sent    in    September,     1619.    for   M. 

[IV.  ix.  Barkleys   Plantation,    with    fortie    five   persons.      There 

1 777-]  are  also  two  Ships  in  providing  to  be  shortly  gone,  for 
about  three  hundred  persons  more,  to  bee  sent  by  private 
Adventurers  to  Virginia.  The  summe  of  the  persons  one 
thousand  two  hundred  sixtie  one.  Whereof  in  the  eight 
Ships  set  out  by  the  Treasurer  and  Company,  eight  hun- 
dred seventie  one. 

Pecpk.  Of  these  persons  there  are  sent  for  publike  and  other 

pious  uses,  these  ensuing:  Tenants  for  the  Governours 
Land,  besides  fiftie  sent  the  former  Spring,  eightie. 
Tenants  for  the  Companies  Land,  one  hundred  and 
thirtie.     Tenants  for  the  CoUedges  Land,  one  hundred. 




Tenants  for  the  Ministers  glebe-Lands,  fiftie.  Young 
Maids  to  make  Wives  for  so  many  of  the  former  Tenants, 
ninetie.  Boyes  to  make  Apprentices  for  those  Tenants, 
one  hundred.  Servants  for  the  publike,  fiftie.  Men  sent 
by  their  labours,  to  beare  up  the  charge  of  bringing  up 
thirtie  of  the  Infidels  children  in  true  Religion  and  Civilitie. 
The  sum  of  persons  for  publike  use,  &c.  six  hundred  and 
fiftie.  The  six  hundred  and  eleven  remaining,  are  sent 
for  private  Plantations. 

The  Commodities  which  these  people  are  directed  Commodities. 
principally  to  apply  (next  to  their  own  necessary  main- 
tenance) are  these  ensuing :  Iron,  for  which  are  sent  one 
hundred  and  fiftie  persons,  to  set  up  three  Iron-workes ; 
proofe  having  beene  made  of  the  extraordinary  goodnesse 
of  that  Iron. 

Cordage :  for  which  (besides  Hempe)  direction  is  given 
for  the  planting  of  Silke-grasse  (naturally  growing  in 
those  parts)  in  great  abundance :  which  is  approved  to 
make  the  best  Cordage  and  Linnen  in  the  world.  Of 
this,  every  housholder  is  bound  to  set  one  hundred 
Plants:  and  the  Governour  himselfe  hath  set  five 

Pot-ashes  and  Sope-ashes,  Pitch  and  Tar  re:  for  the 
making  whereof  the  Polacres  are  returned  to  their 

Timber  of  all  sorts,  with  Masts,  Planks  and  Boords 
for  provision  of  Shipping,  &c.  there  being  not  so  good 
Timber  for  all  uses,  in  any  one  knowne  Countrey  what- 
soever. And  for  the  ease  and  encrease  of  divers  of  these 
workes,  provision  is  sent  of  men  and  materialls,  for  the 
setting  up  of  sundry  Sawing  Mills. 

Silke:  for  which  that  Countrey  is  exceeding  proper, 
having  innumerable  store  of  Mulbery  Trees  of  the  best,  and 
some  Silk-wormes  naturally  found  upon  them,  producing 
excellent  Silke :  some  whereof  is  to  be  scene.  For  the 
setting  up  of  which  Commoditie,  his  Majesty  hath  beene 
graciously  pleased  now  the  second  time  (the  former 
having  miscarried)  to  bestow  upon  the  Company  plenty 




of    Silk-wormes-feed     of    his    owne    store,    being    the 

Vines :  whereof  the  Countrey  yeeldeth  naturally  great 
store,  and  of  sundry  sorts:  which  by  culture  will  be 
brought  to  excellent  perfection.  For  the  effecting 
whereof,  divers  skilfuU  Vignerons  are  sent,  with  store 
also  from  hence  of  Vine-plants  of  the  best  sort. 

Salt:  which  workes  having  beene  lately  suffered  to 
decay,  are  now  ordered  to  bee  set  up  in  so  great  plentie, 
as  not  onely  to  serve  the  Colony  for  the  present ;  but  as  is 
hoped  in  short  time  also  the  great  Fishings  on  those 

For  the  following,  working,  and  perfecting  of  these 
Commodities,  all  provisions  necessary  for  the  present 
are  sent  in  good  abundance.  As  likewise  the  people 
that  goe  are  plentifully  furnished  with  apparell,  bedding, 
victuall  for  sixe  moneths :  Implements  both  for  the  House 
and  Labour,  Armour,  Weapons,  Tooles,  and  sundry 
other  necessaries.  And  a  supply  of  Armour,  Powder, 
and  many  necessary  provisions  is  made  for  those  of 
the  Colony  which  were  there  before ;  yet  without  any 
prejudice  to  the  former  Magazin. 
^if"'-  There  have  beene  given  to  the  Colony  this  yeere  by 
devout  persons,  these  Gifts  ensuing:  Two  persons 
unknowne,  have  given  faire  Plate,  and  other  rich 
Ornaments  for  two  Communion  Tables ;  whereof  one 
for  the  CoUedge,  and  the  other  for  the  Church  of 
Mistresse  Mary  Robinsons  founding :  who  in  the  former 
yeere  by  her  Will,  gave  two  hundred  pounds  towards  the 
founding  of  a  Church  in  Virginia. 

Another  unknowne  person  (together  with  a  godly 
Letter)  hath  lately  sent  to  the  Treasurer,  five  hundred 
and  fiftie  pounds  in  gold,  for  the  bringing  up  of  children 
of  the  Infidels :  first  in  the  Knowledge  of  God  and  true 
Religion;  and  next,  in  fit  Trades  whereby  honestly  to 

Master  Nicolas  Ferrar  deceased,  hath  by  his  Will  given 
three  hundred  pounds  to  the  CoUedge  in  Virginia,  to  bee 



paid,  when  there  shall  be  ten  of  the  Infidels  children 
placed  in  it.  And  in  the  meane  time  foure  and  twentie 
pounds  by  yeere,  to  bee  distributed  unto  three  discreet 
and  godly  men  in  the  Colony,  which  shall  honestly  bring 
up  three  of  the  Infidels  children  in  Christian  Religion, 
and  some  good  course  to  live  by. 

An  unnamed  person  sent  to  the  Treasurer  the  summe 
of  ten  pounds,  for  advancing  of  the  Plantation. 

There  have  beene  Patents  granted  this  yeere  for  par-  Patents. 
ticular  Plantations,  as  here  ensueth  :  To  the  Societie  of 
Southamton  Hundred.  To  Master  Heath,  Recorder  of 
London.  To  Master  Wincop.  To  Master  Tracie. 
To  Doctor  Bohun.  To  Master  Pierce.  To  Master 
Delbridge.  To  Master  Pointz.  To  Master  Barkley. 
To  Captaine  Bargrave.  To  Captaine  Ward.  Who 
have  undertaken  to  transport  to  Virginia  great  multi- 
tudes of  people,  with  store  of  cattell. 

It  is  to  be  knowne,  that  touching  the  Colledge  for  the 
Infidels  children,  it  hath  beene  thought  more  expedient  to 
begin  first  with  the  planting  and  peopling  of  the  Lands 
(which  hath   beene  done  this  yeere)   and  afterwards  to  [IV.  ix. 
proceed  to  the  erecting  of  the  Fabricke,  which   is  to  be  '778-] 

performed  out  of  the  revenues  of  the  Lands. 

To  his  WorshipfuU  Friend  M.  Samuel  Purchas, 
Preacher  of  the  Word,  at  the  Church  a  little 
within  Ludgate,  London. 


IT  was  the  nineteenth  of  May,  before  I  was  fitted  for 
my  discovery,  when  from  Monahiggan  I  set  sayle  in 
an  open  Pinnace  of  five  tun,  for  the  Hand  I  told  you  of. 
I  passed  alongst  the  Coast  where  I  found  some  antient 
Plantations,  not  long  since  populous  now  utterly  void  ; 
in  other  places  a  remnant  remaines,  but  not  free  of  sick- 
nesse.  Their  disease  the  Plague,  for  wee  might  perceive 
the  sores  of  some  that  had  escaped,  who  described  the 
spots  of  such  as  usually  die.  When  I  arrived  at  my 
XIX  129  I 



Savages  native  Country  (finding  all  dead)  I  travelled 
alongst  a  dales  journey  Westward,  to  a  place  called 
Nummastaquyt,  where  finding  Inhabitants,  I  dispatchedi 
a  Messenger  a  dayes  journey  further  West,  to  Poco- 
naokit  which  bordereth  on  the  Sea;  whence  came  to 
see  me  two  Kings,  attended  with  a  guard  of  fiftie  armed 
men,  who  being  well  satisfied  with  that  my  Savage  and  I 
discoursed  unto  them  (being  desirous  of  noveltie)  gave 
mee  content  in  whatsoever  I  demanded,  where  I  found 
that  former  relations  were  true.  Here  I  redeemed  a 
Frenchman,  and  afterwards  another  at  Mastachusit,  who 
three  yeeres  since  escaped  shipwracke  at  the  North-east 
of  Cape  Cod.  I  must  (amongst  many  things  worthy 
observation)  for  want  of  leisure,  therefore  hence  I  passe 
(not  mentioning  any  place  where  we  touched  in  the  way) 
to  the  Hand,  which  wee  discovered  the  twelfth  of  June. 
Here  we  had  good  quarter  with  the  Savages,  who  like- 
wise confirmed  former  reports.  I  found  seven  severall 
places  digged,  sent  home  of  the  earth,  with  samples  of 
other  commodities  elsewhere  found,  sounded  the  Coast, 
and  the  time  being  farre  spent  bare  up  for  Monahiggan, 
arriving  the  three  and  twentieth  of  June,  where  wee  found 
our  Ship  ready  to  depart.  To  this  He  are  two  other  neere 
adjoyning,  all  which  I  called  by  the  name  of  King  James 
his  lies,  because  from  thence  I  had  the  first  motives  to 
search.  For  that  (now  probable  passage)  which  may 
hereafter  be  both  honourable  and  profitable  to  his 
Majestie.  When  I  had  dispatched  with  the  ships  ready 
to  depart,  I  thus  concluded  for  the  accomplishing  my 
businesse.  In  regard  of  the  fewnesse  of  my  men,  not 
being  able  to  leave  behind  mee  a  competent  number  fcr 
defence,  and  yet  sufficiently  furnish  my  selfe,  I  put  most 
of  my  provisions  aboord  the  Sampson  of  Cape  Ward 
ready  bound  for  Virginia,  from  whence  hee  came,  taking 
no  more  into  the  Pinnace  then  I  thought  might  serve  our 
turnes,  determining  with  Gods  helpe  to  search  the  Coast 
along,  and  at  Virginia  to  supply  our  selves  for  a  second 
discovery,  if  the  first  failed.     But  as  the  best  actions  are 



commonly  hardest  in  efFecting,  and  are  seldome  without 
their  crosses,  so  in  this  we  had  our  share,  and  met  with 
many  difficulties:  for  wee  had  not  sayled  above  forty 
leagues,  but  wee  were  taken  with  a  Southerly  storme, 
which  drave  us  to  this  strait;  eyther  we  must  weather 
a  rockie  point  of  Land,  or  run  into  a  broad  Bay  no  lesse 
dangerous ;  Incidit  in  Syllam,  &c.  the  Rockes  wee  could 
not  weather,  though  wee  loosed  till  wee  received  much 
water,  but  at  last  were  forced  to  beare  up  for  the  Bay, 
and  run  on  ground  a  furlong  off  the  shoare,  where  we 
had  beene  beaten  to  pieces,  had  wee  not  instantly  throwne 
overboord  our  provisions  to  have  our  lives;  by  which 
meanes  we  escaped  and  brought  off  our  Pinnace  the  next 
high  water  without  hurt,  having  our  Planke  broken,  and 
a  small  leake  or  two  which  we  easily  mended.  Being 
left  in  this  misery,  having  lost  much  bread,  all  our  Beere 
and  Sider,  some  Meale  and  Apparell,  with  other  provi- 
sions and  necessaries ;  having  now  little  left  besides  hope 
to  encourage  us  to  persist :  Yet  after  a  little  deliberation 
we  resolved  to  proceed  and  departed  with  the  next  faire 
winde.  We  had  not  now  that  faire  quarter  amongst  the 
Savages  as  before,  which  I  take  it  was  by  reason  of  our 
Savages  absence,  who  desired  (in  regard  of  our  long 
journey)  to  stay  with  some  of  our  Savage  friends  at 
Sawahquatooke)  for  now  almost  every  where,  where  they 
were  of  any  strength  they  sought  to  betray  us.  At 
Manamock  (the  Southerne  part  of  Cape  Cod,  now 
called  SutclifFe  Inlets)  I  was  unawares  taken  prisoner, 
when  they  sought  to  kill  my  men,  which  I  left  to  man  the 
Pinnace ;  but  missing  of  their  purpose,  they  demanded  a 
ransome,  which  had,  I  was  as  farre  from  libertie  as  before : 
yet  it  pleased  God  at  last,  after  a  strange  manner  to 
deliver  me,  with  three  of  them  into  my  hands,  and  a 
litde  after  the  chiefe  Sacheum  himselfe;  who  seeing  me 
weigh  anchor,  would  have  leaped  overboord,  but  inter- 
cepted, craved  pardon,  and  sent  for  the  Hatchets  given 
for  ransome,  excusing  himselfe  by  laying  the  fault  on  his 
neighbours ;  and  to  be  friends  sent  for  a  Canoas  lading  of 




Corne,  which  received  we  set  him  free.  I  am  loth  to  omit 
the  story,  wherein  you  would  finde  cause  to  admire  the 
great  mercy  of  God  even  in  our  greatest  misery,  in  giving 
us  both  freedome  and  reliefe  at  one  time.  Departing 
hence,  the  next  place  we  arrived  at  was  Capaock,  an  Hand 
formerly  discovered  by  the  English,  where  I  met  with 
Epinew  a  Savage  that  had  lived  in  England,  and  speakes 
indifferent  good  English,  who  foure  yeeres  since  being 
carried  home,  was  reported  to  have  beene  slaine,  with 
divers  of  his  Countreymen,  by  Saylers,  which  was  false. 
With  him  I  had  much  conference,  who  gave  mee  very 
good  satisfaction  in  every  thing  almost  I  could  demand. 
Time  not  permitting  mee  to  search  here,  which  I  should 
have  done  for  sundry  things  of  speciall  moment:  the 
wind  faire,  I  stood  away  shaping  my  course  as  the  Coast 
led  mee,  till  I  came  to  the  most  Westerly  part  where  the 
Coast  began  to  fall  away  Southerly.  In  my  way  I  dis- 
covered Land  about  thirtie  leagues  in  length,  heretofore 
taken  for  Mayne,  where  I  feared  I  had  beene  imbayed,  but 
by  the  helpe  of  an  Indian  I  got  to  the  Sea  againe,  through 
many  crooked  and  streight  passages.  I  let  passe  many 
[IV.  ix.  accidents  in  this  journey  occasioned  by  treacherie,  where 
'779-]  wee  were  compelled  twice  to  goe  together  by  the  eares, 
once  the  Savages  had  great  advantage  of  us  in  a  streight, 
not  above  a  Bowe  shot,  and  where  a  multitude  of  Indians 
let  flye  at  us  from  the  banke,  but  it  pleased  God  to  make 
us  victours  :  neere  unto  this  wee  found  a  most  dangerous 
Catwract  amongst  small  rockie  Hands,  occasioned  by  two 
unequaU  tydes,  the  one  ebbing  and  flowing  two  houres 
before  the  other :  here  wee  lost  an  Anchor  by  the  strength 
of  the  current,  but  found  it  deepe  enough  :  from  hence  wee 
were  carried  in  a  short  space  by  the  tydes  swiftnesse  into  a 
great  Bay  (to  us  so  appearing)  but  indeede  is  broken 
land,  which  gave  us  light  of  the  Sea  :  here,  as  I  said,  the 
Land  treadeth  Southerly.  In  this  place  I  talked  with 
many  Salvages,  who  told  me  of  two  sundry  passages  to 
the  great  Sea  on  the  West,  offered  me  Pilots,  and  one 
of  them  drew  me  a  Plot  with  Chalke  upon  a  Chest, 




whereby  I  found  it  a  great  Hand,  parted  the  two  Seas; 
they  report  the  one  scarce  passable  for  shoalds,  perillous 
currents,  the  other  no  question  to  be  made  of.  Having 
received  these  directions,  I  hasten  to  the  place  of  greatest 
hope,  where  I  purposed  to  make  triall  of  Gods  goodnesse 
towards  us,  and  use  my  best  endevour  to  bring  the  truth 
to  light,  but  wee  were  but  onely  shewed  the  entrance, 
where  in  seeking  to  passe  wee  were  forced  backe  with 
contrary  and  overblowing  windes,  hardly  escaping  both 
our  lives.  Being  thus  overcharged  with  weather,  I  stood 
alongst  the  coast  to  seeke  harbours,  to  attend  a  favour- 
able gale  to  recover  the  streight,  but  being  a  harbourlesse 
Coast  for  ought  we  could  then  perceive,  wee  found  no 
succour  till  wee  arrived  betwixt  Cape  Charles  and  the 
Maine  on  the  East  side  the  Bay  Chestapeak,  where  in 
a  wilde  Roade  wee  anchored  ;  and  the  next  day  (the  eight 
of  September)  crossed  the  Bay  to  Kecoughtan,  where  the 
first  newes  strooke  cold  to  our  hearts,  the  generall  sicke- 
nesse  over  the  Land.  Here  I  resolved  with  all  possible 
speede  to  returne  in  pursuite  of  this  businesse ;  so  that 
after  a  little  refreshing,  wee  recovered  up  the  River  to 
James  Citie,  and  from  thence  to  Cape  Warde  his  Plan- 
tacion,  where  immediately  wee  fell  to  hewing  of  Boords 
for  a  close  Decke,  having  found  it  a  most  desired  course 
to  attempt  as  before.  As  wee  were  thus  labouring  to 
effect  our  purposes,  it  pleased  almighty  God  (who  onely 
disposeth  of  the  times  and  seasons,  wherein  all  workes 
shall  be  accomplished)  to  visite  us  with  his  heavie  hand,  so 
that  at  one  time  there  were  but  two  of  us  able  to  helpe 
the  rest,  my  selfe  so  sore  shaken  with  a  burning  feaver, 
that  I  was  brought  even  unto  deaths  doore,  but  at  length 
by  Gods  assistance  escaped,  and  have  now  with  the  rest 
almost  recovered  my  former  strength.  The  Winter 
having  overtaken  us  (a  time  on  these  Coasts  especially) 
subject  to  gusts  and  fearefull  stormes,  I  have  now  resolved 
to  choose  a  more  temperate  season,  both  for  the  generall 
good  and  our  owne  safeties.  And  thus  I  have  sent  you 
a  broken   discourse,  though   indeede  very  unwilling  to 




have  given  any  notice  at  all,  till  it  had  pleased  God  to 
have  blessed  mee  with  a  thorow  search,  that  our  eyes 
might  have  witnessed  the  truth.  I  have  drawne  a  Plot  of 
the  Coast,  which  I  dare  not  yet  part  with  for  feare  of 
danger,  let  this  therefore  serve  for  confirmation  of  your 
hopes,  till  I  can  better  performe  my  promise  and  your 
desire,  for  what  I  have  spoken  I  can  produce  at  least 
mille  testes  ;  farre  separate,  of  the  Sea  behinde  them, 
and  of  Ships,  which  come  many  dayes  journey  from 
the  West,  and  of  the  great  extent  of  this  Sea  to  the 
North  and  South,  not  knowing  any  bounds  thereof 
Westward.  I  cease  to  trouble  you  till  a  better  oppor- 
tunity offer  it  selfe,  remembring  my  best  love,  &c.  I 

Yours  to  command. 

Cap.  J.  Smith. 
Sir  Edw. 
Sands  was 
from  Ap. 
1 619.  /;■// 
Jun.  1620. 



Letter  to 




Tho.  Dermer. 

From  Captaine  Martyn  his  Plan- 
tation. 27.  Decemb.   161 9. 

To  Sir  Edwin  Sands  in  the  Treasurership  succeeded 
the  right  Honorable  Henry  Earle  of  Southampton,  whose 
industry  together  with  that  of  those  two  brethren  John 
and  Nicolas  Farrars  the  successive  Deputies,  have  given 
much  content  to  many,  but  to  divers  others  matter  of 
complaint ;  wherein  I  am  an  unfit  Judge  ;  onely  as  a 
reasonable  man  and  Christian  Minister  (that  I  say  not 
Historian)  I  am  much  grieved  that  Virginias  prosperity 
cannot  answer  mens  hopes  ;  nor  can  any  man  mervaile  if 
divisions  (minde-massacres)  here,  with  the  massacring 
Savages  and  diseases  there,  have  hindred  there  the 
expected  effects  of  honorable  and  carefuU  indevours. 
Master  Stockam,  a  Minister,  writ  thence.  May  the 
eight  and  twentieth,  that  which  deserveth  just  con- 
sideration, that  he  found  no  probability  by  faire  meanes 
alone  to  draw  the  Savages  to  goodnesse,  and  if  Mars 
and  Minerva  went  hand  in  hand,  they  would  effect  more 
good   in   one   houre,  then   these  verbaU  Mercurians  in 



their   lives  :    and   till   their   Priests   and  Ancients   have 
their  throats  cut,  there   is   no   hope   to   bring  them   to 

Chap.  XIIII.  [IV.  ix. 

^  1780.] 

A  true  Relation  of  a  Sea  Fight  betweene  two 
great  and  well  appointed  Spanish  Ships,  or 
Men  of  Warre  ;  and  an  English  Ship,  called 
the  Margaret  and  John,  or  the  Blacke  Hodge, 
going  for  Virginia. 

Aving  taken  our  journey  toward  Virginia  in  1 620. 
the  beginning  of  February  last  past,  in  a 
Ship  called  the  Blacke  Hodge,  her  burthen 
one  hundred  and  sixtie  tunne,  manned 
onely  with  eight  Iron  Peeces,  and  a  poore 
Faulcon,  we  soone  over-passed  both  the 
tedious  endurances  and  fearefull  dangers 
of  such  a  Voyage,  and  came  at  last  by  the  foureteenth 
of  March  under  13.  and  halfe  Latitude,  within  twenty 
leagues  of  Matalina. 

Falling  with  Mevis  by  the  twentieth  of  March,  and 
compassing  the  furthest  point  to  stand  in  the  handsommer 
with  the  shore,  wee  perceived  two  tall  Ships  at  anchor 
right  over  against  the  watring  place  with  their  top  sayles 
loose,  and  their  Boates  going  ashoare  for  their  men.  At 
first  we  supposed  them  Hollanders,  in  respect  of  their 
building,  and  the  Hollanders  colours  borne  by  their  Hollanders 
Admirall  in  the  maine  top,  the  vice  Admirall  having  ''''^«'■•'• 
his  fore  top  mast  downe,  and  no  colors  displayed,  which 
encreased  our  former  opinion,  adding  withall  that  it  must 
needes  be  prise,  or  some  other  Ship  subject  to  the  mis- 
fortune of  a  fight. 

But  driving  by  necessity  of  water,  and  willing  to  refresh 
our  selves  a  shoare,  wee  trimmed  our  Ship,  and  came  to 
anchor  fairely  by  them,  sending  our  Boate  in  friendly 
manner  to  hale  them  both  unprovided  and  unarmed, 
which  returned  with  certificate,  that  they  were  Spaniards, 



The  Spaniards 
shot  at  the 

They  shot  at 
the  Ship. 






wherein  not  fully  satisfied,  by  reason  of  our  former  appre- 
hension that  it  was  otherwise  ;  the  better  to  be  resolved, 
we  sent  out  our  Boate  againe,  as  well  to  be  assured  what 
to  trust  unto,  as  to  gaine  sometime  to  prepare  our  Shippe, 
and  trim  her  more  commodiously,  being  pestered  with 
goods  and  fardels  betweene  the  deckes,  and  altogether 
unprovided  for  any  fight,  either  offensive  or  defensive. 

The  Boate  approached  the  hindmost  Ship,  which  I  call 
the  vice-Admirall,  and  haled  her,  demanding  who  they 
were,  but  instead  of  resolving  us,  she  commanded  them 
to  come  aboord,  and  would  answere  no  otherwise ;  where- 
upon the  Boate  rowed  from  them,  as  resolving  all  was  not 
well,  and  so  made  haste  unto  us  againe,  yet  could  not 
prevent  a  volley  of  small  shot  powred  very  dangerously 
amongst  them,  insomuch  that  they  had  their  cloathes  shot 
through,  their  Oares  shivered,  and  the  sides  battered  with 
Bullets  ;  yet  thankes  be  to  God,  neither  was  a  man  hurt, 
nor  any  thing  lost ;  which,  as  if  they  had  had  notice  of  the 
same  escape,  rated  their  rage  so  much  the  more  :  For  by 
that  time  the  Boate  was  out  of  reach  of  their  small  shot, 
they  followed  it  to  the  Ship  with  great  Ordnance  ;  and 
when  they  perceived  they  were  safely  come  aboord, 
they  tooke  it  so  ill,  that  they  thundred  against  our 
Ship  with  the  soarer  rage,  and  most  violent  vollies, 
which  we  could  not  answer,  having  no  Peece  in  our 
gunner  roome,  nor  indeede  any  other  well  mounted  for 
such  a  Sea  fight. 

By  this  time  their  vice  Admirall  heaved  up  her  anchor 
to  her  warpe,  and  laid  her  selfe  to  wind- ward,  if  either  we 
should  passe  forward,  or  anchor  short  againe,  so  that 
we  perceived  they  meant  to  assault  us  on  all  hands  : 
for  she  let  flye  a  whole  broad-side  upon  us,  and  came 
furiously  up  to  our  lee  quarter  without  damage  or  resist- 
ance of  our  parts. 

But  when  we  were  thus  terrified  and  threatned  by 
them,  and  thus  encombred  and  disanimated  amongst  our 
selves,  knowing  withall  (by  reason  of  our  ill  prepared 
Ordnance)  the  disadvantage  and  hazard  to  be  boorded 


A   SEA  FIGHT  a.d. 

at  anchor  by  two  good  Ships  well  prepared  for  spoyle  and 
ruine ;  we  hoysed  up  our  sailes,  and  determined  to 
set  forward,  had  not  the  vice-Admirall  come  on  our 
star-boord  side,  and  beate  upon  us  so  hardly,  that  we 
fell  to  our  businesse,  and  answered  their  unkindenesse 
accordingly  with  many  faire  shot,  which  proved  most 
efFectuall,  especially  from  a  demy-culvering,  which  at 
last  shot  her  betweene  winde  and  water,  so  that  shee 
was  compelled  from  us,  and  bare  off  to  Sea,  leaving 
her  Admirall  onely  single  with  us,  who  at  last  came 
fairely  in  our  quarter  to  winde-ward,  taking  in  her 
Holland  flagge,  and  advanced  her  Spanish  colours,  and  Spanish  colon. 
so  haled  us. 

We  quietly  and  quickly  answered,  both  what  we  were.  Their 
and  whither  wee  were  bound,  discovering  the  effect  of  our  cmference. 
Commission,  and  relating  the  cause  of  our  tarrying  there 
for  water,  neither  purposing  to  annoy  any  subject  of  the 
King  of  Spaines,  nor  by  way  of  affront  to  brave  either 
Merchant  or  man  of  Warre.  Then  she  charged  us 
to  strike  our  sailes  for  the  King  of  Spaine,  and  vaile 
the  bonnet  according  to  the  prerogative  they  had  in 
those  Seas :  we  replyed  with  enlarging  the  particulars 
of  the  league  betweene  the  King  our  Master  and  their 
King,  adding  with  all,  that  as  we  intended  no  ill,  we 
would  take  no  wrong ;  Whereupon  the  Master  left 
the  poope,  and  sequestred  himselfe  from  such  open 
conference ;  had  they  not  called  for  the  Captaine 
againe,  who  at  last  presented  himselfe,  till  they  com- 
manded him  to  come  aboord  with  his  Commission, 
which  he  refused,  yet  wished  them  to  send  their  Boat  [IV.  ix. 
aboord,  and  then  they  should  see  it  most  willingly.  1781-] 

But  instead  either  of  answering  us  further  with  kinde 
words,  or  accepting  of  our  reply  in  good  part,  they  made 
two  great  shot  at  us,  and  poured  among  us  such  a  volley 
of  small  shot,  before  we  could  get  off  the  poope,  that 
we  thanked  God  they  did  no  more  harme,  yet  we  were  . 
much  amazed  they  did  so  much :  not  thus  content  they  insolence  of 
waved  us  with  their  bright  swords,  and  reviled  us  with  the  Spaniards. 




opprobrious  tearmes,  mis-tearming  us  dogs,  and  inventing 
more  odious  names  against  us,  then  we  could  imagine  that 
Christians  durst  urge  one  another  withall:  at  last  they 
laid  us  aboord,  which  enforced  us  to  raise  up  our  maine 
sayle,  and  to  give  the  word  to  our  small  shot,  which 
all  this  while  lay  close,  well  resolved  and  prepared :  but 
TheEngM  sodainely  breaking  forth  wee  plyed  them  in  such  sort 
fig^t-  that  wee  made  them  give  backe  and  shrinke  from  their 

former  forwardnesse. 

The  fight  continued  some  halfe  houre  in  our  quarter, 
and  according  to  the  terrour  of  such  encounters,  wee  were 
compast  as  it  were  in  fire  and  smoake,  untill  they 
discovered  the  waste  of  our  Ship  naked,  and  were 
encouraged  with  the  hope  of  reciprocal  damage,  where- 
upon they  bravely  ranne  upon  our  side,  and  laid  us 
aboord  loofe  to  loofe,  hastning  with  Pikes  and  Swords 
Spaniards  to  enter,  to  which  was  added  such  fury,  that  if  they 
seehe  to  enter,  j^^jj  ^ot  beene  prevented,  we  should  have  shrunke  under 
the  rage  of  a  barbarous  slaughter:  but  it  pleased  God 
so  to  direct  our  Master  with  advice,  and  encourage  our 
men  with  valour,  that  our  Pikes  being  formerly  placed 
under  our  halfe  decke,  and  certaine  shot  lying  close  for 
that  purpose  under  the  portels  of  the  Shippe,  encountred 
them  so  bravely,  that  their  fury  was  not  onely  rebated, 
but  their  hastinesse  intercepted,  and  the  whole  Company 
Their  repulse,  beaten  backe,  especially  upon  the  wind-ward  side,  where 
the  charge  was  hottest,  and  the  fight  bloodiest;  for  there 
the  throng  was  great,  and  men  had  worke  enough  to 
make  proofe  of  their  courages  and  fortunes.  Divers  of 
our  men  were  hurt,  and  many  fell  on  their  side. 

In  the  end  they  were  violently  repulsed  by  us,  enforced 
to  a  retreat,  untill  they  were  reinforced  backe  againe  by 
their  Commanders,  who  standing  upon  tearmes  of  honor, 
as  being  men  of  Warre,  and  designed  for  that  purpose, 
thought  it  an  indignity  to  be  so  afronted  and  counter- 
Second  charge,  manded ;  which  caused  a  second  charge,  and  that  was 
answered  with  a  second  beating  backe,  till  the  Captaine 
himselfe  grew  enraged,  as  not  brooking  to  be  so  much 


A   SEA   FIGHT  ad. 

overmated,  and  constrained  them  to  come  on   a  fresh,  Third  charge. 
which  they  did  so  effectually,  that  questionlesse  it  had 
wrought  an  alteration,  if  the  God  that  tosseth  Monarchies, 
and  teareth  the  Mountaines  in  his  fury,  had  not  taught 
us  to  tosse  our  Pikes  with  prosperous  event,  and  poured 
out  a  sodaine  volley  of  small  shot  upon  them,  whereby 
that  worthy  Commander  was  slaine  at  the   foote   of  a  ^'f"''  ^^P- 
Pike,  and   many   of  his   Souldiers   dropped   downe   on  '■""  '  '"'■ 
the  top   of  the   hatches.     Presently   our  Master  tooke 
advantage    of    their    discomfiture    (though    with    some 
commiseration  for  their  valiant  Captaine  so  slaine)  that 
hee  not  onely  plyed  them  a  fresh  with  great  Ordnance, 
but  had  more  false  shot  under  the  Pikes,  which  were 
bestowed  to  good  purpose,  and  amased  our  enemies  with 
the  sodainnesse. 

Amongst  the  rest  one  Lucas  our  Carpenters  mate  must  J-ucai  his 
not  be  forgotten,  who  perceived  a  way  how  to  annoy  ^''"^^  "''• 
them,  as   they  were   thus   pusled   and   in   a   confusion, 
drue  out  a  minion  which  hee  nobly  set  a  worke  under 
the  halfe  decke,  till  at  the  last  hee  brought  it  to  the  doxe 
of  the  halfe  decke,  and  there  bent  it  upon  them,  but 
in  such  a  manner,  that  when  it  was  fiered  the  cases  full 
of  stones  and  peeces  of  Iron  fell  upon  them  like  haile, 
and  cleared  their  decke  in  such  a  sort  that  it  slue  many,  The  case 
and  in  short  time  we  saw  few  assailants,  but  onely  such  altered. 
as  crept  from  place  to  place  very  covertly,  and  seemed  O""*""" 
willing  to  obscure  themselves  from  the  fury  of  our  shot,  p^Vw/j/Wo 
which  now  was  thicker  then   theirs:    For  although   (as 
farre  as  we  may  commend  our  enemies)  they  had  done 
some  things  worthy  of  admiration:    yet    either   wanting 
men,  or  overtaken  with  the  unlooked  for  valour  of  our 
company,    they    now   began    to    shrinke,    and    gave    us 
leave  to  be  wanton  with  our  advantage. 

Yet  were    our   great  Ordnance    onely    foure,  that  we  The  English 

could  use  in  this  fight,  but  it  should  seeme  they  served  ""^'^  '"^  ^"^ 

the  turne  as  well  as  foure  times  foure :    for    they    shot  ■^'"T 

,  .  ,  •    J  J  1  Urdnance. 

her   divers   times    betweene   winde   and    water,   and    so 

prevailed,    that   at    last    we    saw    many    signes    of  their 




willingnesse  to  leave  us,  but  by  reason  she  was  fast  in 
a  slach  of  our  cable,  which  in  haste  of  weighing  our 
anchor  hung  loose,  she  could  not  be  divided  nor  make 
that  way  shee  purposed,  untill  one  of  our  men  cut  it 
with  an  Axe  without  direction,  and  was  slaine  for  his 
labour.  But  when  she  perceived  she  was  loose,  after 
she  had  beene  a  boord  two  houres  and  a  halfe,  good 
Spaniards  fall  Lord  what  haste  she  made,  and  how  quickly  were  we 
^  divided,    both    great   and    small    shot   playing   on    both 

sides,  which  lasted  untill  the  remotenesse  was  above  a 
Caliver  shot,  and  we  discovered  the  vice-Admirall 
comming  to  her  assistance,  who  began  a  farre  off  to 
ply  us  with  great  shot,  and  put  us  in  minde  we  had 
another  worke  in  hand. 

Whereupon  wee  manned  our   Ship  a  new,  separating 

the  dead  and  hurt  bodies  by  themselves  from  us,  and 

Bravado         were  SO  encouraged,  that  we  waved  her,  and  in  a  manner 

^l''"f,  made  toward  her  to  fight  a  fresh  :  For  when  we  perceived, 

"^"  '  that  the  Admirall  made  not  a  shot  more  at  us,  we  verily 

imagined,  that  either  she  was   preparing  her  selfe  with 

[IV.  ix.  a  new  supply,  or  wanted  men  to  make  her  serviceable  or 

'702J  resolved  to  goe  away  from  us,  considering  shee  had  lost 

her  Captaine ;  yet  loth  to  bee  secure,  and  imagining  the 

Vice-admirall  might  come  and  boord  us  finding  us  play, 

till  the  Admirall   did   make   her   selfe  better  readie,  we 

prepared  our  selves,  wondring   yet   that   shee   came   no 

neerer    us   then    Falcon    shot,  wherewith   she   plyed   us 

still  on  the  Lee  side,  untill  at  last  she  received  another 

payment    from    our    Demie-culvering,    which    shot    her 

through,    and    made    her    beare    with    the    shore    into 

smooth   water,   where   shee    remayned    till    two    of  the 

clocke  after  midnight,  and  so  wee  had  time  to  reforme 

our    disorders,  and    make    our   selves  better   readie  for 

the  next  dayes  varietie. 

Next  dayes  By   breake   of   day   she    came    up    againe   with    the 

M^'-  Admirall  with   her;    as   if  they   determined    indeed  to 

devoure   us   at   once ;    but   as    it   seemed   it  was  but  a 

Bravado,  though   for   the   time   they  forsooke   not   our 


A   SEA  FIGHT  ad. 

quarter  within  Musket  shot :  for  all  that  night  and 
morning  they  were  quiet  Neighbours,  and  kept  us 
company  without  any  great  annoyance  with  their  Top- 
sayles  downe,  not  knowing,  as  it  should  seeme,  what 
to  doe  with  us,  or  else  suspecting  their  owne  hurts 
and  Leakes,  they  durst  not  trust  themselves  too  farre 
from  Land,  nor  to  the  furie  of  another  encounter.  All 
that  night  we  had  time  and  leisure  to  over-looke  our 
losses,  and  prepare  for  them,  the  Admirall  made  shew 
of  an  encounter,  and  we  after  Prayers  were  ended 
provided  to  fight  with  them,  but  suddenly  wee  per- 
ceived the  Vice-Admirall  hang  a  sterne,  cutting  her 
mayne  sayle  to  come  up,  and  stirring  very  ill. 

At  length  the  Admirall  shooke  in  the  wind,  and  by 
apparant  signes   gave   us   notice  of  slacking  her  course, 
whereby  we  might  runne  a   head  and   follow  the    Seas 
at   her   pleasure,    so   wee    perceived    the    Vice-Admirall  The  Via- 
with  all   her  Sayles  to  make   towardes   an    Hand    called  ^'^'"'™' 

ssskstft  to 

Sana,    which    the    Admirall    either    tooke    notice    of,    as  recover  the 
knowing    the    danger    she    was    in,    or    gave    directions  Hand,  and  the 
accordingly,  considering  there  was  no  good  to  bee  done  qualitie,Sana. 
with    us :    for    presently  she  tacked  about   and   lost    us, 
bearing  toward  that  Hand  also. 

Wee  lost  Doctor  Bohune,  and  seven  other  were  slaine  Doctor  Bolune 
out-right:   two  died  shortly  after  of  their  wounds,  and  and  seven 
sbcteene  were    shot   through  in   some   part  or  other   of  "''''''[  'j"'"^ 
the  bodie,  whose  wounds  Gods  be  thanked  were  recured 
and  without  mayme  or  further   impeachment  of  health 
are  now  recovered  and  settled  in  Virginia,  according  to 
our  first  entended  purpose  and  Commission :   1  reckon 
not   such   as   are   hurt  with   Pikes   and   other   offensive 
Weapons,  because  there  was   no  danger  in   their  cures, 
and  the  skilfull  Surgeon  shewed  his  art  and  good  speed 
with   facilitie.     How   many    they   lost   wee   cannot   tell,  Spanish  losse. 
nor  what  men  of  name  were  entertayned  amongst  them, 
onely  I  am  sure  we  saw  many  lie  slaine  on  the  Decke, 
and    more    cast    over-boord    in    the   fight,    besides    the 
Scuppers    ran   with    bloud,  and    the    very    Sea    in    their 




quarter  was  coloured  with  a  Scarlet  hue,  and  looked 
fearfully  upon  us  all. 
Spanish  skips  The  burthen  of  their  Admirall  was  three  hundred 
described.  tunnes,  having  two  and  twentie  Peeces  of  Brasse,  and 
all  provision  of  a  man  of  Warre  indeed :  their  Vice- 
Admirall  three  hundred  tuns,  and  sixteene  cast  Peeces, 
nor  much  inferiour  to  her  for  trimming  and  corre- 
spondent Equipage,  and  both  to  outward  shew  over- 
masterfiill  and  daring  for  one  poore  Merchant  and 
Passenger,  being  but  a  hundred  and  sixtie  tunnes,  having 
eight  Iron  Peeces  and  one  Falcon,  over-loaden  with  StufFe 
and  Wares,  encombred  with  Passengers,  toyled  with  a 
storme,  tyred  with  a  long  Voyage,  affirighted  with  wants, 
and  every  way  insufficient  to  answere  any  such  enemie : 
but  as  it  is  in  the  Scripture,  it  is  all  one  to  thee,  O  God, 
whether  there  be  few  or  many,  and  Gedeons  three 
hundred  shall  slay  many  thousands  of  the  Midianites : 
as  for  deliverances,  the  people  of  Israeli  shall  passe 
through  the  Red  Sea  dry  foot :  Jonas  shall  bee  cast  safe 
on  shoare  out  of  the  Whales  belly :  and  Paul  shall  escape 
shipwracke,  saving  his  life  with  all  his  Passengers  in 
the  Hand  of  Malta. 

For  to  conclude  with  the  purpose  in  hand,  there  is 
one  thing  most  remarkable  as  an  inducement  to  this 
our  deliverance,  that  Captaine  Chester  embraced  Doctor 
Bohune  beeing  mortally  wounded,  and  thus  recomforted 
him,  saying,  O  Doctor  Bohune  what  a  disaster  is  this; 
the  Noble  Doctor  no  whit  exanimated,  replyed;  Fight 
it  out  brave  man,  the  cause  is  good,  and  Lord  receive 
my  soule. 

A  Sea  Fight. 

Slaine  out  right.  Doctor  Bohune.  Thomas  Demeter 
Gentleman.  Th.  Read.  William  Garret.  Th.  Vernam. 
Gabriel  Petes.  David  Bathering.  Raph.  &c.  Died  after. 
Francis  Annis  Gentleman.  Ed.  Nerobery  Sayler. 
Wounded  yet  cured.  William  Bird  Gentleman.  Alexander 
Boventine.  William  Bannington  Gentleman.  William  Joyce 


A  SEA  FIGHT  a.d. 


Quarter   Master.   John   Wakings.   John  Wilson  Sayler. 

George    Tayler    Sayler.    William    Lucas    Sayler.    John 

Robbins  Steward.  Phillip  Durwine.     Three  Frenchmen. 

Robert  Lector.  Anthony  Browne  Gentleman. 

Chap.  XV. 

Virginian  affaires  since  the  yeere    1 620.   till  this  l^^-  '*■ 

present   1624.  '^  ^'^ 

§.  L 

A  note  of  the  shipping,  men,  and  provisions  sent 
and  provided  for  Virginia,  by  the  Right  Honour- 
able Henry  Earle  of  South-hampton,  and  the 
Company,  and  other  private  Adventurers, 
in  the  yeere  1621.  &c.  w^ith  other  Occurrents 
then  published  by  the  Company. 

Ships  And  People. 

He  Elianor  30.  tun:  in  May    1621. 

with   10.  persons. 

The  George  1 80.  tun :  in  July.  1 20. 

The  Charles  1 20.  tunne :  in  July.  80. 

The  Marmaduke    100.  tun :  in  July 


The  Temperance  80.  tun :  in  July  50. 

The  Warwicke  160.  tun:  in  August  100. 

The  Tigre  40.  tun :  in  August  40. 

8  The  Sea-flowre  140.  tun:  in  August  120. 

9  The  Flying   Hart  200.   tun :    in   August   60.   Men, 

and  40.  Cattell. 

10  The  Discoverie  60.  tun :  in  November 

1 1  The  Bona  Nova  200.  tun :  in  November 

1 2  The  Hope-well  60.  tun :  in  November 

13  The  God-speed  150.  tun:  in  Aprill  1622. 

14  The  Gift  of  God  140.  tun:  in  AprUI 

1 5  The  Prime-Rose  80.  tun :  in  Aprill 

1 6  The  Charitie  80.  tun :  in  Aprill 














17  The  Bonaventure  50.  tun:  in  Aprill  10. 

18  The   White   Lion   180.  tun:  in  May  40  Men,  40. 


19  The  Furtherance   180.  tun:  in  May  80.  men. 

20  The  Margaret  and  John   160.  tun:  in  May         80. 

21  The  James  120.  tun:  in  May  80. 

Summe  of  the  persons,   1300.     Cattell  80. 

Sent  also  to  the  Summer  Hands  by  that  Company. 

22  The  Joseph   150.  tun:  in  May  1621.   100.  persons. 

23  The  James  120.  tun:  in  July  80. 

24  The  Concord   1 80.  tun :  in  August  70. 

Persons      250. 

So  there  is  foure  and  twentie  Sayle  of  ships,  with 
five  hundred  Mariners  in  them  im  ployed  to  these 
Plantations  in  this  yeere. 

Besides,  there  are  now  providing  severall  ships  in 
divers  parts  of  this  Kingdome  to  transport  to  the 
Plantations  above  five  hundred  persons. 

And  for  the  benefit  of  the  Plantations  these  things 
foUowring  have  beene  here  done  this  yeere. 

Beads.  Sixteene  persons  and  others  have  beene  provided  and 

sent  for  the  making  of  Beads  for  trade  in  the  Countrie 
with  the  Natives,  and  for  making  Glasse  of  all  sorts. 

Maids.  Seven    and   fiftie   young    Maides  have   beene  sent  to 

make  wives  for  the  Planters,  divers  of  which  were  well 
married  before  the  comming  away  of  the  Ships. 

Magazine.  A  Magazine  hath  beene  sent  of  all  necessaries  for  the 

Colonie,  to  the  value  of  two  thousand  pound,  besides 
all  private  mens  sending  goods,  which  was  very  ample, 
Trade  being  set  open  for  all  his  Majesties  Subjects. 
A  ship  called  the  Discoverie,  hath  beene  set  out  for  the 

Furre-trode.  rich  Trade  of  Furres,  which  both  the  French  and 
Hollanders  have  yeerely  within  our  Precincts,  and 
within  fiftie  leagues  of  us.     Five   and   twentie   persons 

Boat-builders,  for  the  building  of  Boats,  Pinnasses  and  Ships,  for  the 
necessarie   use   of  the   Colonie   for   fishing,  Trade,  and 




Discoverie,   &c.     Seven    persons    sent    for    planting   the 

thousand  Acres  of  Land  given  to  the  East  Indie  Schoole.  E<"t  Indie 


Other  Occurents  of  Note. 

The  Governours  arrivall  in  Virginia,  at  the  end  of 
the  last  Summer,  with  nine  ships,  and  neere  seven 
hundred  people,  all  safely,  and  in  good  health.  The 
admirable  deliverance  of  divers  ships ;  and  namely,  of 
the  Tiger,  which  beeing  driven  strangely  neere  two 
hundred  leagues  out  of  her  course,  fell  into  the  Turkes 
hands,  and  yet  came  save  to  Virginia. 

Master  Berkleyes  Letters  assure  us,  that  there  is  not  \P^-  ^^^ 
a  more  fit  place  for  Iron-workes  then  in  Virginia,  both  ^7H-\ 

for  Wood,  Water,  Mynes,  and  Stone :  and  that  by  Whit- 
sontide  next,  wee  may  relie  upon  Iron  made  by  him. 

The  Plants  of  Cotton-wooll  trees  that  came  out  of  Cotton. 
the  West  Indies,  prosper  exceeding  well,  and  the 
Cotton-wooll-feeds  from  the  Mogols  Countrie  come  up, 
and  grow :  Samples  of  it  they  have  sent ;  and  this 
Commoditie  they  hope  this  yeere  to  bring  to  a  good 
perfection  and  quantitie.  The  Indico  Seed  thrives  well,  Indico. 
but  they  yet  want  knowledge  how  to  cure  it. 

Our   Frenchmen   assure   us  that  no   Countrie  in    the 
World   is   more   proper   for   Vines,   Silke,  Olives,  Rice,  f^ines. 
&c.    then    Virginia,    and    that    it    excelleth    their    owne 
Countrey.     The    Vines    beeing    in    abundance    naturally 
over  all  the  Countrey :  a  taste  of  which  Wine  they  have 
alreadie  sent  us,  with  hope  the  next  yeere  to  send  us  a 
good  quantitie.     There  bee  Mulberie  trees  in  wonderfull  ^'^^^  "^j 
abundance,  and  much   excelling  both   in  goodnesse  and      '^'>enes. 
greatnesse    those    of    their    Countrey    of    Languedocke. 
To  the  full  perfecting  of  both  which  rich  Commodities 
of  Wine  and  Silke,   there  wanteth   nothing   but  hands. 
And  of  the  Mulberies  may  bee  made  also  good  whole- 
some  Wine   for   the   people    there.     And  of  a   certaine 
Plumme  in  the  Countrey,  they  have  made  good  drinke.  Plum-dnnke. 

Salt-workes  are  erecting  (the  proper  place  being  now  Salt-workes. 
found,  as  the  Rocheller  doth  certifie  us)  whereby  many 

XIX  145  K 



ships  will  transport  people  at  easier  rates  hereafter, 
finding  Salt  there  to  furnish  them  for  the  great  and 
profitable  fishings  upon  that  Coast,  whither  twentie 
sayle  of  ships  went  this  last  yeere  out  of  the  Westerne 
parts  of  England,  besides  the  ships  formerly  mentioned. 
NetaDis-  Master  John   Porie  hath  of  late  made   a  Discoverie 

c^vmesbyM.  j^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^  g^^  Northward  (yet  at  the  bottome  of 
'^"  it  he  was  not,  reserving  it  to  a  second  Voyage)  where 

are  now  setled  neere  one  hundred  English  very  happily, 
with  hope  of  a  good  Trade  of  Furres  there  to  bee  had. 
And  Terra  Lemnia  was  sent  us  from  thence,  which  is 
found  as  good  as  that  of  Turkey,  and  is  in  great  abun- 
dance to  be  had. 

In  February  last  he  likewise  discovered  to  the  South 
River,  some  sixtie  miles  over  Land  from  us,  a  very 
fruitfuU  and  pleasant  Countrey,  full  of  Rivers,  wherein 
are  two  Harvests  in  one  yeere  (the  great  King  giving  him 
friendly  entertainment,  and  desirous  to  make  a  league 
with  us)  hee  found  also  there  in  great  quantitie  of  the 
same  Silke-grasse  (as  appeareth  by  the  samples  sent  us) 
whereof  Master  Heriot  in  his  Booke  1587.  makes 
relation,  who  then  brought  home  some  of  it,  with 
which  a  piece  of  Grogeran  was  made,  and  given  to 
Queene  Elizabeth,  and  some  heere  who  have  lived  in 
the  East  Indies  affirme,  that  they  make  all  their 
Cambaya  Stuffes  of  this,  and  Cotton-wooU.  Also  in  his 
passage  by  Land,  Master  Porey  discovered  a  Countrey 
full  of  Pine-trees,  above  twentie  miles  long,  whereby  a 
great  abundance  of  Pitch  and  Tarre  may  bee  made : 
and  other  sorts  of  woods  there  were,  fit  for  Pot-ashes 
and  Sope-ashes. 
Copper  Mine.  The  Indians  have  made  relation  of  a  Copper  Myne, 
that  is  not  farre  from  thence,  how  they  gather  it,  and 
the  strange  making  of  it :  a  piece  whereof  was  sent 
home,  being  found  (after  trial)  very  excellent  metall. 
Some  of  the  English  have  made  relation  of  a  China 
Boxe  scene  at  one  of  the  Kings  Houses,  who  declared, 
that  it  was  sent  him  from  the  West,  by  a  King  that 



1 621. 

dwels  over  the  great  Hils,  whose  Countrey  is  neere  the 

Sea,  he  having  that  Boxe   from  a  people  as  hee  said, 

that  come  thither  in  ships,  and  weare  clothes,  and  dwell 

in    Houses,    and    are    called    Acanackchina.      And    he 

offered    our   people    that    he    would    send    his    Brother 

along  with   them  to  that  King:  which  the  Governour 

purposeth  not  to  refuse,  hoping  thereby  to  discover  the 

South  Sea,  so  long  talked  of. 

A   small   ship   comming   in  December  last  from   the 

Summer-Hands,  to  Virginia,  brought  thither  from  thence  Summer  Hand 

these  Plants,  viz.  Vines  of  all  sorts.  Orange  and  Leman  PI""''- 

trees,   Sugar   Canes,   Cassado  Roots   (that  make   bread) 

Pines,    Plantans,    Potatoes,    and    sundry    other    Indian 

fruits  and  plants,  not  formerly  seene  in  Virginia,  which 

begin  to  prosper  very  well. 


The  Gentlemen  and  Mariners  that  came  in  the 
Royall  James,  from  the  East  Indies  (beeing  at  Cape  Bona 
Speranza  homeward  bound)  gave  towards  the  building 
of  a  Free  Schoole  in  Virginia,  to  be  called  the  East 
Indie  Schoole,  the  summe  of  seventie  pound  eight 
shillings  six  pence. 

Towards  the  furtherance  of  the  said  East  India 
Schoole,  an  unknowne  person  hath  added  the  summe  of 
thirtie  pound. 

A  person  refusing  to  be  made  knowne,  hath  given 
the  summe  of  fortie  shillings  a  yeere  for  ever,  for  a 
Sermon,  before  the  Virginia  Company  thirtie  pounds. 

At  a  Quarter  Court  held  the  thirtieth  of  January 
1621.  by  a  person  not  willing  as  yet  to  bee  knowne, 
was  sent  in  Gold  to  helpe  forward  the  East  Indie  Schoole, 
five  and  twentie  pounds. 

At  the  same  Quarter  Court,  a  small  Bible,  with  a 
cover  richly  wrought ;  a  great  Church  Bible ;  Bookes  of 
Common  Prayer;  and  other  Books  were  presented  to 
be  sent  to  Virginia,  in  the  name  of  a  person  who  had 
the   yeere    before  sent,  for   the    use   of  the  Colledge  at 




Henrico,  divers  Bookes,  and  an  exact  Map  of  America; 
the  Giver  is  not  knowne,  but  the  Bookes  are  valued  at 
tenne  pound. 
[IV.  ix.  Given  by  Master  Thomas  Bargrave,  Preacher  in  Vir- 

1785-]  ginia  deceassed,  for  the  use  of  the  CoUedge,  a  Library 
valued  at  a  hundred  Markes. 

And  there  is  a  contribution  made  by  the  Inhabitants 
in  Virginia,  for  the  building  of  an  house  of  entertain- 
ment for  new  commers  at  James  Citie,  amounting  to 
the  value  of  fifteene  hundred  pounds. 

Patents  granted  this  yeere. 

1  To  the  Ladie  Dale. 

2  To  Sir  Dudly  Digges. 

3  To  Sir  John  Bourchier. 

4  To  Captaine  Ralph  Hamer. 

5  To  Master  Arthur  Swayne,  &c. 

6  To  Master  Rowland  Truelove,  &c. 

7  -To  Master  John  Crowe. 

8  To  Master  Edward  Rider. 

9  To  Captaine  Simon  Leeke. 

10  To  Master  Daniell  Gookin. 

11  To  Master  Edward  Bennet. 

12  To  Master  Joseph  Leming. 

13  To  Sir  Charles  North. 

14  To  Sir  George  Yeardly. 

15  To  Master  Thomas  Leveson. 

16  To  Captaine  William  Wildon. 

17  To  Master  Henry  Southey. 

18  To  Martins  Hundred. 

19  To  Master  Robert  Moston. 

20  To  Master  Edmund  Wynne. 

21  To  Captaine  Henry  Pelham,  &c. 

22  To  Captaine  Daniell  Tucker. 

23  To  Sir  Bowyer  Worsly. 

24  To  Master  Thomas  Buckley. 

25  To  Master  Francis  Harwell. 

26  To  Sir  John  Brooke. 




Who  together  with  their  Associates,  have  undertaken 

to  transport  great   multitudes   of  people  and   cattle  to 


§.   II. 

Newes  from  Virginia  in  Letters  sent  thence  1621. 
partly  published  by  the  Company,  partly  tran- 
scribed from  the  Originals,  with  Letters  of 
his  Majestie,  and  of  the  Company  touching 

N  the  three  last  yeeres  of  16 19.  1620.  and  1621. 
there  hath  beene  provided  and  sent  for  Virginia 
two  and  fortie  Saile  of  ships,  three  thousand  five  i'iio- people 
hundred  and   seventie  men   and  women  for  Plantation,  ""'.^.^'''' 
with  requisite   provisions,    besides    store   of  Cattle,  and  f^"^'^  /^^, 
in  those  ships  have  beene  above  twelve  hundred  Mariners  yeeres^i.Saik 
imployed :   There   hath   also  beene  sent  in  those  yeeres  o/iMps, 
nine   ships    to    the    Summer    Hands    with    about    nine  '^°°'  ^""j 
hundred   people   to   inhabit   there,    in   which   ships   two  " "     To  tie 
hundred  and  fortie  Mariners  were  imployed.     In  which  Summer 
space    have    beene   granted   fifty   Patents    to    particular  Hands. 
persons,    for    Plantation    in    Virginia,    who    with    their  Nine  ships,  13 
Associates   have   undertaken   therein    to   transport  great  ^^rsimplmed 
multitudes  of  people  and  cattell   thither,  which  for  the 
most  part  is   since   performed,  and  the  residue   now  in 
preparing,  as  by  the  severall  Declarations  of  each  yeere 
in   their  particulars,   (manifested  and  approoved  in   our 
generall  and  publike  Quarter-Courts)  and  for  the  fuller 
satisfaction   of  all  desirous  to   understand   the   particu- 
larities  of    such    proceedings,    hath    beene    by   printing 
commended  to  the  understanding  of  all. 

Sir  Francis  Wiat  was  sent  Governour  into  Virginia, 
who  arrived  there  in  November  1621.  with  Master 
George  Sandys  Treasurer,  Master  Davison  Secretarie, 
&c.  In  the  nine  ships  sent  in  that  Fleet  died  but  one 
Passenger  of  seven  hundred,  in  whose  roome  there  was 
another  also  borne  at  Sea.     Their  provisions  were  not 




found  so  well  conditioned  as  was  expected.  The  Sailers 
are  still  blamed  for  imbezelling  the  goods  sent  to  private 
persons,  for  killing  of  Swine,  inordinate  trucking  &c. 
It  was  ordained  that  for  every  head  they  should  plant 
but  a  thousand  plants  of  Tobacco  (and  for  the  better 
strength  not  to  suffer  above  nine  leaves  to  grow  on 
each  plant)  which  will  make  about  a  hundred  weight. 

Master  Gookin  arrived  also  out  of  Ireland  with  fiftie 
men  of  his  owne,  and  thirtie  Passengers  well  furnished. 
The  present  gaine  by  Tobacco,  had  made  the  planting 
of  Corne  to  be  neglected:  and  some  thinke  that  if 
Corne  might  there  be  valued  (not  at  two  shillings  sixe 
pence  the  bushell)  as  deere  as  that  which  is  brought 
from  hence,  there  would  be  lesse  feare  of  famine,  or 
dependance  on  Tobacco. 

The  Letters  written  from  the  Governour  and  Treasurer 
in  Virginia  in  the  beginning  of  March  last,  (which  came 
hither  in  Aprill)  gave  assurance  of  overcomming  and 
bringing  to  perfection  in  this  yeere,  the  Iron-workes, 
Glasse-workes,  Salt-workes,  the  plentlfuU  sowing  of  all 
sorts  of  English  graine  with  the  Plough,  having  now 
cleered  good  quantitie  of  ground;  setting  of  store  of 
Indian  Corne  or  Maiz,  sufficient  for  our  selves,  and  for 
trucke  with  the  Natives ;  restraint  of  the  quantitie  of 
Tobacco,  and  amendment  of  it  in  the  qualitie,  learned 
by  time  and  experience;  The  planting  of  Vines  and 
Mulberie  trees  neere  to  their  Houses,  Figge-trees,  Pome- 
granates, Potatoes,  and  Cotton-wooU  Seeds,  Pocoon, 
Indico,  Sugar  Canes,  Madder,  Woade,  Hempe,  Flaxe, 
[IV.  ix.  and  Silke-grasse ;  and  for  the  erecting  of  a  faire  Inne 
1786.]  in  James  Citie  for  the  better  entertainment  of  new 
commers,  whereto  and  to  other  publike  workes,  every 
old  Planter  there  offered  freely  and  liberally  to  contri- 
bute. I  write  the  words  of  their  Letters.  And  how 
in  a  late  Discoverie  made,  a  few  moneths  before  by 
some  of  them  to  the  Southward,  they  had  past  thorow 
Forrest  of  great  Forrests  of  Pines,  fifteene  or  sixteene  miles  broad, 
Pines.  and    above    threescore   miles   long,    very   fit   for    Masts 




for  shipping,  and  for  Pitch  and  Tarre,  and  of  other 
sorts  of  woods  fit  for  Pot-ashes  and  Sope-ashes,  and 
came  unto  a  most  fruitful!  Countrey,  blessed  with 
abundance  of  Corne,  reaped  twice  a  yeere  (within  the 
limits  of  Virginia)  where  also  they  understand  of  a 
Copper  Myne,  an  essay  whereof  was  sent,  and  upon 
trial!  here  found  to  be  very  rich,  and  met  with  a  great 
deale  of  Silke-grasse  there  growing,  which  monethly 
may  be  cut,  of  which  Icinds,  and  Cotton-wooll,  all  the 
Cambaya  and  Bengala  Stuifes  are  made  in  the  East 
Indies:  and  of  which  kindes  of  Silke-grasse  was  here- 
tofore made  a  piece  of  Grogeram  given  to  Queene 
Elizabeth.  And  how  that  in  December  last  they  had  ^-  Harlot  in 
planted  and  cultivated  in  Virginia  Vines  of  aU  (as  well  t-  ^°°^"  "^ 
those  naturally  growing,  as  those  other  Plants  sent  them  a  \'%l. 
from  these  parts  of  Europe)  Orenge  and  Lemon-trees,  Fines  planted. 
Fig-trees,  Sugar  Canes,  Cotton-wooll,  Cassavi  Roots 
(that  make  very  good  bread)  Plantanes,  Potatoes,  and 
sundry  other  Indian  fruits  and  Plants  not  formerly  scene 
in  Virginia,  which  at  the  time  of  their  said  Letters  began 
to  prosper  very  well :  as  also  their  Indico  Seed,  for  the 
true  cure  whereof  there  is  lately  caused  a  Treatise  to 
be  written. 

Furthermore,  they    write  that   in  a   Voyage  made  by 
Lieutenant    Marmaduke   Parkinson,  and   other   English 
Gentlemen,    up   the    River    of    Patomacke    they   saw  a 
China  Boxe  at  one  of  the   Kings   Houses   where  they  Note.  J  China 
were.     This    Boxe    or    Casket    was    made    of    braided  ^'."^ '""' 
Palmito,  painted  without,  and  lined  in  the  inside  with  ^^^" 
blue   Taffata   after    the    China    or    East    India   fashion. 
They  enquiring  whence  it  came,  the  King  of  Patomecke 
said,  it  was  presented  him  by  a  certaine  people  of  the 
Mountaines   toward   the    South-west,   who   got   it   from 
another  Nation  beyond  them  some  thirtie  dayes  journie 
from  Patomacke,  called  Acana  Echinac,  beeing  of  small 
stature,  who  had  Houses,  Apparell,  and  Houshold  stuffe 
like   us,   and  living  within   foure  dayes  journey  of  the 
Sea,    had    ships    come    into    their    River :    and   he    his 




Brother  along  with  them  to  that  King,  which  offer  the 
Governour  purposed  not  to  refuse;  and  the  rather,  by- 
reason  of  the  continuall  constant  relations  of  all  those 
Savages  in  Virginia,  of  a  Sea,  and  the  way  to  it  West, 
they  affirming  that  the  heads  of  all  those  seven  goodly 
Rivers  (the  least  whereof  is  greater  then  the  River  of 
Thames,  and  Navigable  above  an  hundred  and  fiftie 
miles,  and  not  above  sixe  or  eight  miles  one  from 
another)  which  fall  all  into  one  great  Bay,  have  their 
rising  out  of  a  ridge  of  Hils,  that  runnes  all  along 
South  and  North:  whereby  they  doubt  not  but  to 
find  a  safe,  easie,  and  good  passage  to  the  South  Sea, 
part  by  water,  and  part  by  Land,  esteeming  it  not 
above  an  hundred  and  fiftie  miles  from  the  head  of  the 
Falls,  where  we  are  now  planted ;  the  Discoverie  where- 
of will  bring  forth  a  most  rich  Trade  to  Cathay,  China, 
Japan,  and  those  other  of  the  East  Indies,  to  the  inesti- 
mable benefit  of  this  Kingdome. 

M.  Berkley.  Moreover,  the  Letters  of  Master  John  Berkley,  some- 
times of  Bevestone  Castle  in  the  Countie  of  Glocester, 
(a  Gentleman  of  an  Honourable  Family)  likewise  certifie, 
that  a  more  fit  place  for  Iron-workes  (whereof  he  was 
made  Master  and  Over-seer)  then  in  Virginia,  both  for 
Wood,  Water,  Mynes,  and  Stone,  was  not  to  be  found : 
And  that  by  Whitsontide  the  Company  might  relye  upon, 
good  quantities  of  Iron   made  by  him :    which  also  by 

M.G.Sandys.  Letters  from  Master  George  Sandys  the  third  of  March 
last,  was  confirmed,  with  this  farther  description  of  the 
place  (called  The  falling  Creeke)  to  be  so  fitting  for 
that  purpose,  as  if  Nature  had  applyed  her  selfe  to  the 
wish  and  direction  of  the  Workman ;  where  also  were 
great  stones  hardly  seene  else-where  in  Virginia,  laying 
on  the  place,  as  though  they  had  beene  brought  thither 
to  advance  the  erection  of  those  Workes. 

Frenci  The  Letters  of  the   French  Vignerons   or  Vine-men,. 

Fignerons.  procured  out  of  France,  and  sent  over  into  Virginia,, 
did  likewise  assertaine,  that  no  Countrey  in  the  World 
was  more  proper  for  Vines,  Silke,  Rice,  Olives,  and  other 



fruits,  then  Virginia  is :  and  that  it  farr  excelled  their 
owne  Countrie  of  Languedocke  ;  the  Vines  of  divers 
sorts  being  in  abundance  naturally  over  all  the  Countrey. 
They  scarsly  beleeved  those  fruits  to  be  Grapes  till  they 
had  opened  them  and  scene  their  kernels;  such  was 
their  bignesse.  They  are  in  love  with  the  Countrey, 
and  having  planted  some  cuttings  of  Vines  at  Michael- 
mas last,  in  their  Letters  affirme  that  these  bare  Grapes 
alreadie  this  Spring  to  their  great  wonder,  as  being  a 
thing  they  suppose  not  heard  off  in  any  other  Countrie. 
A  taste  of  Wine  made  of  the  wilde  Grape,  they  last 
yeere  sent,  with  hope  to  send  a  good  quantitie  this  next 
Vintage ;  and  that  the  Mulbery  trees,  where  they  abode  Mulberies 
were  in  wonderfull  abundance,  and  much  excelling  both 
in  goodnesse  and  greatnesse  those  of  their  owne  Countrey 
of  Languedocke  :  and  that  those  Silke-wormes  they  have, 
prosper  exceeding  well,  and  some  Silke  they  hope  to 
send  this  yeere,  there  wanting  nothing  to  set  up  that 
rich  Commoditie  but  store  of  hands  wherewith  England 
doth  abound.  Of  the  fruit  of  which  Mulbery  trees 
(as  of  a  Plumme  there  plentifully  growing)  they  would 
make  wholsome  Drinkes  for  the  Colonie  and  people 

Opachankanough  doted  on  a  house  which  the  English 
had  built  for  him  of  our  fashion :   hee  dwelled  therein,  [IV.  ix. 
shewed  it  to  his  owne  people  and  strangers  with  pride,  1787-] 

keeping  his  Keyes  charily,  and  busying  himselfe  with 
locking  and  unlocking  the  doores,  sometimes  a  hundred 
times  in  a  day,  admiring  the  strangenesse  of  that  Engine, 
a  Locke  and  Key.  Hee  gave  the  English  leave  to  seate 
themselves  any  where  on  his  Rivers  where  the  Natives 
are  not  actually  seated,  and  entred  into  fiirther  covenants 
of  amity,  for  reciprocall  defence,  mutuall  transportation, 
discovery  of  mines,  &c.  They  report  also  of  Copper 
Peeces  presented  to  Opachank :  which  Copper  is  gathered 
at  the  foote  of  the  Mountaines,  where  they  digge  a  hole 
in  the  ground,  in  which  they  put  the  oare,  and  make 
thereon   a   great  fire,  which   causeth  it  to  runne  into  a 




masse,  and  become  malleable:  neither  have  they  any 
tooles,  but  smooth  stones  for  that  purpose.  This  seemed 
strange  to  ours  which  heard  the  English  Copper  passeth 
eleven  fires. 

His  Majesties  gracious  Letter  to  the  Earle  of 
South-hampton,  Treasurer,  and  to  the  Counsell 
and  Company  of  Virginia  here  :  commanding 
the  present  setting  up  of  Silke  workes,  and 
planting  of  Vines  in  Virginia. 

Right  trusty  and  welbeloved,  We  greete  you  well : 
whereas  We  understand,  that  the  Soyle  in  Virginia 
naturally  yeeldeth  store  of  excellent  Mulberry  trees,  We 
have  taken  into  Our  Princely  consideration,  the  great 
benefit  that  may  grow  to  the  Adventurers  and  Planters, 
by  the  breede  of  Silkewormes,  and  setting  up  of  Silke- 
workes  in  those  parts.  And  therefore  of  Our  gracious 
Inclination  to  a  designe  of  so  much  honour  and  advantage 
to  the  publike,  We  have  thought  good,  as  at  sundry 
other  times,  so  now  more  particularly  to  recommend  it  to 
your  speciall  care,  hereby  charging  and  requiring  you  to 
take  speedy  order,  that  our  people  there,  use  all  possible 
diligence  in  breeding  Silkewormes,  and  erecting  Silke- 
workes,  and  that  they  rather  bestow  their  travell  in 
compassing  this  rich  and  solid  Commodity,  then  in  that 
of  Tobacco  ;  which  besides  much  unnecessary  expence, 
brings  with  it  many  disorders  and  inconveniences.  And 
for  as  much  as  Our  servant,  John  Bonoell  hath  taken 
paines  in  setting  downe  the  true  use  of  the  Silkeworme, 
together  with  the  Art  of  Silkemaking,  and  of  planting 
Vines,  and  that  his  experience  and  abilities  may  much 
conduce  to  the  advancement  of  this  businesse ;  We  doe 
hereby  likewise  require  you  to  cause  his  directions,  both 
for  the  said  Silkeworkes  and  Vineyards,  to  be  carefully 
put  in  practice  thorowout  our  Plantations  there,  that  so 
the  worke  may  goe  on  cheerefully,  and  receive  no  more 
interruptions  nor  delayes. 




Given  under  Our  Signet,  at  our  Pallace  of  Westminster, 
the  ninth  day  of  July,  in  the  twentieth  yeare  of  our 
Raigne  of  England,  France  and  Ireland,  and  of  Scotland 
the  five  and  fiftieth. 

To  Our  right  trusty  and  right  welbeloved  Cousin  and 
Councellour,  Henry,  Earle  of  South-hampton,  Treasurer 
of  our  Plantation  in  Virginia,  and  to  Our  trusty  and 
welbeloved,  the  Deputy,  and  others  of  Our  said 

Virginia.  Windebank. 

The  Treasurour,  Counsell  and  Company  of  Vir- 
ginia, to  the  Governour  and  Counsell  of  State 
in  Virginia  residing. 

AFter  our  very  harty  commendations :  His  Sacred 
Majesty,  out  of  his  high  wisedome  and  care  of  the 
noble  Plantation  of  Virginia,  hath  beene  graciously  pleased 
to  direct  his  Letters  to  us  here  in  England,  thereby  com- 
manding us  to  advance  the  setting  up  of  Silkworkes,  and 
planting  of  Vineyards  ;  as  by  the  Copy  herewith  sent, 
you  may  perceive. 

The  intimation  of  his  Majesties  pleasure,  we  conceive 
to  be  a  motive  sufficient,  to  induce  you  to  imploy  all 
your  indevors  to  the  setting  forward  those  two  Staple 
Commodities  of  Silke  and  Wine  ;  which  brought  to  their 
perfection,  will  infinitely  redound  to  the  honour,  benefit, 
and  comfort  of  the  Colony,  and  of  this  whole  Kingdome  : 
yet  we,  in  discharge  of  our  duties,  doe  againe  renew  our 
often  and  iterated  Instructions,  and  invite  you  cheerefuUy, 
to  fall  upon  these  two  so  rich,  and  necessary  Commodities. 
And  if  vou  shall  finde  any  person,  either  through  negli- 
gence or  wilfulnesse,  to  omit  the  planting  of  Vines,  and 
Mulberry  trees,  in  orderly  and  husbandly  manner,  as  by 
the  Booke  is  prescribed,  or  the  providing  of  convenient 
roomes  for  the  breeding  of  Wormes  ;  we  desire  they  may 
by  severe  censures  and  punishment,  be  compelled  there- 
unto.    And  on  the  contrary,  that  all  favour  and  possible 





The  Booke  is 
printed,  con- 
taining many 
good  rules  both 
for  Silktoorks, 
Vines  y  other 
husbandry  ; 
but  too  long 
here  to  be 


assistance  be  given  to  such  as  yeelde  willing  obedience  to 
his  Highnesse  Commands  therein.  The  breach  or  per- 
formance whereof,  as  we  are  bound  to  give  a  strict 
account,  so  will  it  also  be  required  of  you  the  Governour 
and  Counsell  especially.  Herein  there  can  be  no  Plea, 
either  of  difficulty  or  impossibility  ;  but  all  the  contrary 
appeares,  by  the  naturall  abundance  of  those  two  excellent 
Plants  afore-named  every  where  in  Virginia  :  neither  will 
such  excuses  be  admitted,  nor  any  other  pretences  serve, 
whereby  the  businesse  be  at  all  delayed  :  and  as  wee 
formerly  sent  at  our  great  charge  the  French  Vignerons 
to  you,  to  teach  you  their  Art  ;  so  for  the  same  purpose 
we  now  commend  this  Booke  unto  you,  to  serve  as  an 
Instructour  to  every  one,  and  send  you  store  of  them  to 
be  dispersed  over  the  whole  Colony,  to  every  Master  of 
a  Family  one,  Silke-seede  you  shall  receive  also  by  this 
Ship,  sufficient  to  store  every  man  :  so  that  there  wants 
nothing,  but  industry  in  the  Planter,  suddenly  to  bring 
the  making  of  Silke  to  its  perfection  :  which  either  for 
their  owne  benefit  (we  hope)  they  will  willingly  indevour, 
or  by  a  wholesome  and  necessary  severity  they  must  be 

This  particular  advice  we  thought  necessary  to  give 
you,  lest  that  if  it  should  have  come  to  you  mingled  with 
others,  you  would  have  interpreted  it  as  a  common 
Instruction,  or  a  businesse  that  was  not  taken  so  to  heart, 
as  this  by  us,  and  we  hope  will  be  by  you  in  humble 
obedience  to  his  Sacred  Majesties  Royall  Instructions. 
The  paines  and  industry  of  tlie  Authour,  for  the  benefit 
of  the  Plantations  (being  a  member  of  our  Company)  are 
sufficient  arguments  of  his  good  affection  to  the  Action, 
and  they  both  deserve  your  best  acceptance  and  ours,  that 
others  may  thereby  be  invited  to  impart  their  knowledge 
in  businesse  of  this  and  the  like  nature  ;  whereby  the 
Colony  may  not  onely  be  supported  for  the  present,  but 
brought  to  that  perfection,  that  may  redound  to  the  glory 
of  God,  the  honour  of  his  Majestic,  and  the  inestimable 
benefit  of  his  noble  Kingdomes  ;  which  as  they  are  the 




true  aime  and  end  the  Adventurers  and  Planters  have 
proposed  unto  themselves,  so  ought  they  to  be  still  the 
honorable  seedes  to  put  others  also  forward  in  this  action  : 
we  commend  this  businesse  againe  to  your  speciall  care. 
And  so  we  commit  you  all,  and  your  waighty  affaires,  to 
the  protection  of  the  Almighty. 

Henry  Southampton. 

§.    III. 

The  barbarous  Massacre  committed  by  the  Savages 
on  the  English-Planters,  March  the  two  and 
twentieth,   1621.  after  the  English  accompt. 

He  last  May  there  came  Letters  from  Sir  Francis 
Wiat  Governour  in  Virginia,  which  did  advertise 
that  when  in  November  last  he  arrived  in  Virginia, 
and  entred  upon  his  Government,  he  found  the  Country 
setled  in  a  peace  (as  all  men  there  thought)  sure  and 
unviolable,  not  onely  because  it  was  solemnly  ratified  and 
sworne,  and  at  the  request  of  the  Native  King  stamped  in 
Brasse,  and  fixed  to  one  of  his  Oakes  of  note,  but  as 
being  advantagious  to  both  parts  ;  to  the  Savages  as  the 
weaker,  under  which  they  were  safely  sheltred  and 
defended  ;  to  us,  as  being  the  easiest  way  then  thought 
to  pursue  and  advance  our  projects,  or  buildings,  plant- 
ings, and  effecting  their  conversion  by  peaceable  and  faire 
meanes.  And  such  was  the  conceit  of  firme  peace  and 
amity,  as  that  there  was  seldome  or  never  a  Sword  worne, 
and  a  Peece  seldomer,  except  for  a  Deere  or  Fowle.  By 
which  assurance  of  security,  the  Plantations  of  particular  Hasty 
Adventurers  and  Planters  were  placed  scatteringly  and  '"""ly- 
straglingly  as  a  choyce  veine  of  rich  ground  invited  them, 
and  the  further  from  neighbours  held  the  better.  The 
houses  generally  set  open  to  the  Savages,  who  were 
alwayes  friendly  entertained  at  the  table  of  the  English, 
and  commonly  lodged  in  their  Bed-chambers.  The  old 
Planters  (as  they  thought  now  come  to  reape  the  benefit 
of  their  long  travels)  placed  with  wonderfull  content  upon 




their  private  dividends,  and  the  planting  of  particular 
Hundreds  and  Colonies  pursued  with  an  hopefuU  alacrity, 
all  our  projects  (saith  he)  in  a  faire  way,  and  their 
familiarity  with  the  Natives,  seeming  to  open  a  faire  gate 
for  their  conversion  to  Christianity. 

The  Country  being  in  this  estate,  an  occasion  was 
Opachanka-  ministred  of  sending  to  Opachankano  the  King  of  these 
noesdissimula-  Savages,  about  the  middle  of  March  last,  what  time  the 
Tem"^  Messenger  returned  backe  with  these  words  from  him, 
security.  That  he  held  the  peace  concluded  so  firme,  as  the  Skie 

should  sooner  fall  then  it  dissolved :  yea,  such  was  the 
treacherous  dissimulation  of  that  people,  who  then  had 
contrived  our  destruction,  that  even  two  dayes  before  the 
massacre,  some  of  our  men  were  guided  thorow  the 
woods  by  them  in  safety  :  and  one  Browne,  who  then  to 
learne  the  language  lived  among  the  Warrascoyacks  (a 
Province  of  that  King)  was  in  friendly  manner  sent  backe 
by  them  to  Captaine  Hamor  his  Master,  and  many  the 
like  passages,  rather  increasing  our  former  confidence, 
then  any  wise  in  the  world  ministring  the  least  suspition 
of  the  breach  of  the  peace,  or  of  what  instantly  ensued ; 
yea,  they  borrowed  our  owne  Boats  to  convey  themselves 
crosse  the  River  (on  the  bankes  of  both  sides  whereof  all 
our  Plantations  were)  to  consult  of  the  divellish  murder 
that  ensued,  and  of  our  utter  extirpation,  which  God  of 
his  mercy  (by  the  meanes  of  some  of  themselves  con- 
verted to  Christianity)  prevented :  and  as  well  on  the 
Friday  morning  (the  fatall  day)  the  two  and  twentieth  of 
March,  as  also  in  the  evening,  as  in  other  dayes  before, 
they  came  unarmed  into  our  houses,  without  Bowes  or 
Arrowes,  or  other  weapons,  with  Deere,  Turkies,  Fish, 
[IV.  ix.  Furres,   and   other   provisions,   to  sell   and   trucke  with 

i7»9-J  us  for  Glasse  Beades,  and  other  trifles  :  yea,  in  some 
places,  sat  downe  at  Breakfast  with  our  people  at  their 
tables,  whom  immediately  with  their  owne  tooles  and 
weapons,  either  laid  downe,  or  standing  in  their  houses, 
they  basely  and  barbarously  murthered,  not  sparing 
either  age  or   sexe,  man,  woman  or  childe  ;   so   sodaine 



in  their  cruell  execution,  that  few  or  none  discerned 
the  weapon  or  blow  that  brought  them  to  destruction. 
In  which  manner  they  also  slew  many  of  our  people 
then  at  their  severall  workes  and  husbandries  in  the 
fields,  and  without  their  houses,  some  in  planting 
Come  and  Tobacco,  some  in  gardening,  some  in 
making  Bricke,  building,  sawing,  and  other  kindes 
of  husbandry,  they  well  knowing  in  what  places  and 
quarters   each    of   our    men    were,    in    regard    of   their 

daily    familiarity,    and    resort    to    us    for    trading    and  347-  ^^'"^ 

other    negotiations,    which    the    more    willingly   was    by  '^^'^  basely 
us  continued   and   cherished   for   the   desire  we   had  of  ""'"'A?/ 

efrectmg  that  great  master-peece  or  workes,   their  con-  more. 

version.     And  by  this  meanes  that  fataU  Friday  morning.  He  had 
there   fell   under    the    bloudy   and    barbarous    hands   of  «"''"«'  ^^t"^' 

that   perfidious    and    inhumane    people,    contrary    to   all  ^^^^'"^^ 

lawes  of  God  and  Men,  of  Nature  and  Nations,  three  ,7.  testifying 

hundred   and    forty    seven    men,  women,  and  children,  the  plentiful 

most   by  their  owne  weapons  ;    and   not  being  content  <:'>mming  up  of 

with    taking    away    life    alone,    they    fell    after    againe  ' ' 7"°"^ 

upon   the   dead,   making  as   well  as  they  could  a  fresh  attributirigthe 

murder,    defacing,    dragging,    and    mangling    the    dead  ill  successe  of 

carkasses   into    many    peeces,    and    carrying    some   parts  (kings,  to  the 

away    in    derision,    with    base    and    bruitish    triumph,  "q^'  l"^- 

Neither    yet     did    these    Beasts    spare    those    amongst  converting  the 

the    rest    well    knowne    unto    them,    from    whom    they  Natives, 

had    daily    received    many    benefits    and    favours,    but  ""^"^^  ^^  '"''^ 

spitefully   also    massacred    them.      One    instance    of   it,  "'i'j^^^"' 

amongst  too  many  shall  serve  for  all.  wanted  but 

That    worthy    religious    Gentleman,     Master    George  meanes(indeed 

Thorpe  Esquire,  Deputie  of  the  Colledge  lands,  some-  '<>  further 

times    one    of    his    Majesties    Pensioners,    and    in    one  ''?':'"'  ""^'/'* 

of  the   principall    places    of  command    in  Virginia,  did  procured)  Sure 

so    truely    and    earnestly    affect    their    conversion,    and  binde,  sure 

was   so   tender   over    them,    that    whosoever   under   his  f^'^-    Pi"3 

authority    had    given    them    but    the    least    displeasure  'ff^"-^^'^ 

or  discontent,  hee  punished  them  severely.     He  thought  j^^,„. 

nothing    too    deare    for    them,    and    as    being    desirous  deceived. 




to  binde  them  Onto  him  by  his  many  courtesies,  he 
never  denied  them  any  thing  that  they  asked  him, 
insomuch  that  when  these  Savages  complained  unto 
him  of  the  fiercenesse  of  our  Mastives,  most  implacable 
and  terrible  unto  them  (knowing  them  by  instinct 
it  seemes,  to  be  but  treacherous  and  false-hearted 
friends  to  us,  better  then  our  selves)  he  to  gratifie 
them  in  all  things,  for  the  winning  of  them  by  degrees, 
caused  some  of  them  to  be  killed  in  their  presence, 
to  the  great  displeasure  of  the  owners,  and  would 
have  all  the  rest  guelt  (had  he  not  beene  hindered) 
to  make  them  the  gentler  and  the  milder  to  them. 
Hee  was  not  onely  too  kinde  and  beneficiall  to  the 
common  sort,  but  also  to  their  King,  to  whom  he 
oft  resorted,  and  gave  many  presents  which  he  knew 
to  be  highly  pleasing  to  him.  And  whereas  this  King 
before  dwelt  onely  in  a  Cottage,  or  rather  a  denne 
or  Hog-stye,  made  with  a  few  poles  and  stickes, 
and  covered  with  Mats  after  their  wilde  manner  : 
to  civilize  him,  he  first  built  him  a  faire  House, 
according  to  the  English  fashion,  in  which  (as  before 
is  said)  he  tooke  such  joy,  especially  in  his  Locke 
and  Key,  which  hee  so  admired,  as  locking  and 
unlocking  his  doore  an  hundred  times  a  day,  he 
thought  no  device  in  all  the  world  was  comparable 
to  it. 

Thus  insinuating  himselfe  to  this  King  for  his 
Religious  purposes,  he  conferred  after  with  him  oft, 
and  intimated  to  him  matters  of  our  Religion ;  and 
thus  farre  the  Pagan  confessed,  moved  by  naturall 
Principles,  that  our  God  was  a  good  God,  and  better 
much  then  theirs,  in  that  hee  had  with  so  many  good 
things  above  them  endowed  us.  He  told  him,  if 
he  would  serve  our  God,  he  should  be  partaker  of 
all  those  good  things  we  had,  and  of  farre  greater 
then  sense  or  reason  ever  could  imagine.  He  won 
upon  him,  as  he  thought  in  many  things,  so  as  hee 
gave  him   faire  hearing  and  good  answer,  and  seemed 

1 60 



to  be  much  pleased  with  his  discourse,  and  in  his 
companie.  And  both  he  and  his  people  for  the  daily 
courtesies  this  good  Gentleman  did  to  one  or  other 
of  them,  did  professe  such  outward  love  and  respect 
unto  him,  as  nothing  could  seeme  more  :  but  all  was 
litde  regarded  after  by  this  Viperous  brood,  as  the 
sequell  shewed  :  for  they  not  onely  wilfully  murdered 
him,  but  cruelly  and  felly,  out  of  a  divellish  malice, 
did  so  many  barbarous  despights  and  foule  scornes 
after  to  his  dead  corps,  as  are  unbefitting  to  be  heard 
by  any  civill  eare.  One  thing  I  cannot  omit,  that 
when  this  good  Gentleman,  upon  his  fatall  houre,  was 
warned  by  his  man  (who  perceived  some  treachery 
intended  to  them  by  these  hell-hounds)  to  looke  to 
himselfe,  and  withall  ran  away  for  feare  of  the  mischiefe 
he  strongly  apprehended,  and  so  saved  his  owne  life  ; 
yet  his  Master,  out  of  the  conscience  of  his  owne 
good  meaning,  and  faire  deserts  ever  towards  them, 
was  so  voide  of  all  suspition,  and  so  full  of  confidence, 
that  they  had  sooner  killed  him,  then  he  could  or 
would  beleeve  they  meant  any  ill  against  him. 

At  the  time  of  this  Massacre  there  were  three  or 
foure  of  our  Ships  in  James  River,  and  one  in  the 
next  River,  and  daily  more  to  come  in,  as  three 
did  within  foureteene  daies  after ;  one  of  which  they 
endevoured  to  have  surprised,  but  in  vaine,  as  had 
also  beene  their  whole  attempt,  had  any  the  least 
fore-knowledge  beene  in  those  places  where  the  Massacre 
was  committed  :  yet  were  the  hearts  of  the  English 
ever  stupid,  and  averted  from  beleeving  any  thing 
that  might  weaken  their  hopes  of  speedy  winning 
the  Savages  to  Civilitie  and  Religion,  by  kinde  usage 
and  faire  conversing  amongst  them.  Hee,  and  the 
whole  Counsell  writ  further.  That  Almighty  God  (they  [I^-  i^- 
doubt  not)  hath  his  great  worke  to  doe  in  this  Tragedy,  '79°- J 

and  will  thereout  draw  honour  and  glory  to  his  great 
Name  ;    safety,  and   a   more  flourishing  estate  to  them- 
selves,  and   the   whole   Plantation  there ;   and  the  more 
XIX  161  L 



speedy  conversion  of  the  Children  of  those  Savages 
to  himselfe,  since  he  so  miraculously  preserved  so 
many  of  the  English,  whose  desire  to  draw  those 
people  to  Religion,  by  the  carelesse  neglect  of  their 
owne  safeties,  seemes  to  have  beene  the  greatest  cause 
of  their  owne  ensuing  destruction.  Yet  it  pleased 
God  to  use  some  of  them  as  instruments  to  save 
many  of  their  lives,  whose  soules  they  had  formerly 
saved,  as  at  James  Citie,  and  other  places,  and  the 
Pinnace   trading  in   Pamounlcey   River  ;   all  whose  lives 

Converted       were   saved   by  a   converted   Indian,   disclosing  the  plot 

Indian.  ;„  the  instant. 

Manner  of  the       These  wilde  naked  Natives  live  not  in  great  numbers 

Savages  life,  together,  but  dispersed,  and  in  small  companies ;  and 
where  most  together,  not  above  two  hundred,  and 
that  very  rare,  in  other  places  fifty  or  forty,  or 
thereabouts,  and  many  miles  distant  from  one  another, 
in  such  places  among  the  Woods  where  they  either 
found,  or  might  easeliest  make  some  cleared  plots 
of  ground,  which  they  imploy  wholly  in  setting  of 
Corne,  whereby  to  sustaine  their  lives.  These  small 
and  scattered  Companies  (as  I  have  said)  had  warning 
given  from  one  another  in  all  their  habitations  to 
meete  at  the  day  and  houre  appointed  for  our  destruction, 
at  all  our  severall  Townes  and  places  seated  upon  the 
River  ;  some  were  directed  to  goe  to  one  place,  some 
to  another,  all  to  be  done  at  the  same  day  and  time, 
which  they  did  accordingly  :  some  entring  their  Houses 
under  colour  of  trucking,  and  so  taking  advantage, 
others  drawing  our  men  abroad  upon  faire  pretences, 
and  the  rest  suddenly  falling  upon  those  that  were 
at  their  labours. 

By  Letters  and  those  that  returned  it  is  certified, 
that  besides  Master  George  Thorpe,  before  mentioned, 
Master  John  Berkeley,  Captaine  Nathaniel  Powel,  and 
his  wife  (daughter  of  Master  William  Tracy,  and  great 
with  Childe)  and  Captaine  Maycocke,  all  Gentlemen 
of  birth,   vertue,    and    industry,   and   of  the    Councell 



there,  suffered  under  this  their  cruelty  and  treason. 
That  the  slaughter  had  beene  universall,  if  God  had 
not  put  it  into  the  heart  of  an  Indian  belonging  to 
one  Perry,  to  disclose  it,  who  living  in  the  house 
of  one  Pace,  was  urged  by  another  Indian  his  brother 
(who  came  the  night  before  and  lay  with  him)  to 
kill  Pace  (so  commanded  by  their  King,  as  he  declared) 
as  he  would  kill  Perry  telling  further,  that  by  such 
an  houre  in  the  morning,  a  number  would  come  from 
divers  places  to  finish  the  Execution  ;  who  failed  not 
at  the  time  :  Perries  Indian  rose  out  of  his  bed  and 
reveales  it  to  Pace,  that  used  him  as  a  Sonne  :  And 
thus  the  rest  of  the  Colony  that  had  warning  given 
them,  by  this  meanes  was  saved.  Such  was  (God 
be  thanked  for  it)  the  good  fruit  of  an  InfideU  con- 
verted to  Christianity ;  for  though  three  hundred  and 
more  of  ours  died  by  many  of  these  Pagan  Infidels, 
yet  thousands  of  ours  were  saved  by  the  meanes  of 
one  of  them  alone  which  was  made  a  Christian  : 
Blessed  be  God  for  ever,  whose  mercy  endureth  for 
ever  ;  Blessed  be  God  whose  mercy  is  above  his  justice, 
and  farre  above  all  his  works ;  who  wrought  this 
deliverance  whereby  their  soules  escaped  even  as  a 
Bird  out  of  the  snare  of  the  Fowler. 

Pace   upon   this   discovery,  securing  his  house,  before 
day  rowed  over  the  River  to  James  City  (in  that  place 
neere    three    miles    in    bredth)    and  gave  notice   thereof 
to  the  Governour,  by  which  meanes  they  were  prevented 
there,    and    at    such    other    Plantations    as    was    possible 
for  a   timely   intelligence   to  be  given  ;    for  where  they 
saw    us    standing    upon    our    Guard,    at  the  sight    of  a 
Peece  they  all  ranne  away.     In  other  places  that  could 
have    no    notice,    some   Peeces    with   munition  (the   use 
whereof    they    know    not)    were    there    carried    away, 
and    some   few    Cattell   also    were    destroyed    by   them.  Gunpowder 
And  as  Fame  divulgeth  (not  without  probable  grounds)  '"^"f'^l!"^'. 
their    King    hath    since    caused    the    most    part    of  the  "captam     '" 
Gunpowder  by   him   surprized,   to    be    sowne,    to    draw  Smiiis  time. 




there-from  the  like  increase,  as  of  his  Maiz  or  Come, 
in  Harvest  next.  And  that  it  is  since  discovered, 
that  the  last  Summer  Opachankano  practised  with  a 
King  of  the  Easterne  shoare  (no  well-wilier  of  his) 
to  furnish  him  with  store  of  poison  (naturally  growing 
in  his  Countrey)  for  our  destruction,  which  hee 
absolutely  refused,  though  he  sent  him  great  store 
of  Beades,  and  other  Presents  to  winne  him  thereunto  : 
which  he,  with  five  or  six  of  his  great  men,  offered 
to  be  ready  to  justifie  against  him.  That  the  true 
cause  of  this  surprize  was  most  by  the  instigation 
of  the  Divell  (enemy  to  their  salvation)  and  the  daily 
feare  that  possest  them,  that  in  time  wee  by  our 
growing  continually  upon  them,  would  dispossesse  them 
of  this  Country,  as  they  had  beene  formerly  of  the 
West  Indies  by  the  Spaniard ;  produced  this  bloudy 
act.  That  never  griefe  and  shame  possessed  any 
people  more  then  themselves,  to  be  thus  butchered 
by  so  naked  and  cowardly  a  people,  who  dare  not 
stand  the  presentment  of  a  stafFe  in  manner  of  a 
Peece,  nor  an  uncharged  Peece  in  the  hands  of  a 
Woman,  from  which  they  flye  as  so  many  Hares ; 
much  faster  then  from  their  tormenting  Divell,  whom 
they  worship  for  feare,  though  they  acknowledge  they 
love  him  not. 

[IV.  ix.  §.  nil. 

A  Note  of  provisions  necessarie  for  every  Planter 
or  personall  Adventurer  to  Virginia :  and 
accidents  since  the  Massacre. 

He  Inconveniences  that  have  happened  to  some 
persons  which  have  transported  themselves  from 
England  to  Virginia,  without  provisions  necessary 
to  sustaine  themselves,  hath  greatly  hindered  the  Pro- 
gresse  of  that  Noble  Plantation  :  For  prevention  of  the 
like  disorders  hereafter,  that  no  man  suffer  either  through 
ignorance  or  misinformation  ;    it  is  thought  requisite  to 




publish  this  short  Declaration  :  wherein  is  contayned  a 
particular  of  such  necessaries,  as  either  private  Families 
or  single  persons  shall  have  cause  to  furnish  themselves 
with,  for  their  better  support  at  their  first  landing  in 
Virginia  ;  whereby  also  greater  numbers  may  receive  in 
part  directions  how  to  provide  themselves. 

Apparell  for  one  man  and  so  after  the  rate  for  more. 

One  Monmouth  Cap 

Three  falling  bands 

Three  shirts 

One  Waste-coate 

One  sute  of  Canvase 

One  sute  of  Frize 

One  sute  of  Cloth 

Three  paire  of  Irish  stockins 

Foure  paire  of  shooes 

One  paire  of  garters 

One  doozen  of  points 

One  paire  of  Canvase  sheets 

Seven  Ells  of  Canvase,  to  make  a  bed  and  boulster,  to 

be  filled  in  Virginia  8.s. 

One  Rug   for  a  bed    8.s.  which  with  the  bed  serving 

for  two  men,  halfe  is  8.s. 

Five  Ells  coorse  Canvase,  to    make   a    bed   at  Sea  for 

two  men,  to  be  filled  with  straw  4.S.  5.S. 

One  coorse  Rug  at   Sea  for   two  men,  will  cost  6.s.  is 

for  one. 


Victuall  for  a  whole  yeere  for  one  man  and  so 
for  more  after  the  rate. 

Eight  bushels  of  Meale  2.1i. 

Two  bushels  of  Pease  at  3.S.  6.s. 

Two  bushels  of  Oatmeale  4.S.  6.d.  9.S. 

One  gallon  of  Aquavitae  2.s.  6. 

One  gallon  of  Oyle  3.S.  6.d. 

Two  gallons  of  Vineger  i.s.  2.s. 

3.1i.  3s. 


10. d. 













.s.  8. 






Armes  for  one  man,  but  if  halfe  of  your  men 

have  Armour  it  is  sufficient,  so  that  all 

have  Peeces  and  Swords. 

One  Armour  compleat,  light  ly.s. 
One   long  Piece,  five   foot   or   five  and  a  halfe,   neere 

Musket  bore  2.s. 

One  Sword  5.S. 

One  Belt  i.s. 

One  Bandaleere  i.s.   6.d. 

Twentie  pound  of  Powder  i8.s. 

Sixtie  pound  of  shot  or  lead,  Pistol!  and  Goose  shot   5.S. 

3.11.  9.S.  6.d. 

Tooles  for  a  Family  of  sixe  persons,  and  so  after 
the  rate  for  more. 

Five  broad  howes  at  2.s.  a  piece  lo.s. 

Five  narrow  howes  at   i6.d.  a  piece  6.s.   8.d. 

Two  broad  Axes  at  3.S.  8.d.  a  piece  y.s.  4.d. 

Five  felling  Axes  at  i8.d.  a  piece  y.s.  6.d. 

Two  Steele  Hand-sawes  at  i6.d.  a  piece  2.s.  8.d. 

Two  two-hand-sawes  at  5.S.  a  piece  lo.s. 
One  whip-saw,  set  and  filed  with  boxe,  file  and  wrest 


Two  Hammers  i2.d.  a  piece  2.s. 

Three  shovels  i8.d.  a  piece  4,3.  6.d. 

Two  Spades  at  i8.d.  a  piece  3.5. 

Two  Augers  6.d.  a  piece  i.s. 

Six  Chissels  6.d.  a  piece  3.S. 

Two  percers  stocked  4.d.  a  piece  8.d. 

Three  gimblets  2.d.  a  piece  6.d. 

Two  hatchets  2i.d.  a  piece  3.S,  6.d. 

Two  froves  to  cleave  pale  i8.d.  3.3. 

Two  hand-bils  20.  a  piece  3,s.  4.d. 

One  Grindlestone  4.S.  4.3. 

Nailes  of  all  sorts  to  the  value  of  2.1i. 

Two  Pickaxes  3.3. 

6.1i.  2.3.  8.d. 


Houshold  Implements  for  a  Family  of  six  persons, 
and  so  for  more  or  lesse  after  the  rate. 
One  Iron  Pot  y.s. 

One  Kettle  6.s. 

One  large  frying-pan  2.s.  6.d. 

One  Griddiron  i.s.  6.d. 

Two  Skillets  5.S. 

One  Spit  2.s. 

Platters,  dishes,  Spoones  of  wood  4.S.  8.S. 
For  Sugar,  Spice,  and  fruit  and  at  Sea  for  six  men 

12. s.  6.d. 

So  the  full  charge  of  apparell  victuall,  armes,  stooles,  & 

houshold-stufFe,  and  after  this  rate  for  each   person, 

will  amount  unto  about  the  sum  of  12.I.   lo.s. 

The  passage  of  each  man  is  6.1i. 

The  fraight  of  these  provisions  for  a  man,  will  be  about 

halfe  a  Tun,  which  is   lo.s. 

So  the  whole  charge  wil  amount  to  about  20.I. 

Nets,  Hookes,  Lines,  and  a  Tent  must  be  added  if 

the  number  of  people  be  greater,  as  also  some  Kine. 

And  this  is  the  usuall  proportion  that  the  Virginia 
Company  doe  bestow  upon  their  Tenants  which  they 

Whosoever  transports  himselfe  or  any  other  at  his 
owne  charge  unto  Virginia  shall  for  each  person  so 
transported  before  Midsummer  1625.  have  to  him  and 
his  heires  for  ever  fiftie  Acres  of  Land  upon  a  first,  and 
fiftie  Acres  upon  a  second  division. 

Sir  George  Yeardly  intending  to  visit  Smiths  lies,  fell  [IV.  ix. 
sicke  and    thereupon    sent   Master  Porey  with   Estinien  '792-] 

Moll  a  Frenchman  to  finde  a  convenient  place  to  make  g^^^  °  ' 

Salt,  in  Namenicus  King  of  Pawtuxunt  came  and  shewed  m.  p'orie. 

them  his  naked  braest,  protesting  the  inside  to  be  as  free  Naked  breast 

ill   meaning,   as   that    from    deformitie,    and    promising  '^'^'"t^d 

welcome  if  they  would  come  into  his  Countrey,  which  ^'"*' 
they  promised.     After  this  they  having  conferred  with 





Kiptopeke  King  of  Aquohanok,  they  passed  Russels  lies 
and  Onancoke,  and  arrived  at  Pawtuxunt,  at  Attough- 
comoco  the  habitation  of  Namenacus,  and  Wamanato  his 
brother,  who  came  aboord  them  with  a  brasse  Kettle  bright 
without,  within  full  of  Oysters.  He  was  shewed  their 
hunting  conducted  forth  by  the  younger  and  home  by  the 
elder  :  presented  also  with  Beavers  skinnes,  which  hee 
requited  with  such  things  as  Wamanato  said  he  would 
keepe  them  while  hee  lived,  and  burie  them  with  him 
being  dead :  Namenacus  his  breast  proved  ulcerous  within 
and  treacherous,  but  without  harme  to  them  by  reason  of 
their  circumspection  :  an  ambush  being  provided  in  a 
Wood  at  a  point  where  they  would  have  had  them  land. 
Kiptokepe  is  the  elder  brother,  and  yeelded  the  moytie  of 
his  Countrie  to  the  younger,  bearing  still  the  greater 
burthen  in  government  but  lesse  honour,  whereas  on 
the  Westerne  shore,  the  younger  beares  the  charge,  the 
elder  the  dignitie.  These  are  the  most  thriftie  Savages, 
keeping  Corne  for  all  the  yeere  and  having  to  spare, 
whereas  others  want  for  one  halfe.  They  are  also  more 
cIvIU,  just  reckoners,  use  no  Black-boy-ceremonles,  and  in 
Affinltie  and  Consanguinitie  observe  a  larger  distance  in 
their  Marriages. 

Anno  1622.  the  Abigail  was  sent,  and  therein  Captaine 
Barwick  with  five  and  twentle  men  to  build  ships  and 
Boats,  and  others  to  build  the  East  Indie  Schoole.  That 
fatall  Massacre,  some  thinke  to  have  beene  occasioned  by 
Nemattanow,  a  Savage  called  usually  Jacke  of  the  Feather, 
In  best  esteeme  amongst  them  for  courage  and  pollcie  ; 
who  perswading  one  Morgan  to  go  with  him  to  Pamaunke 
Cause  of  the  jq  trucke,  by  the  way  slue  him  two  or  three  dayes  after 
hee  returned  to  Morgans  house,  and  answered  his  Servants 
asking  for  their  Master  that  hee  was  dead,  whereupon  they 
would  have  had  him  to  Master  Thorpe,  but  hee  so  moved 
their  patience  that  they  shot  him.  Hee  (whom  the 
Savages  esteemed  free  from  hurt  by  the  English  and  shot 
free)  desired  before  his  death  that  they  would  bury  him 
with  the  English,  and  not  make  it  knowne  that  hee  was 


Jack  of  the 



slaine  with  a  bullet.  Opachancanough  was  moved  with 
his  losse  so  as  he  threatned  revenge,  which  he  could  not 
effect  but  by  treacherous  pretence  of  greatest  peace,  after 
fourteene  dayes  by  so  many  deaths,  giving  life  to  the 
following  Tragedie  :  which  you  heard  delivered  by  publike 

This  terrible  blow  so  affrighted  all  that  it  was  con- 
cluded, that  all  the  pettie  Plantations  should  be  left, 
to  make  good  a  few  places  (some  say  five  or  six)  whither 
for  want  of  Boats  their  goods  and  cattell  could  not  be 
so  suddenly  conveyed,  but  that  much  was  exposed  to 
the  Savages  cruell  gleanings.  Master  Gookins  at  Nuports  M.  Gookim. 
newes,  having  thirtie  five  of  all  sorts  with  him  refused  that 
order,  and  made  good  his  part  against  the  Savages. 
Master  Jordan  at  Beggars  Bush  gathered  a  few  about  M.  Jordan. 
him,  and  fortified  himselfe  in  despight  of  the  enemie. 
Mistris  Procter  would  have  adventured  the  like,  and  MistHs 
did  it  for  three  weekes  till  the  Officers  (as  some  report)  ^""■'''■• 
would  no  longer  permit  her.  Captaine  Nuse  and  Cap- 
taine  Crawshaw  are  much  for  providence  and  valour 
commended.  Waters  and  his  wife  were  kept  prisoners 
by  the  Nansamuds  (this  Edward  Waters  is  one  of  those 
three  which  first  stayed  in  Bermuda,  and  found  the  great 
piece  of  Ambergreece)  whence  by  chance  upon  occasion  of 
a  Boat  lost  by  ill  weather  (whose  company  were  saved) 
and  comming  on  their  shoare,  they  being  busied  in  their 
Triumphs  and  Dances  for  joy,  they  found  opportunitie  to 
get  into  a  Canoa,  and  escaped  to  Kecoughtan.  Captaine 
Nuce  called  his  Neighbours  together  when  he  heard  of 
the  Massacre,  entrenched  himselfe,  and  mounted  three 
Peeces  of  Ordnance,  so  that  in  foure  dayes  hee  was  strong 
enough  to  defend  himselfe  against  all  the  Barbarian  forces. 
Captaine  Crashaw  with  five  others  fortified  himselfe  in 
despight  of  all  the  Savages,  with  the  helpe  of  other 
Savages,  and  made  offer  to  the  Colonie,  if  they  would 
send  him  a  shallop  with  Armes,  men  and  provision  for 
Trade,  that  the  next  Harvest  he  would  provide  them 
Corne  sufficient,  which  then  (in  the  latter  end  of  June) 




was  little  to  bee  had  in  the  Countrie.  Captaine  Maddeson 
is  reported  to  have  given  over-hastie  credit  to  an  exiled 
King,  which  comming  to  Patowomeke  for  succour  and 
not  obtayning  it,  in  revenge  devised  and  slandered  the 
Patowomekes  with  intent  of  betraying  and  killing  the 
English  :  which  credulitie  produced  effects  of  crueltie  and 
the  conceits  of  bloudie  treacherie  conceived  (if  others 
conceive  not  falsly)  treacherie  and  bloud. 

The  last  Summer  1623.  they  set  forth  a  company  which 
destroyed  the  Savages  Come  and  houses,  and  surprized 
Pamaunke  chiefe  Seat  of  Opachancanough.  And  the  last 
report  is  that  the  Colonic  is  now  in  health,  and  that  the 
Savages  have  returned  seven  of  the  English  which  they 
held  prisoners,  out  of  selfe  guiltinesse  and  feare  of 
revenge  seeing  ships  still  come  thither,  and  wearie 
of  their  watchings  and  manifold  losses  and  dangers. 
Opachankanough  the  author  of  the  Massacre  is  said  to 
have  come  to  his  end  by  meanes  more  sutable  to  his 
deserts,  then  perhaps  agreeing  with  Christian  simplicitie. 
A  sicknesse  after  the  Massacre  fell  amongst  the  English, 
by  reason  that  from  neere  eightie  Plantations,  they  were 
brought  to  fewer  then  eight,  these  distracted  with  a 
sudden  remoove  and  distressed  wants.  It  is  thought 
that  1800.  survived  both. 
[IV.  ix.  His  Majestie  not  a  little  moved  with  the  losse  of  so 

■793-]  many  his  good  Subjects,  and  some  complaints  also  being 
made  of  the  Government,  many  of  the  Virginian  Com- 
pany here  holding  no  such  uniforme  agreement  as  was 
meete:  both  shewed  his  gracious  bountie  in  the  gift 
of  divers  Armes  out  of  the  Towre,  with  further  promises 
of  his  assistance ;  and  appointed  Commissioners  to  examine 
the  Causes  of  Virginias  not  answering  to  the  care  and  cost 
in  so  long  time  bestowed  on  her.  I  am  no  fit  Relater  of 
things  ensuing,  and  farre  unfitter  Umpire  in  such  differ- 
ences. I  will  now  speake  to  God  rather  then  men ; 
Quid  enim  nisia  vota  supersunt.  My  Prayers  shall  be 
to  the  Almightie  for  Virginias  prosperitie ;  whose 
Dwarfish  growth   after   so   many  yeeres,  convulsions  by 



dissentions  there  and  heere,  lamentations  in  the  com- 
plaints of  both  sides  (a  Plurisie  Stich  in  her  sides, 
continuing  after  so  much  bJoud  taken  from  her)  weak- 
nesse.  Sinne  armes  after  such  successions  of  armes 
and  forces;  Tantalean  starvings  amidst  both  Magazines 
and  fertilitie  ;  subversions  here,  and  selfe-eversions  there 
(perversnesse  I  mention  not)  rather  then  conversions  of 
Savages  after  so  many  learned  and  holy  Divines  sent 
thither ;  povertie,  sicknesse,  deaths,  in  so  rich  a  Soyle, 
and  healthfull  a  Climate ;  what  should  I  say  ?  I  can 
deplore,  I  doe  not  much  admire,  that  we  have  had  so 
much  in  Virginia,  and  have  so  little ;  the  promises  as 
probable  as  large,  and  yet  the  premisses  yeelding  in  the 
conclusion  this  Virginian  sterilitie,  and  meagrenesse  rather 
then  the  multiplied  issue  and  thrift  of  a  worthy  Matron 
and  Mother  of  a  Family,  answerable  to  her  great  Inheri- 
tance there,  and  Jointer  from  hence.  But  what  doe  I  in 
plaints,  where  some  perhaps  will  complaine  of  my 
complayning  ?  I  will  expect  better  from  God  and  his 
Majestie,  and  while  my  selfe  meane-while  in  the  better 
thriving  of  the  English  Colonic  in  Bermudas  or  Summer 

Chap.  XVI. 

English  Voyages  to  the  Summer  Hands  ;  Henry 
Mays  shipwracke  there  1593-  The  first 
Colonie  sent   161 2. 

r  is  now  time  to  leave  the  Continent  and  Suj>.  cap.  6. 
visit  Bermudas,  of  Sir  George  Summers 
called  Summer  Hands.  The  occasion  you 
had  before  related  by  Master  Strachie, 
and  that  some  of  their  Company  tooke 
up  their  abode  there.  This  was  not  the 
first  time  that  English  eyes  had  seene 
those  Hands.  For  in  the  yeere  1593.  Henry  May 
had  beene  there ;  one  of  Captaine  Lancasters  Company, 
which  had  beene  in  the  East  Indies,  and  in  returning  had 




put  over  to  Trinidad,  and  thence  to  Puerto  Rico  and 
Hispaniola  for  refreshing,  where  Captaine  Lancaster 
desired  a  Frenchman  Monsieur  de  Barbotiere,  to  give 
this  Henry  May  passage  home  with  him.  They  departed 
from  Laguna  the  last  of  November,  and  December  the 
seventeenth  were  wracked  on  the  North-west  part  of 
Bermuda  about  midnight.  The  Pilots  making  themselves 
at  noone  to  be  twelve  leagues  to  the  Southwards  of  the 
Hand,  certified  the  Captaine  that  they  were  from  all 
danger :  and  demanded  their  wine  of  height,  which 
they  had  thought  they  had  beene  cast  away  by  the  shore, 
but  were  seven  leagues  ofF;  by  the  helpe  of  their  Boat, 
and  a  Raft,  sixe  and  twentie  of  above  fiftie  were  saved. 
I  (saith  May)  durst  not  presse  in,  but  stayed  in  the  ship 
almost  full  of  water,  till  the  Captaine  being  entred  the 
Boat,  called  me  to  him,  and  I  entred  leaving  the  better 
halfe  of  our  company  to  the  mercie  of  the  Sea.  We 
rowed  all  day  till  an  houre  or  two  before  night,  yet 
we  could  come  on  Land  towing  the  Raft  with  the 
Boat.  Having  beene  all  day  without  drinke,  wee 
sought  long,  and  at  last  one  digging  among  weeds, 
found  fresh  water  being  only  raine  water,  which  was 
all  we  found.  It  pleased  God  that  we  had  saved  our 
Carpenters  tooles,  and  going  roundly  to  worke,  we  built 
a  Barke  of  some  eighteene  tun,  for  the  most  part  with 
trunnels  and  a  few  nailes.  For  tacklings  we  made  a 
Voyage  to  our  ship  and  cut  downe  her  shrouds ;  in  stead 
of  Pitch  wee  made  Lime  and  mixed  it  with  the  Oyle  of 
Tortoises ;  assoone  as  the  Carpenters  had  calked,  spread- 
ing it  on  with  a  sticke,  which  was  soone  dried  by  the  heat, 
being  in  Aprill  wee  hasted  away  for  feare  of  water  failing 
us.  We  made  two  great  chists  and  calked  them,  and 
stowed  them  on  each  side  our  maine  Mast,  and  so  put 
in  our  provisions  of  raine  water,  and  thirteene  living 
Tortoyses  for  our  food.  The  Hogs  were  leane,  and  there 
was  store  of  Fowle,  Fish  and  Tortoyses.  There  is 
also  good  fishing  for  Pearles. 

The  eleventh  of  May  we  were  cleere  of  the  Land  for 




our  Voyage  to  New-found-land,  and  on  the  twentieth  fell 
with  the  Land  neere  to  Cape  Briton,  and  thence  to  the 
Banke  of  New-found-land,  where  a  Barke  of  Falmouth 
tooke  us  in,  wherein  I  had  passage  home,  and  arrived  at 
Falmouth  in  August  1594.     Thus  much  for  May. 

Let  us  now  heare  the  Relation  sent  from  an  English 
Colonic  planted  there  under  the  government  of  Master 
Richard  Moore.  This  following  Discourse  hath  beene 
printed,  and  was  added  to  a  Tractate  of  Master  Silvester 
Jordan  touching  the  wracke  of  Sir  Thomas  Gates  and  Sir 
George  Summers  on  the  Bermudas,  which  beeing  delivered 
more  fully  by  Master  Strachie  sup.  cap.  6.  I  have  here 
omitted,  and  proceed  to  the  English  proceedings  in  those 

Being  bound  for  the  Sommer  Hands,  in  the  Ship  called 

the  Plough,   wee  imbarked  the  eight   and    twentieth  of  [IV.  ix. 

Aprill    1 612.      So    passing    down    to    Gravesend,    wee  '794] 

anchored  at  Tilbery-hope,  untill  the  fifth  of  May.     The 

wind  comming  faire,  wee   put   forth  and  came  to  the 

Downes   the   sixth   of    May,    where   we   staied  till   the 

ninth.     And  then  setting  forward  wee  had  a  faire  and 

comfortable  passage,  and  by  Gods  blessing  found  so  direct 

a  course,  that  on  the  eleventh  of  July  in  the  morning, 

betwixt  nine  and  ten  of  the  clocke  wee  descried  our  hoped 

and  desired  Hands,  and  in  the  afternoone  of  the  same  day, 

about  three  a  clocke,  wee  arrived  in  a  verie  safe  harbour 

neere  S.  Georges  Hand,  there  wee  landed  all  our  men  Saint  Georges 

and  women,  and  had  beene  at  anchor  above  an  houre,  '''"'*• 

before  wee  could  heare  of  our  three  men  which  had  beene  ^^f"'^  f  ^'' 

left  there.     As  soone  as  wee  had  landed  all  our  company,  »'"'"^'^'> 

11  •  ,  II  1      T       J  r       oenind,  and 

we  went  all  to  praier,  and  gave  thankes  unto  the  Lord  tor  ^lentnotto 

our  safe  arrival! ;  and  whilest  wee  were  at  praier,  wee  saw  Virginia, 

our  three  men  come  rowing  downe  to  us,  the  sight  of  JIarter, 

whom  did  much  rejoyce  us:  so  they  welcomming  us,  and  ^f"j 

wee   the  like  to  them  againe,  we  sung  a  Psalme,  and 

praised   the   Lord   for   our  safe  meeting,  and   went  to 


The   next   day,   being  the    Sabbath    day,    which   wee 


of  the 




dedicated  to  God  in  the  best  manner  wee  could,  wee 
abode  still  in  the  foresaid  Hand,  with  all  the  rest  of 
our  company  till  Munday  morning,  being  the  thirteenth 
of  July :  Then  we  went  up  with  our  Ship  and  company 
higher  into  the  harbour,  to  the  place  where  these  three 
men  had  planted  themselves.  They  had  planted  Corne, 
great  store  of  Wheat,  Beanes,  Tobacco  and  Mellons,  with 
many  other  good  things  for  the  use  of  man  :  Besides  they 
had  wrought  upon  Timber,  in  squaring  and  sawing  of 
Cedar  Trees,  for  they  intended  to  build  a  small  Pinnace  to 
Carrie  them  into  Virginia,  being  almost  out  of  hope  and 
comfort  of  our  comming ;  because  Cap.  Davies  time  was 
to  have  beene  with  them  long  before  we  came. 

Wee  were  no  sooner  come  within  a  league  of  the 
Land,  but  a  company  of  Fish,  as  it  were,  met  us,  and 
never  left  us  till  wee  were  come  to  an  ankor  within 
the  harbour ;  and  as  soone  as  we  had  passed  over  our 
businesse,  and  all  things  safe  and  in  order,  with  a  Hooke 
and  Line  wee  tooke  more  then  our  whole  company  was 
able  to  eate,  so  that  there  was  enough  to  feed  many  more. 
The  next  day  after  the  Sabbath,  wee  went  with  our  Net 
and  Boat,  and  if  we  would  have  loaded  two  Boats  wee 
might;  and  so  may  you  do  day  by  day.  Fishes  doe 
so  abound,  and  there  be  of  these  sorts.  Mullets,  Breames, 
Hog-fish,  Rock-fish  and  Lobstars,  with  more  sorts  of 
other  Fish  which  I  cannot  name. 

Turkles  there  be  of  a  mightie  bignesse ;  one  Turkic 

great,  an  of  ^yj  ggj.yg  q^  suffice  three  or  foure  score  at  a  meale, 
especially  if  it  be  a  shee  Turkle,  for  shee  will  have  as 
many  Egges  as  will  suffice  fiftie  or  threescore  at  a  meale : 
This  I  can  assure  you,  they  are  verie  good  and  wholsome 
meat,  none  of  it  bad,  no  not  so  much  as  the  verie  Guts 
and  Maw  of  it,  for  they  are  exceeding  fkt,  and  make  as 
good  Tripes  as  your  beasts  bellies  in  England.     And  for 

Fowle.  Fowle  we  went   the  third  day  of  our  arrivall  unto  the 

Bird  Hands  (as  wee  call  them)  and  using  neither  Stick, 
nor  Stone-bow,  nor  Gun,  we  tooke  them  up  with  our 
hands  so  many  as  wee  would,  that  everie  one  of  the  com- 




pany  were  to  have  some  three,  some  foure  a  piece ;  three 
for  a  child,  boy  or  girle,  for  a  man  foure ;  then  reckon 
what  those  that  served  some  fourescore  people  did 
amount  unto.  But  this  is  for  certaine,  if  wee  would 
have  brought  awaie  twice  so  many  more  we  might. 

Some  sixe  daies  after  our  comming,  wee  sent  out  for 
Hogges,  so  the  company  which  went  out  brought  home  Hogs  by  reason 
some :  for  the  meate  of  them,   I  hold  your  Mutton  of  of  their  food 
England  not  of  so  sweet  and  pleasant  a  taste.  ^''"''' '""' ""'' 

For  the  inclination  of  the  weather,  considering  in  what  ,tomackes  ex- 
climate  it  lies,  wee  have  had  for  the  space  of  some  fortie  traordinarily 
daies  no  raine,  but  verie  coole  and  fresh  gales  of  wind,  'w^/. 
yet  in  the  day  time  verie  hot :  but  wee  agree  with  it  verie         wather. 
well,  and  not  a  man  that  had  lien  sicke  or  diseased,  but 
all  likes  well,  and  followes  and  imploies  themselves  to 
one  businesse  or  other. 

For  the  fruites  which  the  Land  yeelds,  they  bee  the  Fruits. 
Mulberrie,  great  store,  and  Peares  which  have  in  them  a  Peares  not 
red  liquor,  as  the  Pomgranat  hath,  or  somewhat  redder,  ^'^rtfiill. 
but  verie  wholsome :  if  you  eate  an  hundred  at  one  time, 
you  shall  never  surfet  of  them,  if  you  eate  some  propor- 
tion of  them  they  will  bind,  but  if  you  exceed  in  eating  of 
them,  then  are  they  of  the  contrarie  operation  :  yet  never 
any  that  hurt  themselves  by  them,  eate  they   never  so 
many.     It  is  certaine,  that  one  man  eate  above  a  peck  of 
them  in  some  ten  houres,  and  was  never  the  worse.     We 
have  a  kind  of  Berrie  upon  the  Cedar  Tree  verie  pleasant  Cedar 
to  eate ;  and  for  the  Palmito  Tree,  the  top  of  it  is  a  great  ^"''''^'• 
deale  sweeter  and  wholsomer  then  any  Cabedge. 

In  some  of  our  Hands  there  growes  Pepper,  but  not  so  Pepper. 
good  as  our  Indian  Pepper :  divers  sorts  of  other  good 
things  there  is,  which  the  severall  times  of  the  yeere  bring 
forth  one  after  another :  but  the  top  of  the  Palmito  Tree 
is  in  season  and  good  all  the  yeere.  Take  a  Hatchet  and 
cut  him  or  an  Augar  and  bore  him,  and  it  yeelds  a  very 
pleasant  liquor,  much  like  unto  your  sweet  Wines ;  it  Palme-liquor. 
beares  likewise  a  Berrie  in  bignesse  of  a  Prune,  and  in 
taste  much  like. 



and  Peark. 

[IV.  ix. 


*I  have 
omitted  the 
rest  of  this 
discourse,  as 
being  better 
knowne  to 
later  Writers. 


Also  wee  have  Olives  grow  with  us,  but  no  great  store : 
many  other  good  excellent  things  wee  have  grow  with  us, 
which  this  short  time  will  not  permit  mee  to  write  of  so 
largely  as  I  might;  but  this  is  of  truth,  that  Hogs, 
Turkles,  Fish,  and  Fowle  doe  abound  as  dust  of  the 
earth:  for  Amber-greece  and  Pearle  wee  have  not  had 
leasure,  in  so  few  daies  since  our  arrival!  to  goe  looke 
out  for  the  one,  or  to  fish  for  the  other ;  but  the  three 
men  which  were  left  there,  have  found  of  them  both. 
Also  they  have  made  a  great  deale  of  Tobacco,  and  if 
some  would  come  that  have  skill  in  making  it,  it  would 
be  verie  commodious,  both  to  the  Merchant,  and  to 
the  maker  of  it.  And  for  the  Silk-worme,  if  any  were 
brought  over,  and  some  of  skill  to  use  them,  there 
would  bee  very  much  good  done  with  them,  for  the 
verie  Spider  in  these  our  Hands  doth  weave  perfect 
fine  Silke,  both  Yellow  and  White. 

The  Timber  of  the  Countrey  consisteth  of  three  sorts, 
the  one  is  the  Cedar,  verie  fine  Timber  to  worke  upon, 
of  colour  red,  and  verie  sweet :  the  other  sorts  we  have 
no  name  for,  for  there  is  none  in  the  company  hath 
seene  the  like  in  other  Countries  before  we  came,  &c. 

A  Copie  of  the  Articles  which  Master  R.  More, 
Governour  Deputie  of  the  Sommer  Hands, 
propounded  to  the  Company  that  were  there 
with  him  to  be  subscribed  unto,  which  both 
he  and  they  subscribed  the  second  of  August, 
in  his  house.  Anno  1612.  which  about  the 
same  time  he  sent  into  England,  to  the  Wor- 
shipful! Company  of  the  Adventurers. 

WEe,  who  have  here  under  subscribed  our  names, 
being  by  the  great  goodnesse  of  God  safely  arrived 
at  the  Sommer  Hands,  with  purpose  here  to  inhabite, 
doe  hereby  promise  and  bind  our  selves,  to  the  per- 
formance of  the  several!  Articles  hereafter  following,  and 




that    in   the  presence   of  the   most   glorious   God,  who 
hath  in  mercy  brought  us  hither. 

First,  We  doe  faithfully  promise,  and  by  these  pre- 
sents solemnly  binde  our  selves  ever-more  to  worship 
that  aforesaid  only  true  and  everliving  God,  who  hath 
made  the  Heavens,  and  the  Earth,  the  Sea,  and  all  that 
therein  is,  and  that  according  to  those  rules  that  are 
prescribed  in  his  most  holy  Word,  and  ever  to  continue 
in  that  faith  into  the  which  wee  were  baptised  in  the 
Church  of  England,  and  to  stand  in  defence  of  the 
same  against  all  Atheists,  Papists,  Anabaptists,  Brownists, 
and  all  other  Heretikes  and  Sectaries  whatsoever,  dissent- 
ing from  the  said  Word  and  Faith. 

Secondly,  because  the  keeping  of  the  Sabboth  day 
holy  is,  that  wherein  a  principall  part  of  Gods  worship 
doth  consist,  and  is  as  it  were  the  Key  of  all  the  other 
parts  thereof,  wee  do  therefore  in  the  presence  aforesaid 
promise.  That  wee  will  set  apart  all  our  owne  labours 
and  Imployments  on  that  day,  unlesse  it  be  those  that 
be  of  meere  necessitie,  much  more  vaine  and  unfruit- 
full  practises,  and  apply  our  selves  to  the  hearing  of 
Gods  Word,  Prayer,  and  all  other  exercises  of  Religion 
in  his  Word  required,  to  the  uttermost  of  our  power. 

Thirdly,  Seeing  the  true  worship  of  God  and  holy 
life  cannot  be  severed,  we  doe  therefore  promise  in  the 
presence  aforesaid.  That  to  the  uttermost  of  our  power 
we  will  live  together  in  doing  that  which  is  just,  both 
towards  God  and  Man,  and  in  particular  we  will  for- 
beare  to  take  the  most  holy  name  of  God  in  vaine,  in 
ordinary  swearing  by  it,  or  any  other  thing,  or  by 
scoffing,  or  vaine  abusing  of  his  most  holy  Word,  or 
to  use  cursing,  or  filthy  speeches,  or  any  other  thing 
forbidden  in  Gods  most  holy  Word,  as  also  to  live 
together  without  stealing  one  from  another,  or  quarrel- 
ling one  with  another,  or  slandering  one  of  another : 
And  to  avoide  all  things  that  stand  not  with  the  good 
estate  of  a  Christian  Church  and  well  governed  Common- 
wealth, as  also  to  embrace  the  contrary  as  Justice,  and 

XIX  177  M 



Peace,  Love,  and  all  other  things  that  stand  with  the 
good  and  comfort  of  Societie. 

Fourthly,  Whereas  we  are  here  together  farre  remote 
from  our  native  soile  of  England,  and  yet  are  indeed 
the  naturall  Subjects  of  our  most  Royall  and  gracious 
King  James  of  England,  Scotland,  France,  and  Ireland, 
King,  Defender  of  the  Faith,  &c.  Wee  doe  therefore 
in  the  presence  aforesaid,  solemnly  promise  evermore  to 
continue  the  loyall  Subjects  of  our  said  Soveraigne  King, 
his  Heires  and  Successors,  and  never  to  revolt  from  him, 
or  them,  unto  any  other  whatsoever,  but  evermore  to 
acknowledge  his  Supreme  Government. 

Fifthly,  Whereas  wee  were  sent  hither  by  divers 
Adventurers  of  the  Citie  of  London,  and  other  parts 
of  the  Realme  of  England,  wee  doe  here  in  the  presence 
aforesaid  promise  to  use  all  diligence  for  the  good'  of 
the  Plantation,  and  not  to  purloyne  or  imbesell  any  of 
the  prohibited  commodities  out  of  the  generall  estate, 
but  to  use  all  faithfulnesse,  as  it  becommeth  Christians 
to  doe,  as  also  to  bee  obedient  to  all  such  Governour 
or  Governours,  or  their  Deputie  or  Deputies,  as  are, 
or  shaiU  be  by  them  sent  to  governe  us;  As  also  to 
yeeld  all  reverence  towardes  the  Ministery  or  Ministers 
of  the  Gospel,  sent,  or  to  be  sent, 

Sixtly  and  lastly.  Wee  doe  here  in  presence  afore- 
said promise,  the  Lord  assisting  us,  that  if  at  any  time 
hereafter  any  forrain  power  shall  attempt  to  put  us  out 
of  this  our  lawful  possession,  not  cowardly  to  yeeld  up 
the  same,  but  manfully  to  fight  as  true  Englishmen, 
for  the  defence  of  the  Common-wealth  we  live  in,  and 
Gospel  wee  professe,  and  that  whiles  we  have  breath 
wee  will  not  yeeld  to  any,  that  shall  invade  us  upon 
any  conditions  whatsoever. 

I  had  thought  hitherto  to  have  added  a  Letter  of 
M.  Hughes,  written  from  thence,  Dec:  21.  1614.  and 
printed.  But  our  latter  intelligence,  being  more  ample, 
hath  caused  mee  to  omit  him  and  others ;  Yea  all  things 
in  spme,  and   some  things   in   all.     M.  Norwood  hath 



beene  a  diligent   Surveyor   of  the   place  and   accidents,  [IV.  ix. 
and  hath  given  a  Map  of  the  one  (common  to  be  sold)  '796-] 

and  a  briefe  relation  of  the  other.  But  because  his 
History  of  the  Creatures  is  briefe,  I  have  borrowed 
out  of  Captaine  Smith,  what  he  had  borrowed  of 
Capt.  Butler,  and  others  to  give  the  Reader  more  full 
satisfaction  in  that  kind. 

Chap.   XVII. 

Relations  of  Summer  Hands,  taken  out  of  M. 
Richard  Norw^ood,  his  Map  and  Notes  added 
thereto,  printed  1622.  The  History  of  the 
Creatures  growing  or  living  therein,  being 
inlarged  out  of  Capt.  Smiths  written  Relations. 

Ir  Thomas  Gates,  and  Sir  George  Sum- 
mers, having  staied  in  Bermuda  nine 
moneths,  with  helpe  of  such  things  as 
they  saved  with  the  Sea-venture,  and  of 
such  as  they  found  in  the  Countrey,  had 
built  of  Cedar,  and  rigged  fit  for  the 
Sea,  two  Vessels,  a  Ship  and  a  Pinnace, 
and  upon  the  tenth  of  May,  16 10.  departed  toward 
Virginia,  leaving  onely  two  men  behind  them,  and 
carrying  them  store  of  provision  for  the  reliefe  of  the 
people  there.  Upon  the  foure  and  twentieth  of  May, 
they  arrived  safely  there,  and  shortly  after  some  of 
them  returned  to  the  Sommer  Hands  againe  for  a 
further  supply,  in  the  same  Ship  which  they  had 
formerly  built  there;  where  Sir  George  Sommers  dying, 
his  men  did  not  according  to  his  last  charge  given 
unto  them,  returne  to  Virginia ;  but  framed  their  course 
for  England,  leaving  behind  them  three  men,  that 
staied  voluntarily,  who  shortly  after  found  in  Sommer- 
set  Hand,  which  is  a  part  of  Sandys  Tribe,  a  verie 
great  treasure  in  Ambergreece,  to  the  valew  of  nine  or  Ambergreece. 
ten  thousand  pound  sterling:  there  hath  also  been  found 
since  divers  times  of  the  best  sort. 




This  new  discovery  of  the  Sommer  Hands,  being  thus 

made  knowne  in  England,  to  the  Virginian  Company, 

by  these   men   which   returned,    they   sold   it   to   some 

hundred   and   twentie    persons   of  the   same    Company, 

who  obtained  a  Charter  from  his  Majestic,  and  so  hold 

it.     And   toward   the   latter  end  of  Aprill,    1612.  sent 

thither    a    Ship,   called    the    Plough,    with    some    sixtie 

persons  to  inhabite,  appointing  Governour  one  Master 

Richard  Moore,  a  man  ingenuous  and  carefuU,  who  since 

dyed  in  Sir  Walter  Rawlyes  last  voyage  to  Guiana,  (a 

place  as  appeareth  by  our   Moderne   Geographers,  very 

rich  and  spatious.)     But,  as  I  say,  he  arrived  there  about 

the   beginning   of  July,   and   found    the    foresaid  three 

men  that  staied  voluntarily,  very  well.     Master  Moore 

spent  the  three  yeeres  of  his  government,  for  the  most 

part  in  fortifying  the  Countrey,  and  trayning  the  people 

in  Martiall  exercises,  which  custome  hath  beene  continued 

Rat-plague,      by  his  successours :  hee  built  some  nine  or  tenne  Forts, 

How  vdne  a    placing  Ordnance  and  Munition  in  them.     In  his  time, 

^w^sebestwlts  ^^   Lord    sent    upon    the    Countrey,    a   very  grievous 

and  industry     scourge  and  punishment,  threatning  the  utter  ruine  and 

are  triumphed  desolation  of  it :    That  it  came  from   God  I  need  not 

over  by  silly     strive  to  prove,  especially  considering  it  was  generally 

Rats.    Great  ^^  acknowledged  by  us  at  that  time:    The  causes  and 

grace  to  feare  occasions  of  it,  I  need  not  name,  being  very  well  knowne 

thee,  that  we    to   US  all  that  then   lived  there,  which  were  about  sixe 

may  feare        hundred  persons,  thought  shortly  after  much  diminished. 

""/^'"ff/''     I  will  onely  shew  the  thing  it  selfe,  which  was  a  wonder- 

feare  with        ^"^^  annoyance,  by  silly  Rats :  These  Rats  comming  at 

Pharao,Frogs,  the  first  out  of  a    Ship,    few  in   number,   increased    in 

Lice,  Flies,      the   space  of  two  yeeres,   or  lesse,  so   exceedingly,  that 

Grashopfer;     ^      iiSitA.  not  onely  those  places  where  they  were  first 

or  lutth  others,   iji-n^-         •        c  1         ^        1  11 

Fleas  Spar-     ^^"ded :  iiut  swimmmg  from  place  to  place,  spread  them- 

rowe's,  (jfc.  Selves  into  all  parts  of  the  Countrey.  Insomuch,  that 
Tea  a  few  there  was  no  Hand,  though  severed  by  the  Sea  from 
^f^^ndespite  ^  ^^^^  Lands,  and  many  miles  distant  from  the  lies 
Trap's'^poim],  where  the  Rats  had  their  original!,  but  was  pestered 
shall  starve  us.  with  them.     They  had  their  Nests  almost  in  every  Tree, 




and  in  all  places  their  Burrowes  in  the  ground  (like 
Conies)  to  harbour  in.  They  spared  not  the  fruits  of 
Plants  and  Trees,  neither  the  Plants  themselves,  but 
eate  them  up.  When  wee  had  set  our  Come,  they 
would  commonly  come  by  troupes  the  night  following, 
or  so  soone  as  it  began  to  grow,  and  digge  it  up 
againe.  If  by  diligent  watching  any  of  it  were  pre- 
served till  it  came  to  earing,  it  should  then  very  hardly 
scape  them.  Yea,  it  was  a  difficult  matter  after  wee 
had  it  in  our  houses,  to  save  it  from  them,  for  they 
became  noysome  even  to  the  persons  of  men.  Wee 
used  all  diligence  for  the  destroying  of  them,  nourish- 
ing many  Cats,  wilde  and  tame,  for  that  purpose,  wee 
used  Rats-bane,  and  many  times  set  fire  on  the  Woods, 
so  as  the  fire  might  run  halfe  a  mile  or  more  before  it 
were  extinct :  Every  man  in  the  Countrey  was  enjoyned 
to  set  twelve  Traps,  and  some  of  their  owne  accord  set 
neere  a  hundred,  which  they  visited  twice  or  thrice  in 
a  night.  Wee  trayned  up  our  Dogs  to  hunt  them, 
wherein  they  grew  so  expert,  that  a  good  Dog  in  two 
or  three  houres  space,  would  kill  fortie  or  fiftie  Rats, 
and  other  meanes  we  used  to  destroy  them,  but  could 
not  prevaile,  finding  them  still  to  increase  against  us. 

And  this  was  the  principall  cause   of  that  great   dis- 
tresse,  whereunto  wee  were  driven  in  the  first  planting 
of  the  Countrey,  for  these,  devouring  the  fruits  of  the 
earth,  kept  us  destitute  of  bread  a  yeere  or  two,  so  that,  [IV.  ix. 
when  wee  had  it  afterwards  againe,  wee  were  so  weaned  '797] 

from  it,  that  wee  should  easily  neglect  and  forget  to  eate 
it  with  our  meat.  We  were  also  destitute  at  that  time 
of  Boats,  and  other  provision  for  fishing.  And  moreover, 
Master  Moore  had  received  warning  from  England,  that 
hee  should  expect  the  Spaniard  that  yeere,  yet  they  came 
not,  but  with  two  ships,  attempting  to  come  in,  and 
having  their  Boat  before  them  to  sound  the  way,  were 
shot  at  by  the  said  Master  Moore  from  Kings  Castle,  and 
as  we  supposed  one  of  them  stricken  through,  whereupon 
they  presently  departed.     But  (as  I  say)  this  expectation 




of  them  caused  us  (though  in  great  necessitie)  to  hasten 
the  fortifications  of  the  Countrey.  All  these  joyntly  (but 
principally  the  Rats)  were  the  causes  of  our  distresse :  for 
being  destitute  of  food,  many  dyed,  and  wee  all  became 
very  feeble  and  weake,  whereof  some  being  so,  would 
not;  others  could  not  stir  abroad  to  seeke  reliefe,  but 
dyed  In  their  houses :  such  as  went  abroad  were  subject, 
through  weaknesse,  to  bee  suddenly  surprized  with  a 
TheFeage.  disease  we  called  the  Feages,  which  was  neither  paine 
nor  sicknesse,  but  as  it  were  the  highest  degree  of 
weaknesse,  depriving  us  of  power  and  abilitie  for  the 
execution  of  any  bodily  exercise,  whether  it  were  working, 
walking,  or  what  else.  Being  thus  taken,  if  there  were 
any  in  company  that  could  minister  any  reliefe,  they 
would  straightwayes  recover,  otherwise  they  dyed  there: 
Yet  many  after  a  little  rest  would  be  able  to  walke  again, 
and  then  if  they  found  any  succour  were  saved. 

About  this  time,  or  immediately  before,  came  thither 
a  company  of  Ravens,  which  continued  with  us  all  the 
time  of  this  mortalitie,  and  then  departed.  There  were 
not  before  that  time,  nor  since  (so  far  as  I  heare)  any 
more  of  them  scene  there.  And  this,  with  some  other 
reasons  of  more  moment,  moved  many  to  thinke  that 
there  was  some  other  Hands  neere  the  Sommer  Hands, 
betweene  Virginia,  and  it ;  and  M.  Moore  (in  his  time, 
with  some  other  of  us)  went  forth  in  a  Boat  so  far  as 
then  wee  could  conveniently,  of  purpose  to  discover  it : 
Since  then,  it  hath  beene  endeavoured  by  other,  and  is  yet 
(as  I  heare)  to  be  further  attempted.  And  howsoever 
I  am  perswaded  (for  certaine  causes  which  I  cannot  here 
relate)  there  is  no  such  thing;  Yet  would  I  not  dis- 
animate  any  from  this  enterprise,  for  if  they  find  any, 
their  labours  will  be  well  recompenced;  and  though 
they  find  none,  yet  might  they  discover  those  parts  so 
well,  that  the  passage  to  and  from  Virginia  would  be 
more  safe  and  easie. 

But  to  returne  from  whence  wee  have  digressed: 
The   extremitie   of  our   distresse  began  to  abate  a  little 



before  M.  Moores  time  of  government  was  expired, 
partly  by  supplies  out  of  England,  of  victuall  and  pro- 
vision for  fishing,  and  partly  by  that  rest  and  libertie 
we  then  obtained,  the  Countrey  being  fortified.  Yet 
the  Rats  encreased  and  continued  almost  to  the  end 
of  Captaine  Tuckers  time,  although  hee  was  provident 
aud  industrious  to  destroy  them,  but  toward  the  end 
of  his  time  it  pleased  God  (by  what  meanes  it  is  not 
wel  known)  to  take  them  away,  insomuch  that  the  wilde 
Cats  and  many  Dogs  which  lived  on  them  were  famished, 
and  many  of  them  leaving  the  Woods,  came  downe  to 
the  houses,  and  to  such  places  where  they  use  to  garbish 
their  Fish,  and  became  tame.  Some  have  attributed  this 
destruction  of  them  to  the  encrease  of  wild  Cats,  but 
that's  not  likely  they  should  be  so  suddenly  encreased 
rather  at  that  time,  then  in  the  foure  yeeres  before.  And 
the  chiefe  occasion  of  this  supposition  was,  because  they 
saw  such  companies  of  them  leave  the  Woods,  and  shew 
themselves  for  want  of  food.  Others  have  supposed  it 
to  come  to  passe  by  the  coolnesse  of  the  weather,  which 
notwithstanding  is  never  so  great  there,  as  with  us  in 
March,  not  scarce  as  it  is  in  April,  except  it  be  in  the 
wind;  besides  the  Rats  wanted  not  feathers  of  young 
Birds  and  Chickens  which  they  daily  killed,  and  of 
Palmeto  Mosse  (as  wee  call  it)  to  build  themselves  warme 
nests  out  of  the  wind,  as  usually  they  did.  Neither  doth 
it  appeare  that  the  cold  was  so  mortall  to  them,  seeing 
they  would  ordinarily  swim  from  place  to  place,  and 
be  very  fat  even  in  the  midst  of  Winter,  It  remaineth 
then,  that  as  we  know  God  doth  sometimes  effect  his 
will  without  subordinate  and  secondary  causes,  and 
sometimes  against  them  :  So  wee  need  not  doubt,  but  that 
in  the  speedy  encrease  and  spreading  of  these  Vermine ; 
as  also,  in  the  preservation  of  so  many  of  us  by  such 
weake  meanes  as  we  then  enjoyed,  and  especially  in  the 
sudden  removall  of  this  great  annoyance,  there  was  joyned 
with,  and  besides,  the  ordinary  and  manifest  meanes,  a 
more  immediate  and  secret  worke  of  God. 




Now  to   proceed.     M.   Moores  time  of  government 

Cap.Tucker.  being  expired,  Capt.  Tucker  succeeded,  arriving  there 
about  mid-May,  161 6.  who  likewise  governed  (according 
to  the  custome)  three  yeeres ;  which  time  hee  spent,  for 
the  most  part,  in  husbandring  the  Countrey,  planting  and 
nourishing  all  such  things  as  were  found  fit  either  for 
trade,  or  for  the  sustentation  and  use  of  the  Inhabitants, 
wherein  hee  travelled  with  much  diligence  and  good 
successe,  sending  to  some  parts  of  the  Indies  for  Plants 
and  Fruits :  hee  also  added  to  the  Fortifications,  and 
made  some  Inclosures.  In  his  time,  viz.  in  the  yeere 
1 617.  was  sent  a  Ship  and  provision,  with  men  of  skill. 

Whales.  for   the  killing  of  Whales ;   but  they  arrived  there  too 

late  to  wit,  about  the  midst  of  April,  so  that  before  they 
could  make  ready  their  Shallops,  and  fit  themselves,  the 
principall  season  for  Whale-fishing  was  past:  For  the 
Whale  come  thither  in  January,  and  depart  againe  toward 
the  latter  end  of  May :  Yet  they  strook  some,  but  found 
them  so  lively,  swift,  &  fierce  after  they  were  stricken, 
that  they  could  take  none.  They  yeeld  great  store  of 
Oyle,  as  appeared  by  one  that  drave  to  shoare  on 
Sommerset  Iland,  in  Sandys  Tribe :  and  by  another  that 
we  found  not  far  from  thence  dead  upon  a  Rocke. 

[IV.  ix.  I  also  received  by  Captaine  Tucker,  directions  from  the 

'79^-]  Adventurers  to  divide  the  Countrey,  and  to  assigne  to 

Shares.  each   Adventurer   his    shares   or  portion   of  Land:    and 

withall,  a  description,  with  notes  touching  the  manner 
how  they  would  have  it  done,  as  they  had  formerly 
determined  by  Lot.  Which  thing  I  did  with  all  faithful- 
nesse  and  diligence,  the  manner  of  it  doth  above  appeare, 
and  is  more  largely  manifested  in  a  Booke  of  the  Survey 
of  the  Country,  exhibited  to  the  Right  Honorable  his 
Majesties  Counsell,  and  the  Court  of  Adventurers  for 
these  parts.  And  then  began  this,  which  was  before  as 
it  were  an  unsetled  and  confused  Chaos  (I  meane  as 
touching  a  Plantation,  for  considered  onely  as  a  Regiment 
it  was  otherwise)  to  receive  a  convenient  disposition, 
forme,  and   order,  and  to  become  indeed  a  Plantation  ; 



for  though  the  Countrey  was  small,  yet  they  could  not 
have  beene  conveniently  disposed  and  well  settled, 
without  a  true  description  and  survey  made  of  it ;  and 
againe  every  man  being  settled  where  hee  might  con- 
stantly abide,  they  knew  their  businesse,  and  fitted 
their  houshold  accordingly.  They  built  for  themselves 
and  their  Families,  not  Tents  or  Cabins,  but  more 
substantial!  houses:  they  cleered  their  grounds,  and 
planted  not  onely  such  things  as  would  yeeld  them 
their  fruits  in  a  yeere,  or  halfe  a  yeere:  but  all  such 
too,  as  would  afFoord  them  profit  after  certaine  yeeres, 
&c.  So  that  in  short  time  after,  even  before  expiration 
of  Captaine  Tuckers  government,  the  Country  began  to 
aspire  and  neerely  to  approch  unto  that  happinesse  and 
prosperity  wherein  now  it  flourisheth.  For  may  it  not 
justly  be  accounted  happinesse  and  prosperitie,  for  men 
to  live  where  they  enjoy  the  meanes  of  true  Religion 
and  Salvation,  to  wit,  the  sincere  Ministerie  of  the 
Word  and  Sacraments  ?  where  the  government  is  good 
without  rigour  and  oppression,  the  place  healthfull  and 
temperate?  where  they  are  freed  from  all  extreme  care 
and  toyle?  where  they  have  food  in  abundance,  and 
very  good,  with  other  things  needfull  to  the  body  ?  and 
where  they  have  Commodities  meete  for  Trade,  by 
which  they  better  advance  their  estates?  all  which  and 
more  is  largely  verified  in  the  present  estate  of  that 
Colon  ie,  whatsoever  some  maliciously  minded,  or  to 
evill  ends  suborned,  may  say  to  the  contrary,  so  that 
there  may  seeme  to  bee  a  restauration  of  that  Golden 
Age  so  much  spoken  of. 

The  Governour  now  there  resident,  is  one  Captaine 
Butler,  for  Captaine  Tucker  departing  thence  in  Decem- 
ber 161 8.  left  in  his  place  Captaine  Kendall  (who  also 
was  one  that  supplied  the  same  place  in  the  interim, 
betweene  Master  Moores  time  and  Captaine  Tuckers, 
and  hath  spent  some  nine  or  ten  yeeres  in  the  Countrey. 
But  in  the  yeere  1619.  about  Midsummer,  the  Ad- 
venturers   sent    thither    as    Governour    for  three  yeeres 




(according  to  the  custome)  the  said  Captaine  Butler, 
and  foure  ships,  with  some  five  hundred  persons,  there 
beeing  at  that  time  in  the  Countrey  onely  five  hundred 
more:  fiar  by  the  space  of  fiaure  yeeres,  to  wit,  during 
the  latter  part  of  Master  Moores  government,  and  all 
the  time  of  Captaine  Tuckers,  they  had  sent  few  thither, 
being  almost  hopelesse  of  the  place,  by  reason  of  the 
Rats :  But  since  there  have  beene  sent  many  companies 
more  then  have  come  to  my  knowledge.  Insomuch 
that  I  understand  the  Countrey  is  now  almost  fully 
planted  and  inhabited. 

Thus  have  I  briefly  related  (so  farre  forth  as  hath 
come  to  my  knowledge  and  remembrance)  every  thing 
of  most  note  and  importance  that  hath  befallen  in  the 
first  Discoverie  and  planting  of  these  Hands,  till  this 
present.  I  have  laboured  to  contract  my  selfe,  yet  have 
exceeded  my  en  tended  limits.  Now  I  must  speake 
something  of  the  Countrey  it  selfe :  Which  consisteth 
of  a  company  of  small  Ilands,  situate  and  formed  as 
above  appeareth.  It  lyeth  in  the  Westerne  Ocean,  in 
that  part  of  the  World  lately  discovered,  and  called 
America,  or  the  New  World,  vulgarly,  the  West  Indies : 
It  hath  Latitude,  or  Elevation  (as  is  abovesaid)  32. 
degrees  25.  minutes,  which  is  almost  the  same  with  the 
Maderaes,  or  rather  more  Southward. 

The  Countrey  is  round  about  environed  with  Rockes ; 
which  to  the  Northward,  Westward,  and  Southward, 
extend  farther  then  hath  beene  yet  discovered :  By  reason 
of  these  Rockes  the  Countrey  is  very  strong :  For  there 
is  onely  two  places  (and  scarce  two,  except  to  such  as 
know  them  well)  where  shipping  may  safely  come  in : 
and  those  places  are  very  well  fortified  :  but  within  is 
roome  to  entertaine  a  Royall  Fleet.  The  Rockes  in 
most  places  appeare  at  a  low  water:  neither  are  they 
much  covered  at  a  high  water ;  For  it  ebbes  and  flowes 
there,  not  above  five  foot.  The  shoare  it  selfe  (for  the 
most  part)  is  a  Rocke :  so  hardned  by  the  Sunne,  Wind, 
and  Sea,  that  it  is  not  apt  to  be  worne  by  the  Waves ; 



whose  violence  is  also  broken  by  the  Rocks,  before  they 
come  at  the  shoare.  The  Mould  is  of  divers  colours; 
neither  Clay,  nor  Sand,  but  a  meane  betweene.  The 
Red,  which  resetnbleth  Clay  is  worst ;  the  whitish, 
resembling  Sand,  and  the  blackish,  Clay,  is  good :  the 
Browne,  betweene  them  both  (which  they  call  white, 
because  there  is  mingled  with  it,  as  it  were  a  white 
Marie)  is  best.  Under  the  Mould  two  or  three  foote 
deepe,  and  sometimes  lesse,  is  a  kind  of  white,  hard 
substance,  which  they  call  the  Rocke :  the  Trees  usually 
fasten  their  Roots  in  it:  and  draw  their  nourishment 
from  it:  Neither  is  it  indeed  Rocke  or  Stone,  nor  so 
hard,  though  for  the  most  part  harder  then  Chalke ; 
not  so  white,  but  Pumice-like  and  Spongie,  easily 
receiving  and  contayning  much  water :  I  have  seene,  in 
some  places.  Clay  found  under  it.  It  seemes  to  be 
engendred  of  the  Raine  water,  drayning  through  the 
earth,  and  drawing  with  it  of  his  substance,  unto  a 
certaine  depth  where  it  congeales.  The  hardest  kind 
of  it  (which  is  commonly  under  the  red  ground)  is 
not  so  Spongie,  nor  retaynes  much  water ;  but  lyeth  [IV.  ix. 
in  the  ground  in  Quarries,  as  it  were  thicke  Slates  one  '7990 

upon  another :  and  there  is  some  chinkes  or  crevises 
betwixt  one  lare  and  another,  through  which  the  water 
hath  passage :  so  that  in  such  places  there  is  scarce  found 
any  fresh  water.  For  all,  or  the  most  part  of  their  fresh 
water  (whereof  they  have  good  store)  commeth  out  of  the 
Sea ;  drayning  through  the  Sand,  or  through  the  foresaid 
substance,  which  they  call  the  Rocke,  and  leaving  his  Salt 
behind  it  becomes  fresh :  Sometimes  we  digged  Welles  of  Weh. 
fresh  water,  within  foure  or  five  paces  of  the  Sea-side ; 
sometimes  further  off.  The  most  part  of  them  would 
ebbe  and  flow,  as  the  Sea  did,  and  be  levell  or  little  higher 
then  the  Superficies  of  the  Sea. 

The  Aire  is  most  commonly  cleere,  very  temperate.  The  Aire. 
moist,  with  a  moderate  heate,  very  healthfull,  and  apt 
for  the  Generation  and  nourishing  of  all  things ;  so  that 
there  is  scarce  any  thing  transported  from  hence  thither, 




but  it  yeelds  a  farre  greater  encrease  ;  and  if  it  be  any 
living  thing,  becomes  fatter  and  better  liking,  then  here. 
By  this  meanes  the  Countrey  was  so  replenished  with 
Hennes  and  Turkeyes,  within  the  space  of  three  or  foure 
yeeres,  that  beeing  neglected,  many  of  them  forsooke  the 
Houses,  and  became  wilde,  and  so  lived  in  great  abund- 
ance. The  like  encrease  there  is  of  Hogges  and  other 
Cattle,  according  to  their  kinds.  There  seemes  to  be 
a  continuall  Spring,  which  is  the  cause  that  some  few 
things  come  not  to  that  maturitie  and  perfection,  as  were 
requisite.  And  though  the  Trees  doe  shed  their  leaves, 
yet  are  they  alwayes  full  of  greene. 

Their  Corne  is  the  same  which  they  use  almost  in  all 
parts  of  the  West  Indies,  to  wit,  Maiz :  which,  to  such  as 
are  used  to  it,  is  more  heartie  and  nourishing  then  our 
English  Wheate,  and  yeelds  a  farre  greater  increase,  as  a 
pound,  sometimes,  of  one  or  two  graines.  Of  this  Corne, 
and  divers  other  things,  without  either  plowing  or  digging 
the  ground,  they  have  two  Harvests  every  yeere  :  for  they 
set  about  March,  which  they  gather  in  July ;  and  againe 
in  August,  which  is  ripe  in  December :  And  little  slips  of 
Figge  trees,  and  Vines,  doe  usually  beare  fruit  within  lesse 
then  a  yeere  after  they  are  planted,  sometimes  in  halfe  a 
yeere.  The  like  fertilitie  it  hath  in  other  things. 
Temperature  There  is  scarce  at  any  time  to  be  perceived  either  Frost 
"■f'^'  or  Snow,  nor  any  extreme   heate;    for  there  is   almost 

alwayes  some  wind  stirring,  which  cleereth  and  cooleth 
the  Aire.  Their  Summers  and  Winters  observe  the  same 
times  with  ours,  but  their  longest  dayes  and  nights  are 
shorter  then  ours  in  England,  by  two  houres  and  almost  a 
halfe :  as  also  their  shortest  dayes  and  nights  are  as  much 
longer  then  ours :  for  their  longest  dayes  and  nights  are 
about  fourteene  houres,  and  their  shortest  ten.  When  it 
is  Noone  with  us,  it  is  Morning  with  them ;  and  when  it 
is  about  five  of  the  clocke  in  the  Evening  with  us,  it  is 
high-noone  with  them :  so  that  whilest  the  Sun  declines 
with  us,  it  riseth  with  them,  as  also  it  doth  in  Virginia. 
It  is  apt  to  Thunder  and  Lightning  all  the  yeere,  oft- 



times  more  terrible  then  in  England  ;  but  no  man,  or 
other  living  creature  have  I  knowne  hurt  by  it.  There 
is  no  venemous  creature  in  the  Countrey :  the  yellow 
Spider  which  is  there,  making  her  Webbe  as  it  were  Spiders. 
or  Silke,  and  bringing  forth  her  young  (as  the  Alchimists 
their  stone)  of  Egges  like  little  Balles  of  Quick-silver,  is 
not  perceived  to  bee  any  whit  venemous.  Yet  there  is  a 
Plant  (that  climbeth  Trees  like  Ivie,  the  leafe  also  of  the 
same  colour,  but  in  shape  like  the  Vine)  that  is  somewhat 
venemous,  but  of  no  great  force. 

There  is  great  store  and  varietie  of  Fish,  and  so  good 
as  these  part  of  the  World  affoords  not  the  like ;  which 
being  for  the  most  part  unknowne  to  us,  each  man  gave 
them  names  as  they  best  liked :  as  one  kind  they  called 
Rocke-fish,  another  Groopers,  others  Porgie-fish,  Hog- 
fish,  Angle-fish,  Cavallies,  Yellow-tayles,  Spanish  Makerell, 
Mullets,  Breame,  Connie-fish,  Morrayes,  Sting-rayes, 
Flying-fish,  &c.  The  like  they  did  by  the  Fowle,  as 
Cohooes,  Sand-birds,  Herons,  Ducke  and  Teale,  Pem- 
blicoes,  Castle-boobies,  Hawkes,  &c. 

The  Countrey  when  we  first  beganne  the  Plantation, 
was  all  over-growne  with  Woods  and  Plants  of  severall 
kinds  :  and  to  such  kinds  as  were  unknowne  to  us  (which 
were  the  most  part)  we  also  gave  names ;  such  as  were 
knowne  retayning  their  olde  names  :  as  Cedars,  Palmetoes, 
Black-wood,  White-wood,  Yellow-wood,  Mulberie-trees, 
Stopper-trees,  Lawrell  and  Olive-trees,  Mangrowes, 
Pepper-trees,  Yellow-bery-weed,  Red-weed :  These,  and 
many  others,  wee  found  naturally  growing  in  the  Coun- 
trey. But  since  it  hath  beene  inhabited,  there  hath  beene 
brought  thither,  as  well  from  the  Indies  as  from  other 
parts  of  the  World,  sundry  other  Plants,  as  Vines  of 
severall  kinds.  Sugar-canes,  Figge-trees,  Apple-trees, 
Oranges,  Lemmons,  Pomegranets,  Plantanes,  Pines,  Par- 
snips, Raddishes,  Artichokes,  Potatoes,  Cassavi,  Indico, 
and  many  other :  Insomuch  that  it  is  now  become  as  it 
were  some  spacious  Garden  or  Nourcerie  of  many  pleasant 
and  profitable  things. 




Now  if  I  should  proceed  to  a  more  speciall  Narration, 
and  speake  of  all  these  Plants,  Birds,  Fishes,  and  other 
remarkable  things  particularly :  I  could  not  but  bee  much 
larger  then  were  any  wayes  expedient  in  this  place. 
Besides,  I  have  long  since  understood,  that  Captaine 
Butler  (the  Governour  there  resident)  hath  undertaken 
to  write  of  these  and  the  like  things,  a  peculiar  Treatise. 
This  therefore  that  is  spoken  touching  the  nature  of  the 
Countrey  in  generall,  shall  suffice.  Onely  to  make  choice 
of  two  particulars,  whereof  I  will  speake,  not  so  largely  as 
the  things  require ;  but  so  farre  forth  as  will  be  meet  and 
convenient  in  this  place. 
[^^-  "'•  The  first  shall  bee  the  Tortoyse,  which  they  call   a 

°o-J  Xurtle :  which  having  some  affinitie  and  resemblance  with 
Fishes,  Beasts,  and  Fowles,  shall  serve  instead  of  a  His- 
torie  of  them  all.  The  other  shall  be  that  which  they  call 
the  prickled  Peare-tree :  which  participating  in  nature,  and 
resembling  in  some  things,  herbs  and  in  other  Trees; 
shall  likewise  serve  in  stead  of  the  Naturall  Historie  of 
them  both. 

And  first  of  the  Turckle,  not  regarding  (for  brevities 
sake)  the  large  Discourses  of  others ;  I  will  onely  write 
what  I  have  scene  and  knowne  my  selfe.  They  are  in  the 
shape  of  their  bodie  like  a  Crab-fish ;  and  have  foure 
finnes :  they  are  as  great  as  three  or  foure  men  can  carrie : 
the  upper  part  of  them  is  covered  with  a  great  shell, 
which  wee  call  a  Galley-patch,  weighing  (as  I  take  it) 
halfe  a  hundred  weight :  the  flesh  that  cleaveth  to  the 
in-side  of  this  being  rosted  against  the  fire,  is  excellent 
meate :  almost  like  the  Marrow  of  Beefe :  but  the  shell  it 
selfe  harder  then  Home :  shee  hath  also  a  shell  on  her 
belly,  not  so  hard,  but  being  boyled  it  becommeth  soft,  like 
the  sinewes  or  gristle  of  Beefe ;  and  good  meate.  These 
live  in  the  Sea,  spending  the  Spring  time,  and  part  of  the 
Summer  about  these  Hands :  but  the  residue  of  the  yeere, 
we  know  not  where.  They  are  like  to  Fowle  in  respect 
of  the  smallnesse  and  fashion  of  their  heads  and  neckes  : 
which  are  wrinkled  like  a  Turkeyes,  but  white,  and  not  so 



sharpe  billed.  They  also  breed  their  young  of  Egges 
which  they  lay.  They  resemble  Beasts,  in  that  their  flesh 
is  like  Veale,  but  more  hard  and  solid ;  and  they  feed 
alwayes  upon  grasse  growing  at  the  bottome  of  the  water ; 
neither  can  they  abide  any  longer  under  water,  then  they 
hold  their  breath  ;  which  the  old  ones  will  doe  long  :  but 
the  young  ones  being  chased  to  and  fro,  cannot  continue 
two  minutes  with  out  comming  up  to  breathe.  Shordy 
after  their  comming  in,  the  Male  and  Female  couple, 
which  wee  call  cooting;  this  they  continue  some  three 
dayes  together,  during  which  time,  they  will  scarce  sepa- 
rate though  a  Boat  come  to  them,  nor  hardly  when  they 
are  smitten.  Not  long  after,  the  Shee-Turckle  comes  up 
by  night  upon  some  Sandie  Bay ;  and  further  up  then  the 
water  useth  to  flow,  shee  digges  a  hole  with  her  finne  in 
the  Sand,  some  two  foote  deepe ;  and  there  comming  up 
severall  nights,  layes  her  Egges,  some  halfe  a  bushell 
(which  are  about  the  bignesse  of  a  Hennes  Egge,  and 
round  as  a  Ball)  and  each  time  covers  them  with  Sand 
very  curiously ;  so  that  a  man  shall  hardly  finde  the 
place.  These  Egges  (as  it  seemes)  are  afterwards  hatched 
by  heate  of  the  Sunne,  and  then  by  the  Providence  of 
God  (the  meanes  are  yet  unknowne  to  us)  are  brought 
out  of  the  earth,  for  wee  could  never  perceive  that  shee 
returnes  any  more  to  them,  and  yet  in  likelihood  they 
remaine  not  long  in  the  Earth  after  they  are  hatched, 
because  (as  I  have  before  said)  they  cannot  live  without 
breathing.  We  sometimes  see  of  the  young  ones  no 
bigger  then  a  mans  hand,  which  some  fish  will  devoure. 
They  grow  slowly,  and  seeme  to  have  a  very  long  life, 
they  will  sleepe  on  the  top  of  the  water,  and  were  wont  to 
sleepe  often  on  the  Land,  till  the  Countrie  was  peopled ; 
they  will  also  live  out  of  the  water  some  three  weekes, 
and  that  without  meate,  but  mourne  and  pine  away ;  they 
are  very  wittie.  Being  on  the  Land  turned  upon  their 
backes,  they  can  no  more  without  some  helpe  or  advan- 
tage recover  themselves;  by  which  meanes  when  they 
come  on  shoare  to  lay  their  Egges,  they  are  easily  taken, 




as  also  they  are  when  they  are  cooting.  But  otherwise 
wee  take  them  for  the  most  part  by  night,  making  a  great 
light  in  a  Boate,  to  which  they  will  sometimes  swimme, 
and  seldome  shunne :  so  that  a  man  standing  readie  with  a 
staiFe  in  his  hand,  which  hath  at  one  end  a  socket,  wherein 
is  an  Iron  lesse  than  a  mans  finger,  foure-square  and  sharpe, 
with  a  line  fastned  to  it,  hee  striking  this  Iron  into  the 
upper  shell  of  the  Turckle,  it  stickes  so  fast,  that  after 
shee  hath  a  little  tired  her  selfe  by  swimming  too  and  fro, 
shee  is  taken  by  it.  They  will  live,  the  head  being  cut 
off,  foure  and  twentie  houres ;  so  that  if  you  cut  the  flesh 
with  a  Knife,  or  touch  it,  it  will  tremble  and  shrinke 
away.  There  is  no  meate  will  keepe  longer  either  fresh 
or  salt. 

But  leaving  these,  we  will  now  come  to  speake  of  the 
Prickled  Peares,  which  are  a  fruit  growing  in  these 
Hands,  in  such  places  as  are  scarce  fit  for  any  thing  else, 
namely,  upon  Rockes  and  ClifFes,  and  commonly  by  the 
Sea  side,  as  if  the  salt-water  did  somewhat  helpe  to  the 
generation  and  nourishing  of  them.  The  tree  seemes  to 
grow  certaine  yeeres  before  it  beares  fruit,  and  then  to 
continue  bearing,  very  many  yeeres,  having  almost  all  the 
yeere  long  fruit  upon  it.  And  although  we  call  this 
a  Tree,  yet  hath  it  scarce  any  bodie  or  branches,  but 
consisteth  in  a  manner  wholly  of  leaves  and  fruit,  soft  and 

But  we  will  give  you  a  larger  Historie  of  the  Creatures 
from  Captaine  Smith,  in  the  next  Chapter. 




Chap.    XVIII.  [IV.  ix. 

^  1801.] 

Extracts  out  of  Captaine  John  Smiths  Historic 
of  Bermudas,  or  Summer  Hands ;  touching 
the  English  Acts  and  Occurrents  there  from 
the    beginning    of   the    Plantation. 

Ome  one  hundred  and  twentie  of  the 
Virginian  Company  bought  that  Title 
which  the  Company  might  seeme  to 
have  to  Bermuda,  and  obtayned  Letters 
Patents  of  his  Majestie.  Sir  Thomas 
Smith  was  elected  Treasurer,  and 
Master  Richard  Moore  sent  thither 
with  the  first  Colonic,  which  found  the  three  men  well. 
Carter,  Chard,  and  Waters,  which  had  found  store  of 
Ambergrice,  which  was  the  occasion  of  great  stirres  Inveniuntur 
betwixt  Moore  and  Kendall,  (who  was  imprisoned)  "P" ''''' 
Chard  (who  was  condemned  and  on  the  Ladder  to  be  "^'"/"'^^ 
hanged,  but  reprived,  and  all  Moores  time  detayned 
prisoner)  and  Captaine  Davies,  who  had  almost  kindled 
a  mutinie  till  better  thoughts  did  better  him.  Sic  vos 
non  vobis,  was  the  conclusion  of  that  Treasure  to  the 
finders,  howsoever  Davies  and  Kendall  are  said  to  have 
licked  their  fingers  well.  For  the  naturall  Historie 
thereof  I  have  added  thus  much  out  of  him  to  that 
which  before  hath   beene  delivered  by    others. 

The  most  troublesome  to  these  Hands  are  the  Winds 
and  Wormes,  specially  in  the  Spring  and  Autumne, 
rather  tp  awaken  Industrie  then  to  cause  despaire. 

The   Musketas  or   Flies  are  very  busie,    with   a  cer- 
taine  Indian  bugge  called  by  the  Spaniards,  a  Cacaroatch,  F/ies. 
which    creeping    into    Chists    by    their    ill    sented    dung 
defile    all,    besides    their    eating.     Litde    Ants    are    in 
Summer    so    troublesome    that    they    are    forced   to  dry  Jnii. 
their    figs    on    high    frames,    annointing    the    feet    with 
Tarre   which   stay   their   passage  that  else   would   spoile 
all.     Wormes  in  the  earth  are  noisome  to   their    Corne  iVormes. 
XIX  193  N 



and  Tobacco,  causing  them  great  labour  every  morning 
to  destroy  them  ;    which  else  would  destroy  all.     Large 

Lizards.  Lizards   have  been   there,    now   destroyed   by  the   Cats. 

Spiders,  Spiders  are  large  but  beautifully  coloured,  as  if  they 
were  adorned  with  Silver,  Gold,  and  Pearle  :  their 
Webs  in  Summer  woven  from  Tree  to  Tree,  a  perfect 
raw  Silke  in  substance  and  colour,  so  strong  that  Birds 
like  Snites  bigger  then  Black-birds,  are  snared  in  their 

Foaiks.  There  are  grey  and  white  Hearne,  grey  and  greene 
Plover,  wild  Ducks,  and  Mallards,  Coots,  Red-shankes, 
Sea-wigeons,  grey  Bitternes,  Cormorants,  numbers  of 
small  Birds,  like  Sparrowes  and  Robbins,  which  have 
lately  beene  destroyed  by  the  Wild  Cats,  very  many 
Wood-peckers,  Crowes,  which  since  the  Plantation  are 
killed,  and  seldome  scene  except  in  places  least  inhabited, 
where  they  are  observed  to  take  their  flight  about 
Sun-set,  directing  their  course  toward  the  North-west, 
which  causeth  the  conjecture  of  other  Hands.  (Yea, 
the  Spaniards  say  this  is  not  true  Bermuda,  &c.) 
sometimes  also  are  seene  Falcons,  Jarfalcons,  Osprayes,  a 
Bird  like  a  Hobby,  holden  but  a  passenger. 

The  Cohow  is  so  termed  of  his  voice  ;  a  night  Bird 
all  day  hid  in  the  Rockes.  The  Egge-bird  on  the 
first  day  of  May  constantly  observed  to  come,  they 
begin  to  lay  Egs  as  big  almost  as  Hens  Egges  ;  so 
continuing  till  Mid-summer,  so  tame  you  must  thrust 
them  off:  then  permitted  to  breed  (growing  weake) 
and  their  young  are  excellent  meate.  The  Egges  of 
those  are  white  ;  of  the  Cohowes  speckled,  as  bigge  as 
Hennes  :  strict  inhibition  was  made  for  their  sparing 
beeing  almost  destroyed. 

The  Tropiks  Bird  hath  his  name  of  the  places 
where  he  is  most  seene.  Another  Bird  of  her  Cry  is 
called  Pemblico,  seldome  seene  by  day,  an  unwelcome 
Prophet  of  Tempests  by  her  clamorous  crying.  Owles 
are  now  gone.  Pigeons  prosper  not.  Tame  Duckes  and 
Geese  are  there. 




Now  for  Plants  there  growing,  the  most  remarkeable 
are,  the  Poyson-weed,  which  is  much  in  our  English 
Ivie,  with  the  touch  thereof  causing  rednesse,  itching  and 
blisters,  all  which  after  a  while  passe  away  of  themselves 
without  further  hurt. 

The  Red-reed  is  a  tall  Plant,  whose  stalke  is 
covered  with  a  red  rind  ;  the  Roote  steeped,  or  a 
small  quantitie  of  the  juyce  drunlce  alone  procureth  a 
forceable  Vomit,  generally  used  and  effectual  against  dis- 
tempers of  the  stomacke. 

A  kind  of  Wood-bind  is  common  neere  the  Sea 
running  on  Trees  like  a  Vine,  the  fruit  somewhat 
like  a  Beane  but  flatter,  which  eaten  any  way  causeth 
to  purge  vehemently,  yet  without  further  harme. 

Another  small  Tree  causeth  costivenesse.  There  is 
also  a  Plant  like  a  Bramble,  bearing  a  long  yellow 
fruit  with  a  hard  shell,  and  within  a  hard  Berrie  which 
stamped  and  taken  inwardly,  purgeth  gently. 

Red-Pepper  is  a  fruit  like  our  Barberies,  which 
beaten,  or  bruized  with  the  Teeth,  sets  all  the  mouth 
on  a  heat,  for  the  time  terrible  ;  but  swallowed  whole 
have  the  same   operation  that  blacke  Pepper. 

The  Sea-feather  is  a  Plant  growing  on  the  Rocks  in 
the  bottome  of  the  Sea  in  forme  of  a  Vine-leafe,  but 
farre  more  spread  with  veines  of  a  palish  red,  strangely 
interlaced  and  weaved  into  each  other  :  the  vertue 

There  are  besides  fruits  thither   carried   which    thrive  [IV.  ix. 
and    multiply,    White,     Red,    Yellow    Potatoes,    Sugar-  i8oz.] 

canes,  Indicoes,  Parsnips,  exceeding  large  Radishes, 
Cassavi  (the  American  root  for  bread)  the  Indian 
Pompeon,  the  water  Melon,  the  Muske  Melon,  the 
most  delicate  Pine-apple,  Plantans,  and  Papawes ;  the 
English  Artichoke,  Pease,  &c. 

Master   Moore  applied  himselfe  to  fortifying  and  to  Moores  Forts. 
traine    his   men  :    hee   laid    the   foundation    of  eight   or 
nine     Forts,    called    the    Kings    Castle,     Charles    Fort, 
Pembrokes   Fort,    Smiths  Fort,   Gates   Fort,   Warwickes 






Castle,  Saint  Katharines  Fort,  &c.  mounting  therein  all 
such  Ordnance  as  he  had.  Being  busied  in  these  and 
other  necessaries,  which  held  the  men  hard  at  worke, 
Master  Keath  the  Minister,  a  Scot,  taxed  him  in  the 
Pulpit  for  grinding  the  faces  of  the  poore,  oppressing 
his  Christian  brethern  with  Pharoos  taxes ;  for  which 
being  convented,  and  by  the  generality  contraried,  he 
fell  on  his  knees  and  asked  pardon,  which  was  easily 
with  good  admonition  granted.  Two  other  male- 
contents  were  condemned  to  be  hanged,  one  of  which 
for  feare  fell  into  a  dead  palsie,  the  other  was  freed, 
and  after  proved  a  good  labourer.  He  got  two 
peeces  of  Ordnance  out  of  the  Sea  Venture  (Sir  George 

Church  built.  Summers  wracke)  framed  a  Church  of  Timber,  which 
was  blowne  downe  and  reedified,  and  another  built  in 
a  closer  place  with  Palmito  leaves.  Before  the  yeare 
expired,  an  Adviso  with  thirtie  passengers  were  sent, 
to  prepare  for  Spaniards ;  which  made  them  fall  so 
hard  to  worke,  that  many  fell  sicke.  The  Martha 
followed  with  sixtie  passengers,  and  in  it  Master 
George  Barklie,  who  tooke  good  notice  of  those  Hands. 
The  Elizabeth  was  sent  the  second  time  with  fortie 
passengers.  These  carried  the  first  Potatos,  which 
being  all  lost  but  two  castaway  rootes  have  yeelded 
increase  there  to  admiration,  and  are  great  reliefe  to 
the  Inhabitants. 

Spanish  Ships.  Two  Spanish  Ships  were  seene  soone  after  this  Ship 
was  gone,  to  sound  with  their  Boate,  attempting  to 
come  in ;  but  from  the  Kings  Castle  Master  Moore 
made  two  shot,  which  caused  them  to  depart,  to  the 
joy  of  the  Plantation,  which  then  had  but  three 
quarters  of  a  barrell  of  Powder,  and  but  one  shot 
more  :  the  Powder  also  by  carelesnesse  tumbled  under 
the  Mussels  of  the  two  Peeces  which  were  discharged, 
and  yet  not  touched  with  fire.  The  like  merciful! 
providence  appeared  in  certaine  cartrages  of  Paper 
filled  with  Powder  ;  a  negligent  fellow  leaving  his 
Match   burning    upon   one   of  them  all  the  while  they 


Supplies  sent 
An.  1 613. 

M.  Barklie. 

Increase  of 

Escapes  from 



were   at   Prayer,    so   that   the   cole   touched    the    Paper 

and  fired  it  not. 

A    worse    thing   happened    by    a    carvell   of   Meale, 
which   Daniel   Elfred   brought   thither,    so    stored    with 
Rats,   that   had   neere   ruined  all  the   Plantation.     Two  R<"'- 
yeeres    after   came    in   the   Blessing   with   one   hundred 
passengers,  and  the  Starre  with  one  hundred  and  eightie, 
and    soone   after  the   Margaret,   and   two    Frigats    with 
one  hundred  and  sixtie.     Master  Barkley  also  came  to  ^-  ^o^klies 
divide    the    Countrie     into     Tribes,     and     the    Tribes  '^^"'"^  """'"S- 
into    shares ;    but    Moore    seeing    his    share     and    the 
Colonies   to   be   none,  gave  him  so  cold  entertainment, 
that   he   returned   as   he   came. 

This    bred    Moore    more    dislike    in    England,    and 
his    minding    fortification     so    much,     with    neglect    of  1614. 
Corne    bred    a    famin  ;     that     attended    with    diseases  Famine  and 
specially   one  called  the    Feagues,   which   without  sense  '"   "'^' 
of  paine,    swallowed    up    all    their    strength    at    once, 
whereof  without    succour   they    died ;     some  by   foode 
and     rest     recovered.       The     Ravens     continued     this  Ravens. 
mortality   and   then   departed.     William    Millinton   was 
drawne     into     the     Sea    by    a  Fish,    and    never     seen 
more.     The  Famine  gave  a  supersedeas  to  the  workes, 
and    Moore   sent   them    to  seeke   reliefe.     At   Coupers 
He   with   a    contrary    extremity    of    the    abundance    of  Contrary 
Cahows   and    Fish,    many    surfeited    and    died.      Some  ^■*"'^'"^- 
killed   the    Cattell,   and  one  stole   away   to  the  Woods 
and    there    franked   himselfe,   feeding  on  land    Crabbes 
and  Wilkes.      For  fishing,  the  Smith  was  faine  to  make 
Hookes   of   Swords,   and    Lines   of   old    Ropes,    till    a 
Frigat  being  sent  with  advice  into  England,  the  Welcome 
was   sent    with    provision.     Master    Moore   returned   in 
this   Ship,  and  left  the  Government   to   a   Councell   of  ^  ^  Coumell. 
sixe,     which     should    succeede     each    other    monethly ; 
viz.    Captaine   Miles   Kendall,  Captaine  John  Mansfield, 
Thomas  Knight,  Charles  Caldicot,  Edward  Waters,  and 
Christopher     Carter,    with    twelve    Assistants.       Moore 
arriving    here,     after     much     quarrell,     obtained     eight 




shares  of  Land.     Hee  died  after  in  Sir  Walter  Raleighs 

Guiana    voyage.     He    was    a    man    very    pragmatical!, 

and    had    before    undertaken  much    in    Foulenesse    for 

Rapes  seede,  &c.     A  man  fitter  for  such  a  Plantation 

as     this    in     the     beginning    was,     then     some     silken 

Citizen,    or    stalking   Gentleman,    or    talking    Traveller, 

or   sowre    Humorist,   or   grim    Martialist    might    haply 

have  proved. 

Caldicm  lot.         Caldicots    Lot  was  first,    whose  moneth  being  ended, 

with  Knight  and  Waters  in  a   small  Frigot  he  went  to 

Virginia,   Mansfield   succeeded  in    the    new   triumvirate, 

and   a   plot   not  to   surrender  the  Government  to   such 

as  from  England  should  be  appointed,  was  disappointed  : 

Master    Hughes     was     imprisoned,    and    soone    set   at 

M.Keathand  liberty,   but  Master  Keath  his  Symmystes  fell  to  strange 

M.  Hughes,     disputes,  and  Hughes  was  againe  convented,  and  by  the 

Jury     acquitted.       Mansfields     moneth       being    passed 

in  braules,  the  two  next  were  quiet  ;    yet  those  contest- 

ings    after    revived.     The    Edwin    arrived    with     good 

supplies.     Divers   Boates    were   lost   at    Sea   about    this 


Strange  But   one   memorable   accident   was   this  :    In    March, 

accident.  ^  season  most  tempestuous,  on  a  faire  Friday  morning, 

seven   men  went    in  a    Boate    of    two    or    three    tuns 

to    fish,   some   of  them    fasting,    neither    had   they   any 

provision    in    the  Boat  with    them    but   a   few   Palmeto 

berries  ;     some    foure   leagues    from    shoare   a   tempest 

tooke    them,    and   carried    them    quite    out  of  sight  of 

[IV.  ix.  land  ;  their  strength  being  spent,  the  strength  also  of  the 

'803.]  tempest  abated  on  Sunday,  and  a  calme  followed.     Too 

weake  for  Oares   they   lay  adrift   that  night  :    the    next 

Andrew  morning  Andrew    Hillyard  (the  rest    not  able   to  helpe 

Hiiliards         themselves)  spred  the  saile  :    On   tuesday  one  died,   on 

adventures.      Wednesday  three,  which  were  cast  overboord  ;  on  thurs- 

day  night  the  sixth,  whom  he  was  not  able  to  turne  over, 

but  stripped  him,  ripped  his  belly  with  his  Knife,  threw 

his  bowels  into  the  Sea,  spred  his  body  abroad,  tilted  open 

with  a  sticke,  and  so  let  it  lye  as  a  Cesterne  to  receive 




some  luckie  raine  water,  which  God  sent  presently  after, 
so  that  in  a  small  shower  he  recovered  about  foure 
spoonefids  of  raine  to  his  unspeakable  refreshment.  He 
also  preserved  neere  halfe  a  pint  of  blood  in  a  shooe, 
which  hee  did  sparingly  drinke  to  moisten  his  mouth. 
Two  dayes  he  fed  on  his  flesh  to  the  quantity  of  a 
pound  :  the  eleventh  day  after  his  losse  of  Land,  two 
flying  Fishes  fell  into  his  Boate,  whose  warme  jucie  bloud 
he  sucked,  to  his  great  comfort,  and  within  an  houre 
after,  with  greater  comfort  espied  land,  which  within 
foure  houres  he  attained  on  a  Rocke  neere  Port  Royall, 
where  his  Boate  was  split  presently  in  peeces,  and  he 
made  shift  to  climbe  so  steepe  a  Rocke  by  night,  as 
would  have  troubled  the  strongest  man  in  the  He  to 
have  done  by  day.  He  discerned  in  the  morning  where 
he  was,  and  without  other  refreshing  then  water  (which 
he  tooke  temperately,  or  might  else  have  drunk  his  last) 
he  got  in  halfe  a  day  to  a  friends  house.  He  was  living 
Anno   1622. 

Some   treasure   in   Dollers,   to   the   value   of   twentie  M.  Tucker. 
pounds  was  found,  the  remainder  of  some  Wrack.     The 
Company  sent    M.    Daniel   Tucker,    to   be   Governour ; 
hee  set  saile  in  the  George,  accompanied  with  the  Edwin  : 
some  preparation  was  made  to  resist,  but  he  at  last  was 
received  and  acknowledged   in   May,    161 6.     Somewhat  161 6. 
hee  had  to  doe    to  bring  them    to  their   workes,  which 
yet  he  eflp^ected  ;  their  day  worke  till  nine  in  the  morning, 
and  then  staying  till  three  in  the  afternoone,  they  began 
againe  continuing  till  sun-set.     Besides  meat,  drinke,  and 
clothes,  they  had  for   a  time  a   certaine  kind  of  brasse 
Money,  with    a   Hog   on   the  one   side,  in    memory  of 
the  Hogs  there  found  at  first  landing.     Hee  by  Master 
Richard  Norwoods   helpe,  laid   out  the   eight  Tribes  in  Triies  laid 
the  Mayne,   which  were  to  consist  of  fiftie  shares  to  a  "*'• 
Tribe,  each  share  twentie  five  Acres.     He  began  to  plant 
some  of  the   Colony  on    speciall    shares,    and  appointed 
BailifFes  to  each  Tribe.     Hee  held  a  generall  Assise  in  -Assises. 
his  second  moneth  at  Saint  Georges,  where  for  sedition 





His  course  tuas 
neerer  shoare, 
zoith  all  pro- 
visions fitting. 

Small  Boat 
commeth  to 
Sanders  his 


John  Wood  a  Frenchman  was  hanged.  He  sent  the 
Edwin  to  Trade  with  the  Natives  of  the  West  Indies 
for  Cattel,  Corne,  Plants,  which  had  it  been  continued, 
might  happily  have  bin  more  beneficiall  to  the  Plantation 
then  the  Magazines  from  hence.  She  returned  with 
Figs,  Pines,  Sugar-canes,  Plantans,  Papawes,  and  divers 
other  plants,  which  were  presently  replanted,  and  since 
have  increased  by  the  Governours  commendable  hus- 
bandry. Severity,  by  the  conceit  thereof  produced  an 
admirable  fact :  Five  men  which  could  by  no  meanes  get 
passage  for  England,  resolved  to  adventure  an  escape, 
viz.  Richard  Sander  Mariner  chiefe  plotter,  William 
Goodwin  a  Ship  Carpenter,  Tho.  Harison  a  Joyner, 
James  Baker  Gentleman,  and  Henry  Puet.  These  in- 
sinuated to  the  Governour,  that  they  would  build  him 
a  Boat  of  two  or  three  Tuns  with  a  close  Deck,  fit 
to  fish  in  all  weathers.  Hee  glad  to  see  them  so  obse- 
quious, furnished  them  with  necessaries  whatsoever  they 
could  desire.  Shee  was  fitted  and  gone  the  evening 
before  hee  sent  for  her,  to  see,  as  was  reported,  how 
shee  could  saile.  This  was  most  true,  and  Botelias  his 
adventure  from  Goa  in  the  East  Indies  to  Lisbon  was 
not  so  admirable  a  triaU.  Barker  had  borrowed  a  Com- 
passe  Diall  of  M.  Hughes,  leaving  a  Letter  to  him  to 
have  patience  for  that  losse,  whereby  their  adventure 
was  intimated.  The  Governours  threats  were  not  in  that 
remotenesse  so  terrible  as  the  two  present  swelling 
Elements,  whom  yet  they  found  more  gentle  then  a 
French  Pickaroone,  who  in  stead  of  succour,  which  they 
desired,  tooke  from  them  what  they  liked,  leaving  them 
not  so  much  as  a  Crosse-stafFe  to  observe  with,  and 
so  cast  them  off.  They  continued  their  course  till  their 
victuall  began  to  faile,  and  the  knees  of  their  Boat  were 
halfe  hewed  away  for  fire  wood.  They  at  last  arrived 
in  Ireland,  where  the  Earle  of  Tomund  entertained  them, 
and  caused  the  Boat  to  be  hanged  up  for  a  Monument, 
having  sayled  3300.  miles  thorow  the  Ocean  by  a  right 
line  without  sight  of  any  Land.     This  fortunate  Sanders. 


in  the  rifling  of  a  Ship  taken  in  the  East  Indies,  bought 
a  Chest  for  three  or  foure  shillings,  but  would  for  want 
of  a  Key  have  sold  it  againe  for  lesse.  But  one  day 
having  little  to  doe,  hee  broke  it  open  and  found  therein 
1000.  pounds  sterling,  or  so  much  gold  as  bought  him 
in  England  a  good  estate,  which  leaving  with  his  wife  he 
returned  againe  to  the  East  Indies. 

The  Company  sent  Captaine  Powell  in  the  Hopewell,  ^^P-  Powell. 
after  he  had   landed  his  passengers  in   Summer  lies,  to 
trade  in   the   Indies,    who    by    the   way   fell    foule  on  a 
Brasillman,  and  afterwards  a    Frenchman    on   him  :    but 
hee  got  safe  to  the  Hands  and  told  what  he  had  done. 
The  Governour  kept  his  second  Assize,  and  made  a  pro- 
clamation against  the  killing  of  coheires.     Powell  is  againe 
sent  to  the  West  Indies  from  thence,  with  thirteene  or 
fourteene  men.     Hee  made  triall  but  in  vaine,   for  the 
Whale-fishing,  for  which  and  to  which  purpose  the  Com- 
pany soone  after  sent   the    Neptune.     In  the   beginning 
of  his  second  yeere  he   called  the   third  azise,  in  which 
one  was  hanged,  two  others  condemned,  but  reprieved. 
The  Rat  Tragedy  was  now  terrible  :  some  Fishes  have 
been  taken  with    Rats    in    their  bellies,  catched  as  they 
swam  from  He  to    He.      One    Henry   Long,    with    sixe   1617. 
others    being    on    fishing,    a    sudden    storm   arose    with  ^"'''  h  ^"'^ 
terrible  thunder,  and  the  Boat  was  tossed  over  the  Rocks,  YiZ^  "^^  '^" 
the  fish  tossed    over-boord,   and  Long   with  two   others 
escaped    (the    rest    drowned)    one    of    the    three    being 
demanded  what  he  thought  in  the  present  perill,  answered, 
hee  said  nothing,  but  Gallowes  claime  thy  right,  which  [IV.  ix. 
within    halfe    a    yeere     fell     out    accordingly.      Powell  1804.] 

returned  with  three  Frigats,  laden  with  Meale,  Hides,  and  <^<j//w^^ 
Munition.     The  Master  and  Governour  contending,  both  ^ 'v*-?^"/"  ^• 
were  dispossessed   by  a   stronger   power.     Waters,  with 
twelve  men  were  sent  to  Virginia,  and  would  no  more 
returne  to  Summers  lies.  1618. 

A.   1 61 8.  arrived  there  the  Diana,  with  men  and  pro-  Magazines 
vision,  and    the   first    Magazine  (a   course    I   heare    not  "able  as 
much  applauded  by   the   Planters    here,   or   in  Virginia,  intended. 



Escapers  not 

Two  ships 

Cap.  Butler 



Great  stormes. 


the  companies  honest  care)  seeming  by  some  others  dis- 
honestie  frustrate.  This  Ship  fraught  with  30000.  weight 
of  Tobacco,  gave  by  the  good  sayle  thereof  encourage- 
ment to  the  Adventurers.  The  Governour  building  a 
house  of  Cedar  in  the  best  Land,  appropriated  it  to 
himselfe  to  the  griefe  of  others  there,  of  whom  Master 
Hughes  could  not  by  threats  nor  imprisonment  be  so 
pacified,  but  that  here  to  the  Company  hee  approved  his 
cause.  Two  men  and  a  Gentlewomen,  thinking  to  make 
their  escape  in  a  Boat  to  Virginia,  were  never  heard 
of  after.  Sixe  others  attempted  the  like,  but  were 
apprehended,  arraigned,  condemned,  and  one  of  them 
hanged.  The  Governours  hard  dealings  so  much  com- 
plained of,  caused  him  in  the  Blessing  to  returne  to  excuse 
himselfe,  and  to  ^^t  that  house  assured  him,  leaving 
Captaine  Kendall  to  supply  his  place.  The  Gilli-flower 
and  the  Treasurer  were  sent.  By  the  Sea-flower  which 
went  to  Virginia,  a  Preacher  was  sent  to  the  Hands,  and 
newes  of  a  new  Governour.  Captaine  Kerby  came  in  with 
a  small  Barke  from  the  West  Indies.  A  Dutch  Frigot 
was  cast  away  on  the  Westerne  shoare,  the  people  saved 
by  the  English. 

Captaine  Butler,  the  new  Governour  arrived  in  the 
Warwicke,  the  twentieth  of  October,  16 19.  The 
Redoubt,  a  platforme  of  the  Kings  Castle,  at  the  same 
time  whiles  the  New  Governour  and  old  Planters  were 
feasting  aboord,  accidentally  was  consumed  with  fire. 
The  next  month  came  in  the  Garland,  which  had  come 
from  England  sixe  or  seven  weekes  before  him,  and  spent 
seventeen  weekes  on  the  voyage,  which  proved  so  tedious, 
that  many  both  Saylers  and  Passengers  died.  In  the  end 
of  November,  arose  such  a  storme  that  many  great  Trees 
were  blown  up  by  the  roots,  the  Warwicke  cast  away, 
the  Garland  forced  to  cut  her  Masts  overboord.  Not 
long  after  happened  another  as  fierce ;  in  which  the 
Mount,  built  by  M.  Moore  for  a  Watch-tower,  was 
blowne  up  by  the  roots ;  and  their  winter  crop  of 
Corne  blasted. 



He  began  the  new  yeere  with  refortifying  the  Kings 
Castle,  and  finding  the  Treasurer  rotten,  tooke  nine  Peeces 
of  Ordnance   out  of  her.      Hee   sent   the  Garland   for 
England.     Hee  finished  the  Church  begun  by  Captain 
Kendall,   with  great  toile  got   three  Peeces  out   of  the 
wracked  Warwick,  imployed  a  Dutch  Carpenter  of  the 
former  Dutch  wrack  to  build  Boates.     A  luckie  fellow  -^mbergreece. 
in   February,   found   a   piece  of  Ambergreece   of  eight 
Ounces,  as  hee  had  done  twice  afore,  and  according  to 
order  of  Court  (to  prevent  concealements)  had  therfore 
thirtie  pound  an  Ounce.     Two  Dutch  Frigots  arrived, 
conducted  by  Captaine  Powell,  and  much  refreshed  the 
Colony   with    Oyle  and    Bacon    at   cheape   rates.      The  ^'^ 
Governour  made  a  new  platforme  in  place  of  the  burned  '"'■'""''■ 
Redoubt,  and  mounted  seven  great  Peeces  on  Cariages 
of  Cedar.     The  Ministers  not  being  conformable  to  the 
Church  of  England,   nor  uniforme  with   themselves  in  Ministers 
administration   of   the   Sacrament,   and   Matrimony,   hee  sctupks. 
translated  the  Liturgie  Booke  of  Garnsie  and  Jarsie,  void 
of  the  pretended  scruples  which  was  generally  embraced, 
and  in  his  time  practised,  and  the  Sabbaths  observation 
proclaimed.     They  rebuilded  the  Mount,  and  divers  Boats 
was  indangered  with  a  Hericano,  one  lost.     Finding  a  S/>  George 
little  Crosse  erected  where  Sir  George  Summers  his  heart  S""""^/-' 
and  entrailes  were  buried :     he  caused  a  Marble  stone 
brought  out  of  England,  to  bee  handsomely  wrought, 
and  an   Epitaph  engraven,   in   memory  of  that  worthy 
Souldier,  and  laid  thereon,  invironed  with  a  square  wall 
of  hewed  stone. 

On  the  second  of  June,  began  their  Assizes,  in  which 
their  Lawes  and  Government  were  reduced  to  the  English 
forme.  The  first  of  August,  was  a  generall  Assembly  Their  first 
in  manner  of  a  Parliament,  at  Saint  Georges,  divers  Parhament. 
Articles  concluded,  and  being  sent  hither,  by  the  Company 
confirmed,  which  for  brevitie  I  omit.  The  Magazine 
Ship  soone  after  came  in  weake  case  thither,  having  cast 
overboord  twentie  or  thirtie  of  her  people,  and  had  they 
staled  at   Sea  a  weeke  longer,  were  likely  to   have  all 



1 620. 


These  made 
false  reports  in 
England,  the 
also  urging  the 
same,  till  the 
contrarie  was 

[IV.  ix. 


Weavells  cure. 


perished.  That  aire  soon  mends  or  ends  men  in  that 
case,  and  those  which  died  not  soone  after  the  landing 
recovered,  not  without  infection  of  others  there,  70000. 
weight  of  Tobacco  was  prefixed  for  her  freight.  Com- 
mandement  came  now  to  entertaine  no  Ships,  but  such 
as  were  sent  from  the  Company,  to  the  Colonies  great 
griefe,  which  now  were  forced  to  a  Magazine-Monopoly, 
and  debarred  of  occasionall  reliefe.  Cap.  Powell  soone 
after  came  thither,  imployed  by  the  States,  desiring 
admittance  for  wood  and  water,  which  was  denied  with 
exceeding  murmuring  and  exclaiming  of  the  Colony. 
The  Magazine  Ship  arrived,  her  Master  dead,  and  many 
passengers,  the  rest  sicke. 

Then  happened  also  in  September  a  Spanish  Wrack, 
which  comming  from  Carthagena  with  the  Spanish  Fleet 
lost  their  Ship  on  those  Rockes,  and  seventie  persons  were 
saved,  some  of  which  had  beene  rifled,  but  their  money 
to  the  value  of  one  hundred  and  fortie  pound  restored 
them  by  the  Governours  meanes :  into  whose  hands  they 
committed  it  for  disbursment  of  their  charges.  Some 
were  sent  away,  others  forced  to  stay  till  their  labours 
had  procured  meanes  for  their  passage.  Hee  made  meanes 
to  get  out  of  the  Wrack  two  Sakers,  and  three  Murtherers, 
which  were  the  same  which  Cap.  Kendall  had  sold  to 
Cap.  Kerby,  who  was  taken  by  two  men  of  War  of 
Carthagena,  most  of  his  men  slaine  or  hanged,  hee 
wounded  died  in  the  Woods,  as  these  Spaniards  related. 
Three  Bulwarkes  were  raised  at  Southampton  Fort,  with 
two  Curtens  and  two  Javelens.  Armes  were  distributed 
to  all  such  as  were  able  to  use  them. 

The  Weavells  (which  had  at  this  time  much  hurt  their 
Corne)  found  a  strange  remedy.  For  a  proclamation 
being  made  that  all  Corne  should  be  gathered  by  a  day, 
because  many  had  lost  some  for  want  of  gathering,  still 
haunting  the  Ships  for  Aqua-vitae  and  Beere ;  some  bad 
husbands  hastily  gathered  it,  and  threw  it  on  heapes  in 
their  houses  unhusked,  so  letting  it  lye  foure  or  five 
moneths.     Now  the  good  husbands  husked  theirs,  and 




hanged  it  up  with  much  labour,  where  the  Flies  did  blow 
it,  which  the  others  idlenesse,  as  the  event  shewed, 
prevented,  that  being  thus  found  to  be  the  best  way 
to  save  the  corne  and  labour,  to  let  it  lye  in  the 
huske.  Divers  places  of  fresh-water  were  now  also  luckily 
found  out.  Another  triall  of  whale-fishing  was  vainely 
attempted  by  a  Ship  which  came  from  Virginia,  who 
returned  thither  fraught  with  Lime-stone,  20000.  pound 
weight  of  Potatos,  &c. 

Aprill  and  May  were  spent  in  building  a  Prison,  and 
perfecting  some  Fortifications,  and  foure  Sakers  were 
gotten  from  the  Spanish  Wrack,  and  mounted  at  the 
Forts.  One  was  hanged  for  buggering  a  Sow,  whose 
Cock  in  the  time  of  his  imprisonment  used  also  to  tread 
a  Pig,  as  if  it  had  beene  a  Hen,  till  the  Pig  languished 
and  died,  and  then  the  Cock  haunted  the  same  Sow. 
About  the  same  time  two  Chickens  were  hatched,  one  of 
which  had  two  heads,  the  other  is  said  to  have  crowed 
loud  and  lustily  within  twelve  houres  after  it  was  out  of 
the  shell.  Other  Peeces  were  got  out  of  the  Spanish 
Wrack,  and  a  Saker  also  out  of  that  of  Sir  George 

By  a  Barke  going  to  Virginia,  Captaine  Butler,  his 
time  expiring,  conveied  himselfe  thither,  leaving  the 
government  to  C.  Felgate  C.  Stokes,  &c.  In  the  Kings 
Castle  were  mounted,  on  siifficient  platformes,  sixteen 
Peeces  of  Ordnance.  In  Charles  Fort  two,  in  South-  ^o"*'  ^ 
ampton  Fort  five,  betwixt  which  &  the  Castle  passeth  ^'^^^''"J^/" 
the  channel  into  the  Harbor,  secured  by  twenty  three 
Peeces  of  good  Ordnance.  In  Coups  He  is  Pembrookes 
Fort,  with  two  Peeces.  Saint  Georges  channell  is  guarded 
by  Smiths  Fort  and  Payets  Fort,  in  which  are  eleven 
Peeces.  Saint  Georges  Towne  is  commanded  by  War- 
wicks  Fort,  with  three  great  Peeces,  on  the  Wharfe  before 
the  Governours  house  are  eight  more,  besides  the  warning 
Peece  by  the  Mount,  and  three  in  Saint  Katherines;  in 
all  tenne  Fortresses,  and  fiftie  two  Peeces  of  Ordnance 
sufficient  and   serviceable.     Hee  left  one  thousand  five 




hundred  persons,  and  neere  one  hundred  Boates,  the  He 

replenished  with  provisions,  fruites,  poultry,  &c. 

M.  Bernard        Master  John  Bernard,  was  sent  by  the  Honourable 

^^^rnour.       Company  to  supply  his  place,  who  arrived  within  eight 

dayes  of  Captaine  Butlers  departure,  with  two  Ships,  and 

one  hundred  and  fortie  Passengers,  with  Armes  and  all 

sorts  of  Munition  and  other  provisions.     During  his  life 

(which  continued  but  sixe  weekes)  hee  gave  good  proofe 

of  his  sufficiency  in  reforming  things  defective.     He  and 

his  wife  were  both  buried  in  one  day,  and  one  grave : 

M.  Harnsott  ^nd  Master  John  Harrison  chosen  Governour  till  mrther 

Sz™'       "^^^"^  ^^^^  fr°"^  London. 

Worms  The  Wormes  before  mentioned  are  still  troublesome, 

noysome.  and  make  them  morning  workes  to  kill  them.     Cater- 

pillers  are  pernicious  to  their  fruits,  and  Land  Crabs  are 
as  thicke  in  some  places,  as  Conies  in  a  Warren,  and  doe 
much  harme.  A  Ship  in  which  had  beene  much  swearing 
and  blaspheming  used  all  the  voyage,  perished ;  the 
companies  negligence  jovially  frolicking  in  their  cups  and 
Tobacco  (having  landed  certaine  goods)  by  accident  the 
Powder  fired,  and  blew  up  the  great  Cabbin ;  some  were 
taken  up  in  the  Sea,  living  in  miserable  torments,  eighteene 
were  lost  with  this  fatall  blast,  the  Ship  also  sunke,  with 
sixtie  Barrells  of  Meale  sent  for  Virginia,  and  her  other 
provisions  lost.  The  Company  have  sent  Captaine 
Woodhouse  in  a  Ship  called  the  Tigre  for  that  govern- 
ment, a  man  much  commended  and  hopefull.  I  have 
beene  told  that  there  are  three  thousand  persons  of  all 
sorts  living  there,  halfe  of  which  number  is  able  to  beare 
Armes,  and  exercised  to  that  service. 



Chap.  XIX. 

Briefe  intelligence  from  Virginia  by  Letters,  a 
supplement  of  French-Virginian  Occurrants, 
and  their  supplantation  by  Sir  Samuel  Argal, 
in  right  of  the  English  Plantation. 

He  late  alteration  of  Virginia  Govern- 
ment is  unknowne  to  none ;  and  most 
know  of  the  frequent  complaints,  both 
by  private  Letters,  and  by  Petitions  to 
his  Majesty.  Now  least  any  should 
hereupon  thinke  Virginia  to  be  unworthy 
of  such  our  care  and  cost ;  I  have  out 
of  one  of  the  Planters  private  Letters  transcribed  a  few 
words  of  grievances,  and  yet  a  magnifying  of  the  Country, 
that  the  English  may  be  more  blamed  for  want  of 
Providence,  then  the  Region  for  defect  of  Natures  best 
gifts.  Other  things  I  could  alleadge  from  others,  but 
my  meaning  is  to  amend  things  not  to  quarrell  them, 
and  to  awaken  the  care  of  good  men,  rather  then  to 
recite  the  faults  of  the  bad.  In  one  Letter,  dated 
Dec.  22.  last  past,  he  hath  these  words  : 

The  intollerable  rates  we  pay  here  for  commodities, 
as  ten  pound  sterling  a  hogshead  of  Meale,  sixteen 
shillings  a  gallon  of  Alligant,  three  pound  sterling  a 
Henne  and  eight  Chickens,  &c.  and  so  according  to  these 
rates  for  every  thing  else :  lastly,  the  heavy  taxations 
that  are  laid  upon  us  free  men,  for  building  of  Castles, 
paying  of  publique  debts,  for  the  not  gathering  of 
Sasafras,  &c.  so  that  it  will  come  to  my  share,  with  that 
that  is  paid,  and  that  that  is  to  pay  in  Corne  and  Tobacco, 
to  at  least  twenty  or  five  and  twenty  pound  sterling,  this 
yeere ;  so  that  when  I  have  paid  this,  and  paid  my  faith- 
lesse  servants  their  wages,  I  shal  scarse  have  good  Tobacco 
enough  left  to  buy  my  selfe  for  the  next  yeer  a  pint  of 
Aquavitae,  &c.  Thus  you  see  (I  neither  warrant,  nor 
except  against  the  truth,  but  present  the  worst  quarelled 




[IV.  ix. 


He  mentions 
in  other  letters 
3. J.  a  pound  of 
Butter,  6J. 
ready  monie 
for  a  pinte  of 
Milke,  I  O.J. 
or  12.S.  a  day 
for  a  workman 
besides  meate 
and  lodffng. 



paralelled  with  the  best)  complaints  of  great  prizes  of 
things,  not  arising  from  plenty  of  money,  as  you  reade 
before  in  the  conquest  of  Peru,  but  from  I  know  not 
what  ill  habit  and  indisposition  of  that  Colony.  And 
least  any  man  should  withdraw  his  heart,  hand,  or  purse 
therefore  from  that  worthy  work,  I  have  out  of  the  same 
mans  Letters  delivered  a  commendation  of  the  Countrey. 
The  Letters  were  written,  and  dated  22.  March  1624. 
and  containe  for  substance  none  other  then  what  before 
you  have  read  in  others ;  yet  are  more  sutable  to  this 
time  and  purpose,  as  later  newes  and  fitter  directories  to 
the  Phisitians  of  that  Estate ;  that  at  last  the  English 
honour  may  be  vindicated  against  so  base  perils  from 
Savages,  and  baser  quarrels  from  and  amongst  our  owne. 
God  prosper  his  Majesties  care,  and  make  those  which 
are  therein  emploied  not  to  seeke  their  owne  good  by 
hasty  returnes,  much  lesse  other  their  fellow  adventurers 
evill  by  calumnies  and  underminings,  but  Virginias 
prosperity ;  of  which.  Natures  prosperity  is  thus  related 
by  one  querulous  of  his  owne  losses  and  crosses.  His 
words  are  these : 

Now  concerning  the  state  of  the  Country,  so  much  as 
I  have  observed,  I  will  relate  unto  you :  First,  the 
Countrie  it  selfe,  I  must  confesse  is  a  very  pleasant  Land, 
rich  in  Commodities,  and  fertile  in  soyle  to  produce  all 
manner  of  Plants,  Hearbes,  and_  Fruites.  I  have  seene 
here  my  selfe  both  Garrets,  Turneps,  Cabages,  Onyons, 
Leekes,  Garlicke,  Tyme,  Parseley,  Pompions,  Musk- 
milion,  and  Watermilions,  rare  fruits  and  exceeding 
wholesome,  here  are  also  Strawberries ;  I  have  lien  downe 
in  one  place  in  my  Corne  field,  and  in  the  compasse  of 
my  reach  have  filled  my  belly  in  the  place :  and  for 
Mulberries,  I  can  when  I  list  goe  and  gather  a  bushell 
at  a  time ;  here  is  also  a  coole  Fruite  growing  wildely 
on  the  ground,  much  resembling  a  great  Walnut  with 
the  greene  rinde  on  it,  which  reserves  in  it  three  admirable 
good  tastes,  namely  of  Strawberries,  Rosewater,  and 
Sugar,  they  were  an  exceeding  great  comfort  to  me  in 



my  last  yeeres  sicknesse,  and  are  admirable  good  against 
the  bloudly  fluxe. 

English  Wheate  and  Barley  will  grow  here  exceeding 
well ;  I  have  seene  here  growing  as  good  English  Wheate 
as  ever  I  saw  in  England  in  all  my  life.  For  Timber 
we  have  the  Oake,  Ashe,  Poplar,  blacke  Walnut,  white 
Walnut,  Pines,  Gumme  trees ;  the  Pines  here  afford 
admirable  good  Pitch  and  Tarre,  and  serve,  split  out  in 
small  peeces,  in  many  places  of  this  Land  instead  of 
Candles ;  but  it  will  smeare  one  worse  then  a  Linke : 
here  are  also  Peare  trees  which  yearely  bring  forth  Peares. 
But  there  is  a  tree  that  passeth  all  Fruite  trees,  which 
we  call  by  the  names  of  a  Prissurmon  tree,  which  beareth 
a  Plum  much  about  the  bignesse  of  a  Peare  plum.  I 
doe  thinke  it  is  one  of  the  rarest  Fruites  in  the  world ; 
when  they  are  ripe  they  eate  naturally  of  themselves  from 
the  tree  better  then  any  preserved  Plummes  I  ever  tasted 
in  England.  The  Beasts  that  this  Land  is  plentifially 
stored  withall  are  Deere,  Beares  in  some  parts.  Beavers, 
Otters,  Foxes,  Hares,  Squirrels,  Roccounes,  Possucins, 
names  strange  to  you,  yet  are  they  singular  good  meate ; 
the  Roccouns  tasting  as  well  as  Pigges  flesh.  Indian 
Dogges  here  are  as  good  meate  with  us  as  your  English 
Lambe.  English  Cattell  here  increase  and  thrive  very 
well,  as  Kine,  Hogges,  Goates,  and  Poultry.  Fowle  here 
are  abundance,  as  Swans,  Brants,  Geese,  Turkies,  Herons, 
Cranes,  Eagles,  fishing  Hawkes,  Bussards,  Ducke  and 
Mallard,  Sheldrake,  Dapchicke,  Partriches,  Pidgeons, 
Crowes,  Blacke-birds,  and  all  manner  of  small  Birds  in 
abundance.  Our  Rivers  here  are  likewise  rich  by  the 
abundance  of  Fish,  as  Herings,  Shads,  Perch,  Eele,  Pike, 
Carpe,  Cat-fish,  Rock-fish,  Gor-fish,  and  Sturgeon.  If 
here  were  any  that  would  make  fishing  for  Sturgeon  an 
occupation,  they  might  take  inough  to  furnish  this  Land, 
and  also  plentifially  supply  England.  I  my  selfe  have 
seene  above  twenty  Sturgeon  leape  above  water  in  lesse 
then  two  houres.  As  for  our  Graine,  I  thinke  it  produceth 
the  plentifiillest  encrease  of  any  Come  in  the  World ; 
XIX  209  o 



for  I  have  scene  one  graine  of  Corne,  that  by  the  assist- 
ance of  growth  and  time,  hath  yeelded  a  pint  of  Corne : 
we  have  here  also  Beanes  and  Pease. 

I  confesse  here  are  plentie  of  all  those  things  I  have 
set  before  you,  but  all  the  craft  is  in  catching  them ;  for 
he  that  will  get  any  gaine,  must  be  a  wary  and  a  well 
eyed  shot,  and  to  prop  his  profession,  he  must  adde  great 
care  and  vigilance,  both  in  defending  himselfe  and  winning 
his  game.  It  hath  beene  often  seene  in  this  Land,  that 
whilest  an  Englishman  hath  beene  winning  his  game,  an 
Indian  hath  dogd  him,  attending  his  opportunitie  by  the 
others  discharge  to  fill  him  full  of  Arrowes.  Since  the 
Massacre  they  have  killed  us  in  our  owne  doores,  fields, 
and  houses :  thus  are  we  not  safe  neither  at  home  nor 
abroad ;  and  (which  grieves  me  to  write)  our  safetie  is 
lessened  by  our  malice  one  to  another,  for  the  most  part 
altogether  neglecting  the  common  enemie.  I  my  selfe 
and  my  wife  are  by  some  secret  enemies  much  wronged,, 
for  I  am  shaven  so  bare,  that  I  have  scarse  either  Garter, 
Girdle,  Stocking,  or  Shirt  left ;  all  my  wearing  Cloathes 
likewise  are  torne  and  tattered,  I  can  accuse  no  man,  and 
they  that  likewise  doe  it,  doe  it  privately,  and  which 
grieves  me  most  of  all,  they  strive  by  base  and  insinuating 
[IV.  ix.  meanes  to  clip  the  wings,  as  well  of  my  prosperitie  as  of 

1 807.]  my  reputation ;  yet  I  hope  God  will  give  me  patience  to 
beare,  and  in  his  good  time  give  me  a  joyfuU  deliverance 
in  the  middest  of  all  these  miseries.  Whilest  I  was  a 
writing  these  lines,  newes  was  brought  me  of  the  killing 
of  one,  and  the  carrying  away  prisoner  of  another  of  my 
neighbours,  by  the  Indians ;  one  was  an  old  Virginian, 
and  one  who  for  a  long  time  was  Sir  Thomas  Dale  his 
Overseer  in  this  Land,  his  name  was  Master  Henry 
Watkins :  and  but  two  dales  agoe  there  was  another  that 
had  his  braines  beaten  out  by  the  Indians,  in  the  next 
Plantation  to  us.  Wherefore  with  a  sad  and  sorrowfull 
heart  I  take  my  leave  of  you  deere  Father,  Mother, 
Sisters,  Brethren,  and  all  the  rest  of  my  kinde  and  loving 
friends ;   for  the  case  stands  so  with  us  here,  that  if  wee 


goe  out  in  the  morning,  wee  know  not  whether  wee  shall 
ever  returne ;  working  with  our  Hoe  in  one  hand,  and 
our  Peece  or  Sword  in  the  other,  &c. 

And  now  from  latest  intelligence  you  have  notice  of 
the  good  and  evill,  as  becommeth  a  faithfuU  Historian, 
nequid  non  veri  audeat,  nequid  veri  non  audeat ;  It  is 
good  to  know  the  worst,  to  prevent  it :  forewarned, 
forearmed.  Easily  you  may  see  that  the  good  things  of 
Virginia  are  naturall  and  her  owne,  the  bad  accidentall 
and  our  owne  ;  and  consequently  if  wee  amend  our  selves, 
Virginia  will  soone  be  amended.  The  body  there  is 
found ;  to  cut  the  haire,  avoide  the  excrements,  paire 
the  nailes,  wash  away  sweate  and  dust,  and  to  cure  other 
hke  accidents  of  negligence,  or  impenitent  and  unprofit- 
able diligence,  is  a  worke  feasible  and  facile  also  to 
industrious  and  unanimous  workemen.  One  thing 
touching  the  French  (whose  Plantations  are  before  recited) 
remaineth,  that  we  take  away  all  scruple  from  feare  of 
suspected  neighbours.  I  shall  therefore  adde  a  little  more 
touching  them,  the  conclusion  of  their  Virginian  Planta- 
tion in  a  double  sense.  As  for  the  English  right  to  these 
parts,  the  next  Chapter  will  shew,  and  consequently  the 
Justice  of  Sir  Samuell  Argals  act.  The  Patents  to  Sir 
Humfry  Gilbert,  and  to  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  and  their 
actuall  possession  before  these  latter  Plantations  may  be 
alleadged  likewise  against  the  French.  These  things  I 
have  collected  out  or  Sir  William  Alexanders  Encourage- 
ment to  Colonies ;    Lescarbot  hath  also  related  them. 

The  Marquesse  de  la  Roche,  by  a  Commission  from 
Henry  the  fourth,  intending  a  Voyage  for  Canada, 
happened  by  the  way  upon  the  He  of  Sablon  (which  is 
now  comprehended  within  the  Patent  of  new  Scotland) 
and  there  (trusting  to  the  strength  of  the  place,  where 
there  are  no  Savages  at  all)  landed  some  of  his  men,  till 
he  should  have  found  a  convenient  place  within  the  maine 
Land  fit  for  a  habitation,  promising  then  to  returne  for 
them.  But  it  was  his  fortune,  by  reason  of  contrary 
winde,  never  to  finde  the  Maine  Land,  but  he  was  blowne 



made  a  voiage 
to  those  parts 
An.  1 500. 
and  another 
1 501.    After 
that  his 
brother,  but 
both  lost. 

another  Por- 
tugal sought 
straits  there 
An.  1525. 
The  land  was 
called  Terra 
from  60.  deg. 
to  S.  Laurence. 



backe  to  France  without  seeing  of  them,  where  he  was 
in  the  time  of  the  civill  warres  (such  is  the  uncertainty 
of  worldly  things)  taken  prisoner  by  the  Duke  of 
Mercaeur,  and  shortly  after  died  ;  so  that  his  people  whom 
he  had  left  at  Sablon,  furnished  but  for  a  short  time,  had 
quickly  spent  their  provisions,  having  for  their  main- 
tenance onely  such  things  as  the  place  it  selfe  did  without 
labour  freely  afford ;  which  hath  a  race  of  Cowes,  as  is 
thought,  first  transported  thither  by  the  Portugals,  that 
have  long  continued  there :  they  had  likewise  there 
growing  wilde,  of  this  which  wee  call  Turkey  Wheate, 
and  sundry  Rootes  fit  to  be  eaten,  and  every  where 
abundance  of  Fishes,  with  Venison,  and  (having  no 
meanes  to  live  but  by  sport)  as  for  their  Apparell,  they 
cloathed  themselves  with  the  Skins  of  such  creatures  as 
they  could  kill  by  Land  or  Sea :  so  that  having  lived 
there  for  the  space  of  12.  years  :  when  they  were  presented 
to  King  Henry,  who  had  hired  a  Fisherman  to  bring 
them  home,  as  I  have  heard  from  them  that  did  see  them 
at  first  before  the  King,  they  were  in  very  good  health, 
and  looked  as  well  as  if  they  had  lived  all  that  time  in 
France :  having  bin  abused  by  the  Fisherman,  who 
cunningly  conceiling  that  he  had  bin  directed  by  the  King, 
did  bargaine  with  them  to  have  all  their  Skins  for  trans- 
porting them  home,  which  were  of  great  value,  some  of 
them  being  of  blacke  Foxes,  which  have  bin  sould  at 
fiftie  pound  sterling  a  peece  and  above :  for  the  recovery 
thereof  they  intended  a  Processe  against  him  before  the 
Court  of  Parliament  at  Paris,  wherein  they  prevailed, 
gaining  by  that  meanes  a  stocke  wherewith  to  traffique 
in  these  parts  againe. 

Monsieur  de  Montes  betaking  himselfe  to  trade  for 
Furs,  Monsieur  Pourtrincourt  resolving  to  prosecute  the 
Plantation  at  that  place  sent  his  sonne  Biencourt  to 
France,  to  bargaine  with  some  that  would  send  them  a 
supply,  such  as  was  requisite  for  establishing  of  that 

The    first    that    embraced    his    propositions    were    the 


Jesuites,  who  as  they  have  ordinarily  good  wits  which  Jesuites. 
made  them  the  rather  capable  of  so  advantagious  a 
project,  so  they  were  the  more  animated  thereunto  by 
upbraiding  the  lazinesse  of  our  Clargie,  to  shew  with 
what  fervency  they  travelled  to  propagate  the  Gospell, 
in  doing  whereof  (whether  it  be  ambition  or  devotion  that 
provokes  them)  sparing  no  paines,  they  have  travelled 
both  to  the  East  and  West  Indies,  and  to  the  admired 
Kingdome  of  China.  Their  society  in  France,  prevailing 
with  all  that  had  any  inclination  either  to  zeale  or  to 
vertue,  did  easily  gather  a  voluntary  contribution  for  the 
farthering  of  so  commendable  a  purpose.  Thereafter 
they  sent  away  two  Fathers  of  their  Company,  with  a  new 
supply  of  all  things  necessary  to  the  Plantation  at  Port 
Royall,  but  shortly  after  their  arrivall  (their  predominant 
disposition  hardly  yeelding  to  any  superiour,  specially 
if  it  be  a  secular  power)  they  began  to  contradict  Pourtrin- 
court  in  the  execution  of  those  decrees  which  had  bin  ^^^-  ^'^■ 
given  forth  by  him,  as  civill  Magistrate  of  that  place :  ' 

whereupon  the  Gentleman  extreamely  discontented,  and 
weary  of  contesting  with  him ;  having  said  that  it  was 
his  part  to  rule  them  upon  earth,  and  theirs  onely  to 
guide  him  the  way  to  heaven,  he  returned  backe  to 
France,  leaving  his  Sonne  Biencourt  in  his  place.  Who 
being  a  youth,  at  that  time  of  more  courage  then  circum- 
spectnesse,  disdaining  to  be  controuled  by  them  whom 
he  had  envited  thither,  and  scorning  their  insupportable 
presumption,  using  spirituall  armes  for  temporall  ends, 
and  an  imperious  kinde  of  carriage,  who  onely  for  spleene 
had  excommunicated  and  branded  him  with  a  spirituall 
censure ;  he  threatned  them  by  his  temporall  power  with 
a  more  palpable  punishment.  So  that  after  much  con- 
troversie,  resolving  to  separate  themselves,  the  two 
Jesuites  taking  a  part  of  the  Company  with  them,  went 
from  thence  to  a  place  in  new  England,  called  by  them 
Mount  Desart,  where  they  seated  themselves  ;  and  having 
a  supply  from  the  Queene  Mother  did  plant  sundry  Fruit 
trees   of   the   most   delicate   kindes   in   France,    such   as 




Apricockes  and  Peaches,  never  intending  to  remove  from 
n  have  heard  At  this  time  Sir  Samuel  Argall  being  then  Governor* 
Dalewl'the  °^  Virginia,  coasted  alongst  new  England  to  traffique  and 
Governor  of  discover,  or  to  acquire  things  necessary  for  the  Southerne 
Virginia  and  Colony  in  these  parts,  where  the  lands  are  reputed  to  be 
sent  him.  more  fertil,  and  the  Seas  more  frequented,  &  did  conceive 
by  a  description  made  unto  him  by  the  Savages,  that  there 
were  some  come  from  this  part  of  the  World  to  inhabit 
there  ;  and  being  jealous  of  any  thing  that  might  derogate 
from  the  honour,  or  prove  prejudiciall  to  the  benefit  of 
his  Nation,  where  their  interest  in  this  was  easle  to  be 
apprehended ;  he  went  whereas  he  was  informed  that 
they  were,  and  his  unexpected  arrivall,  as  It  would  seeme, 
not  onely  amazed  the  mindes  of  the  French,  but  like- 
wise preventing  their  preparation  and  resolution ;  he 
approached  so  neere  to  a  Ship  that  lay  before  their  Fort, 
that  hee  beate  them  all  that  were  therein  with  Musket 
shot  from  making  any  use  of  their  Ordnance,  save  one 
Jesuite  Med.  of  the  two  Jesultes,  who  was  killed  in  giving  fire  to  a 
Peece :  Having  taken  the  Ship,  they  landed  and  went 
before  the  Fort,  summoning  them  that  were  therein  to 
yeelde  themselves,  who  at  the  first  made  some  difficulty, 
asking  a  time  to  advise ;  but  that  being  refused,  they 
privately  abandoned  the  Fort,  stealing  out  by  some  backe 
way  into  the  Woods,  where  they  staled  one  night,  and 
the  next  day  comming  backe,  rendered  themselves  to  Sir 
Samuel  Argall,  who  had  lodged  all  that  night  within  the 
Fort,  giving  up  the  Patent  they  had  from  the  French 
King  to  be  cancelled.  He  used  them  very  curteously, 
as  their  owne  Writers  doe  make  mention,  suffring  such 
as  had  a  minde  to  goe  for  France,  to  seeke  out  Fishers 
Ships  wherein  they  might  be  transported ;  the  rest  that 
were  willing  to  goe  for  Virginia  went  thither  alongst 
with  him ;  no  man  having  lost  his  life  but  onely  that  one 
Jesuite,  who  was  killed  whilst  they  made  resistance,  during 
the  time  of  the  conflict.  Thereafter  Father  Biard,  the 
other  of  the  Jesultes,  comming  backe  from  Virginia  with 



Sir  Samuell  Argall,  out  of  the  indigestable  malice  that 
he  had  conceived  against  Biencourt,  did  informe  him 
where  he  had  planted  himselfe,  offering  (as  he  did)  to 
conduct  him  thither.  As  soone  as  they  were  entered 
within  the  Fort,  neere  the  uppermost  of  the  Hands,  Sir 
Samuel  directed  the  Ship  to  ride  at  a  reasonable  distance 
to  attend  occasions  before  the  Fort  did  land  himselfe  with 
forty  of  the  best  of  his  men  upon  a  Meddow,  where 
immediately  they  heard  a  peece  of  Ordnance  from  the 
Fort,  and  he  conceiving  since  it  was  shot  whilst  it  could 
doe  no  harme,  that  it  was  done  either  but  to  give  terrour 
to  them,  or  to  warne  some  that  might  happen  to  be  abroad, 
did  make  the  greater  haste  towards  the  Fort,  where  he 
presently  entered,  finding  it  abandoned  without  any  men 
at  all  left  for  the  defence  thereof.  He  went  up  the  River 
side  five  or  six  miles,  where  he  saw  their  Barnes,  and  the 
ground  where  a  great  quantity  of  Wheate  had  grown, 
which  he  carried  with  him  to  prove  for  Seede  in  Virginia : 
he  saw  also  their  corne  Milne  very  conveniently  placed, 
which  together  with  the  Barnes  he  left  standing  untouched. 
As  for  the  Fruit  it  selfe  he  destroied  it  downe  to  the 
ground,  racing  the  French  armes,  and  leaving  no  Monu- 
ment that  might  remaine  to  witnesse  their  being  here. 

After  this,  Biencourt,  who  had  been  somewhere  abroad 
travelling  through  the  Countrey  comming  home,  desired 
to  conferre  with  Sir  Samuel  Argall,  who  did  meete  with 
him  a  part  from  the  company  upon  a  meadow :  and  after 
they  had  expostulated  a  space  for  what  had  past  contro- 
verting concerning  the  French  and  English,  little  to  these 
bounds,  at  last  Biencourt  offered,  if  hee  might  have  a 
protection  from  him,  to  depend  upon  our  King,  and  to 
draw  the  whole  Furres  of  that  Countrey  to  one  Port, 
where  he  would  divide  them  with  him ;  as  likewise  hee 
would  show  him  good  mettalls,  whereof  he  gave  him 
pieces,  the  other  refused  to  joyne  in  any  societie  with  him, 
protesting  that  his  Commission  was  onely  to  displant  him, 
and  that  if  hee  found  him  there  thereafter  hee  would  use 
him  as  an  enemy.     Beincourt  labouring  earnestly  to  have 



[IV.  h 


Tie  South  Sea 
suspected  {as 
bejfore  in 
letter)  by 


had  the  Jesuit,  as  he  confessed,  with  a  purpose  to  hang 
him.  Whilest  they  were  discoursing  together,  one  of  the 
Savages  rushing  suddenly  forth  from  the  Woods,  and 
licentiated  to  come  neere,  did  after  his  manner,  with  such 
broken  French  as  he  had  earnestly  mediate  a  peace, 
wondring  why  they  that  seemed  to  be  of  one  Country, 
should  use  others  with  such  hostilitie,  and  that  with  such 
a  forme  of  habit  and  gesture  as  made  them  both  to  laugh. 
After  Biencourt  removing  from  thence  to  some  other. 
Monsieur  Champlein,  who  had  lived  long  here,  did  carry 
a  company  with  him  from  France  of  some  fortie  persons 
or  thereabouts,  up  the  River  of  Canada  whom  hee  planted 
on  the  North  side  thereof,  with  a  purpose  to  sue  for  a 
Factory,  drawing  all  the  trade  of  that  farre  running  River, 
within  the  hands  of  a  few  whom  he  doth  command,  which 
a  Plantation  would  have  dispersed  in  many  parts,  other- 
wise, if  his  desires  had  beene  bended  that  way,  hee  might 
have  planted  many  people  there  ere  now ;  the  place  is 
called  Kebeck,  where  the  French  doe  prosper  well,  having 
Corne  by  their  owne  labour,  which  may  furnish  themselves 
for  foode,  and  likewise  for  a  stocke  to  traffique  with  the 
Savages,  with  sundry  other  Fruites,  Rootes,  Vine  grapes 
and  Turkey  Wheate.  Champlein  hath  discovered  the 
River  of  Canada  from  the  Gulfe  upwards  above  1200. 
miles,  finding  in  it  sometimes  such  fals  as  he  must  carry 
his  Boate  a  little  way  by  land,  and  then  put  it  in  againe. 
He  did  many  times  come  to  great  Lakes,  at  the  end 
whereof  he  did  alwaies  finde  a  River  againe :  and  the 
last  Lake  where  he  came  was  a  very  huge  one,  judged  to 
be  three  hundred  miles  in  length,  by  the  report  or  some 
Savages,  who  did  affirme  unto  him,  that  at  the  further 
end  thereof  they  did  finde  Salt  water,  and  that  they  had 
seene  great  Vessels ;  which  made  Champlein  beleeve  that 
a  passage  might  be  there  to  the  Bay  of  California,  or  to 
some  part  of  the  South  Sea,  which  would  prove  an 
inestimable  benefit  for  the  Inhabitants  of  these  parts, 
opening  a  neere  way  to  China,  which  hath  bin  so  many 
sundry  wayes  with  so  great  charges  so  long  sought  for. 



Howsoever,  in  regard  of  the  season,  and  for  want  of 
necessary  provisions,  Champleine  did  returne  baclce  at  that 
time,  with  a  purpose  to  goe  againe  another  yeare :  which 
if  hee  hath  done  is  not  yet  knowne,  but  this  is  most 
certaine,  that  the  River  of  Canada  hath  a  long  course, 
and  through  many  goodly  Countries  :  some  of  these  great 
Lakes,  by  sending  forth,  or  by  receiving  great  Rivers, 
doe  afford  meanes  of  commerce  as  farre  as  to  some  parts 
of  Terra  Florida,  as  may  be  gathered  by  Champleines 
discovery,  &c. 

THus  have  I  given  thee  Others  travells  to  Virginia 
and  the  Summer  Hands,  I  will  conclude  with  mine 
owne  travells  for  them.  I  see  many  likely  to  bee 
disheartened  by  the  slender  growth  of  the  Virginian 
Plantation,  which  for  the  time  might  have  beene  not  onely 
a  safe,  but  a  rich  and  blessed  Mother  of  a  numerous 
thriving  generation,  branching  farre  into  other  Colonies ; 
and  yet  is !  But  why  doe  I  intercept  your  eyes  and  divert 
your  thoughts  (suspend  them  at  best)  from  that  which 
for  my  Countries  good  and  zeale  to  Virginia,  without 
partiall  respect  on  the  right  hand  or  on  the  left,  with  a 
candid  right  hand  I  here  present,  and  forbid  all  sinister 
hands  to  meddle  with?  Tros  Tyriusve  mihi — I  side  no 
where,  but  embrace  Virginia  with  a  right  heart,  my  pen 
directed,  my  hands  erected  for  her  good,  which  can  doe 
mee  no  other  good,  but  in  reference  to  the  publike,  whose 
I  am  and  whom  under  God  and  his  Majestic  I  serve  and 
observe  with  all  that  I  have,  am,  and  can.  I  had  written 
it  as  a  tractate  by  it  selfe,  at  the  request  of  some  worthy 
friends,  but  here  have  abridged  it  in  some  such  things  as 
the  other  parts  of  these  Volumes  containe. 



'Eic  AiSe  ap- 
Xii/ie(7(3a  Tov 
yd  Kal  y4vos 

Arat.  Of 
God,  and  the 
image  of  God 
in  Man. 

Gen.  I.  I. 

Eph.  4.  24. 

Gen.  I.  28. 

Gen.  9.  2. 


Chap.  XX. 

Virginias  Verger :  Or  a  Discourse  shewing  the 
benefits  which  may  grow  to  this  Kingdome 
from  American  English  Plantations,  and  speci- 
ally those  of  Virginia  and  Summer  Hands. 

Od  is  the  beginning  and  end,  the  Alpha 
and  Omega,  that  first  and  last,  of  whom 
and  for  whom  are  all  things.  The  first 
and  last  thing  therefore  in  this  Virginian 
argument  considerable,  is  God ;  that  is, 
whether  we  have  Commission  from  him 
to  plant,  and  whether  the  Plantation  may 
bring  glory  to  him  :  This  in  regard  of  us  and  our  scope ; 
That  in  regard  of  it,  and  the  lawfulnesse  thereof.  To 
begin  with  this ;  In  the  beginning  God  created  heaven 
and  earth  (all  things  therefore  are  his  by  a  higher  name 
then  right,  this  rule  and  the  things  ruled,  being  his 
creatures)  of  both  which  Man  onely  amongst  Visible 
creatures  was  created  capable,  which  Moses  delivereth  in 
these  words,  that  God  created  him  after  his  owne  Image : 
which  is  spoken  not  onely  of  the  spirituall,  immortall 
substance  of  his  soule,  whose  unity  shineth  with  that 
created  Trinity  of  Understanding,  Will,  Memory,  in  it 
selfe ;  and  that  of  Vegetation,  Sense,  Reason,  exercised 
in  and  by  bodily  motion ;  but  more  especially  in  regard 
of  the  Creator,  a  conformity  to  him  in  righteousnesse  & 
holinesse  of  truth  (the  whole  Man  shining  with  a  borrowed 
light,  as  the  Moone  is  the  image  and  reflexion  of  the 
Sunne)  and  in  regard  of  the  Creature,  a  just  dominion 
over  the  same,  as  the  holy  words  manifest ;  replenish  the 
Earth  and  subdue  it,  and  have  dominion  over  the  Fish  of 
the  Sea,  and  over  the  Fowle  of  the  ayre,  and  over  every 
living  thing  that  moveth  upon  the  earth.  Although  Mans 
rebellion  had  forfeited  this  Naturall  Charter,  yet  was  the 
same  in  the  repeopling  of  the  World  renewed  to  Noah 
and   his   Sons,   which   ever   since   have  beene   in   actuall 



possession :   and  as  Adam  gave  names  (as  humaine  eare-  Gen.  z. 
marks)   to   the  living  creatures ;    so  Noahs  heires  have 
since  given  names  to  Seas  and  Lands,  and  other  creatures 
quite  thorow  the  knowne  World.     Neither  did  the  Fall 
of  Man  so  cracke  this  earthen  vessell,  that  all  his  created  [^^  •  '''■ 
excellence  ran   out:    for  neither  were   the   substance  or  18 10.] 

faculties  of  the  soule  extinct,  nor  his  prerogative  over  the 
visible  creatures  (the  spirituall  creature  naturally  excelling 
the  bodily,  and  the  reasonable  and  living,  the  sensitive, 
vegetative  and  torpid : )  these  received  a  wound,  the  other 
(his  spirituall  and  religious  conformitie  in  these  to  God) 
as  a  purer  water  of  the  purest  life,  ran  forth  irrecoverably  ; 
and  as  our  naturall  parts  were  weakned  and  wounded,  so 
of  those  supernaturall  wee  were  utterly  robbed ;  till  that 
good  Samaritan  undertooke  the  restitution  of  that  in 
redemption,  whereunto  in  creation  he  had  given  first 
institution,  God  hath  laid  upon  him  the  iniquitie  of  us  ^'"y  S3- 
all,  and  in  his  stripes  wee  are  healed  ;  our  Charter  is  renued 
and  now  made  so  compleat,  that  whereas  the  devills 
thought  to  rob  man  of  Earth  and  Paradise,  Hee  which  '■  ^'"'-  3- 
taketh  the  wise  in  his  craftinesse  hath  restored  him :  nay 
(that  is  little)  hath  added  Heaven  Himselfe :  that  as  the 
Israelites  entred  upon  the  houses.  Cities  and  possessions 
of  the  cursed  Canaanites,  so  Christians  into  those  Thrones 
and  celestiall  Dominions,  which  those  spirituall  Thrones 
and  Dominions  lost,  and  there  have  God  himselfe  and 
the  Lambe  to  be  their  Temple  and  All  in  all  unto  them  Jj>oc.  u. 
forever,  Amen.  '•  ^'"■-  '5- 

Hence  is  it  that  Christians  (such  as  have  the  Grace  of  Of  the  right  of 
the  Spirit  of  Christ,  and  not  the  profession  of  his  merit  ^^^Iff""""^ 
alone)  have  and  hold  the  world  and  the  things  thereof  in  Heathens  to 
another  tenure,  whereof  Hypocrites  and  Heathens  are  not  the  world. 
capable.     These    have   onely   a    Naturall   right,    by    the  ^^i  t^^'^ 
reliques  of  the  Law  of  Nature  left  in  Man,  by  the  Creators  ffi^\27led 
goodnesse,  for  the  conservation  of  the  face  of  a  world  j„  Xo.  1.  /.  i. 
in  the  world;    the  same  further  improved  with  a  war-  r.i.i  3.4.5. 
rantization,  Contra  omnes  gentes  (our  evidences  dialect) 
hy  the  Law  of  Nations  unto  Nations,  and  Lawes  Politicke 



IltoTis  dvo- 

I.  Tim.  I.  6. 

may  not  spoile 

Gal.  3.  17. 

Tit.  I. 

Matth.  5. 

/fl^K     19.    36. 

2.  Ccr.  10.4. 

Afij«/5.  16. 

Jud.  8. 

2.  P^/.  2.  19. 


and  Civill  in  each  Nation,  allotting  to  the  members  thereof 
the  publike  and  private  civill  rights  and  tenures,  which 
either  publike  or  private,  persons  or  corporations,  held 

This  tenure  comparatively  that  Christian,  is  by  our 
Lord  himselfe  called  a  tenure  in  villenage,  that  of  sonnes : 
the  servant  hath  his  time  and  abides  not  in  the  house  for 
ever:  but  the  sonne  is  heire  in  fee  simple  (fide  simplici) 
for  ever.  Neither  yet  is  it  lawfiill  for  Christians,  to 
usurpe  the  goods  and  lands  of  Heathens;  for  they  are 
villains  not  to  us ;  but  to  our  and  their  Lord ;  nor  hath 
the  Sonne  in  nonage  power  to  dispossesse  villaines :  nor 
are  wee  sonnes  by  nature,  but  by  adoption,  and  a  later 
Evangelicall  Charter  which  doth  not  disannuU  the  former 
(the  Truth,  or  Word  of  the  Gospel  received  by  Faith, 
makes  us  free)  free  Tenants  to  our  Lord,  not  Lordly 
subverters  of  others  tenures ;  which  may  with  a  good 
conscience  use  our  owne  (all  things  to  the  pure  are  pure, 
which  others  cannot,  whose  conscience  being  pitchy,  all 
things  it  toucheth,  are  defiled)  and  not,  as  some  have 
turned  libertie  into  licentiousnesse,  with  a  bad  conscience 
take  away  that  which  is  anothers.  Christ  came  not  to 
destroy  the  Law,  of  which  one  Commandement  is.  Thou 
shalt  not  steale :  My  Kingdome,  saith  hee,  is  not  of  this 
world,  and  therefore  properly  medleth  not  with  proprietie 
and  civill  interests.  The  weapons  of  our  warfare,  saith 
Saint  Paul,  are  not  carnall  but  spirituall,  and  the  Keyes 
so  much  boasted  on  by  Peters  pretended  Successors,  are 
called  Keyes  of  the  Kingdome  of  Heaven  ;  lawfull  keyes, 
not  thievish  picklocks  ;  of  Heaven,  not  of  Earth.  And 
it  is  remarkable  that  neither  Pope  nor  Anabaptist  (the 
troubles  of  Israel  with  worse  then  Heathenish  conceits  in 
this  kind)  ever  inverted  or  interverted  Scepters,  till'  they 
had  denied  the  very  Christian  name  which  they  received 
in  Baptisme ;  nor  dispised  government  till  they  were  twice 
dead,  nor  promised  this  libertie  to  others,  till  themselves 
were  the  servants  of  corruption.  Even  a  Malefactor,  a 
Traytor,  a  very  Faux,  or  Raviliac,  is  permitted  to  breath. 


yea  is  in  prison,  the  Kings  house  (whereof  no  private 
hand  may  dispossesse  him)  maintained  at  the  Kings  charge, 
till  judgement  have  passed  on  him,  which  to  the  world 
is  not  till  the  end  of  the  world,  when  Christ  shall  come 
to  judge  the  quick  and  dead ;  who  once  so  respected  the 
jurisdiction  of  Ethnickes,  that  himselfe  was  thereby 
adjudged  to  the  worst  of  sufferings,  yea  acknowledged 
that  power  given  to  Pilat  from  above.  His  Birth  acknow-  Jo^n  '9-  '  i- 
ledged  Augustus  his  Edict,  his  Infancy  fled  Herods 
tyranny,  his  Man-hood  payd  Tiberius  tribute,  and  his 
Death  was  Roman  both  in  kind  and  sentence.  Let  every  Rom.  13.  i. 
soule  be  subject  to  the  higher  powers,  yeelded  those  noble 
armies  of  Martyrs  in  the  Primitive  Church ;  the  contrary 
whereof  hath  yeelded  Mastives  and  Monsters  in  these 
last  and  worst  dayes. 

Therefore  was  Babels  building  in  the  East  (and  shall  Gen.  n. 
not  Babelbable  building  in  the  West  be)  confounded  that 
men   might    bee   dispersed    thorow    the   world,    to    take 
possession   of   their   inheritance :    and   God   which   said, 
Replenish  the  earth,  hath  made  of  one  bloud  all  Nations  ^cts  17.  27. 
of  men,  to  dwell  on  all  the  face  of  the  earth,  and  hath 
determined   the   times   and   bounds   of   their   habitation. 
Hee  gave  Ar  to  the  children  of  Lot,  and  the  Land  of  the  Deut.2.f).\<). 
Horims  to  Esaus  posteritie,  though  not  with  like  circum- 
stances  as    Canaan    to    Israel :    and    it    was    by    speciall 
indulgence,   that  Israel  both  spoiled  the  Egyptians  and 
disherited  the  Canaanites.     Let  it  bee  enough,  that  Christ 
hath  given  us  our  selves  in  the  Lords  service  to  bee  a 
perfect  freeman,   the   Universe   in  an  universaU   tenure, 
and  Heaven  in  reversion ;    that  hath  given  his  Sonne, 
doth  give  his  Spirit,  will  give  himselfe;    that  all  things  i-Cor.  3. 
are  ours,  and  wee  Christs,   and  Christ  Gods :    without 
thoughts    of    invasion    and    usurpation,    knowing    that 
Christian   Charity   seeketh   not   her  owne   things   (much   '•  ^'"-  '3- 
lesse  obtrudes  on  others)  and  Christian  libertie  maketh 
liberall  Saints  of  naturall  men,  not  unnaturall  devills  of 
professed    Saints.     Our   Light    should    so    shine    before  Matih.  5. 
others,   that  they  may  see  our  good  workes,  that  they   1 .  Pet.  3. 


[IV.  ix. 


Mans  naturall 
right  in  places, 
either  wholly 
or  in  great 
part  not 
Lot,  Jacob, 

I  have  heard 
by  one  which 
I  thinke  hath 
more  searched 
the  Countrie 
then  any  other 
Cap.  Smith, 
that  in  neere 
so  much  as  all 
England,  they 
have  not  above 
5000.  men 
able  to  bear 
armes,  which 
manured  and 
civilly  planted 
might  well 
and  many 
many  more;  as 
appeareth  by 
this  our 
countrie,  not 
having  so  rich 
a  naturall 
Right  of  Mer- 
I .  Cor.  1 1 . 2 1 . 
Securitie  of 
Gen.  10. 


which  know  not  the  world,  may  bee  won  without  the 
Word,  in  admiring  our  Christian  conversation. 

This  should  be,  and  in  the  most  Adventurers  I  hope  is 
the  scope  of  the  Virginian  Plantation,  not  to  make 
Savages  and  wild  degenerate  men  of  Christians,  but 
Christians  of  those  Savage,  wild,  degenerate  men ;  to 
whom  preaching  must  needs  bee  vaine,  if  it  begins  with 
publike  Latrocinie.  And  this  is  sufficient  to  prevent 
scruple  of  the  Popes  Bui,  which  (if  Basan  Buls  roaring 
were  evidence)  maketh  aswel  against  England,  this  being 
no  lesse  questionable  then  Virginia,  Paul,  Pius,  Gregory 
Sixtus  breathing  as  much  fire  against  this,  as  Alexander 
for  that.  But  what  right  can  England  then  challenge  to 
Virginia?  I  answere,  that  we  would  be  loth  to  begin 
our  right  at  wrong,  either  to  Ethnick  or  Christian :  nor 
need  we,  having  so  manifold  and  just  interests.  First, 
as  men,  we  have  a  naturall  right  to  replenish  the  whole 
earth :  so  that  if  any  Countrey  be  not  possessed  by  other 
men,  (which  is  the  case  of  Summer  Hands,  and  hath  beene 
of  all  Countries  in  their  first  habitations)  every  man  by 
Law  of  Nature  and  Humanitie  hath  right  of  Plantation, 
and  may  not  by  other  after-commers  be  dispossessed,, 
without  wrong  to  human  nature.  And  if  a  country  be 
inhabited  in  some  parts  therof,  other  parts  remaining 
unpeopled,  the  same  reason  giveth  liberty  to  other  men 
which  want  convenient  habitation  to  seat  themselves, 
where  (without  wrong  to  others)  they  may  provide  for 
themselves.  For  these  have  the  same  right  unto  these 
latter  parts,  which  the  former  had  to  the  former ;  especially 
where  the  people  is  wild,  and  holdeth  no  settled  possession 
in  any  parts.  Thus  the  holy  Patriarks  removed  their 
habitations  and  pasturages,  when  those  parts  of  the  world 
were  not  yet  replenished :  and  thus  the  whole  world  hath 
been  planted  and  peopled  with  former  and  later  Colonies  : 
and  thus  Virginia  hath  roome  enough  for  her  own  (were 
their  numbers  an  hundred  times  as  many)  and  for  others 
also  which  wanting  at  home,  seeke  habitations  there  in 
vacant  places,  with  perhaps  better  right  then   the  firsts 


which  (being  like  Cain,  both  Murtherers  and  Vagabonds 
in  their  whatsoever  and  howsoever  owne)  I  can  scarsly 
call  Inhabitants.  To  question  this  right,  were  to  accuse 
almost  all  Nations  which  were  rocked  (for  the  most  part) 
in  no  other  cradle :  and  to  disappoint  also  that  Divine 
Ordinance  of  replenishing  the  Earth,  whose  habitations 
otherwise  would  be  like  scattered  Hands  in  the  Seas,  or 
as  the  present  Spanish  Plantations  in  the  Indies,  so 
dispersed  and  disjoyned  that  one  cannot  in  any  distresse 
succour  another,  and  therefore  are  made  an  easier  prey 
to  every  Invader.  Another  right  is  that  of  Merchandise  : 
Non  omnia  possumus  omnes.  Nee  vero  terrse  ferre  omnes 
omnia  possunt ;  God  in  manifold  wisedome  hath  diversified 
every  Countries  commodities,  so  that  all  are  rich,  and  all 
poore ;  not  that  one  should  be  hungry  and  another 
drunken,  but  that  the  whole  world  might  be  as  one  body 
of  mankind,  each  member  communicating  with  other  for 
publike  good.  He  hath  made  this  immutable  decree  in 
the  mutabilitie  of  the  Winds,  commodities  &  commodious- 
nesse  of  Seas,  and  Harbors,  varietie  of  Bales  and  Rivers, 
multiplicity  of  all  Mens  both  Necessities  and  Superfluities, 
and  their  universall  desires  of  Novelties.  Thus  Salomon 
and  Hiram  had  right  to  sayle  over  the  Ocean,  and  to 
negotiate  with  the  Ophirians  for  Gemmes,  Gold,  Ivory, 
and  other  commodities  serviceable  for  his  peoples 
necessities,  for  pompous  Magnificence,  and  for  the 
Temples  Holies.  And  if  hee  did  not  plant  Colonies 
there,  you  must  remember  that  the  Jewish  Pale  was  then 
standing,  which  prohibited  voluntarie  remote  dwellings, 
where  each  man  was  thrice  a  yeere  to  appeare  before  the 
Lord  in  Jerusalem.  Besides,  it  is  a  question  whether  the 
Countrey  peopled  so  long  before,  had  roome  for  such 

It  is  therefore  ungodly,  and  inhumane  also  to  deny  the 
world  to  men,  or  like  Manger-dogges  (neither  to  eat  hay 
themselves,  nor  to  suffer  the  hungry  Oxe)  to  prohibite 
that  for  others  habitation,  whereof  themselves  can  make 
no    use ;    or    for    merchandise,    whereby    much    benefit 




Rom.  2.  14. 


National!:  Jus 


Right  by  right 

2.  Sam.  10. 

Deut.  2.  19. 

[IV.  ix. 



accreweth  to  both  parts.  They  which  doe  this,  Tollunt 
e  vita  vitae  societatem,  to  use  Tullies  phrase,  &  hominem 
ex  homine  tollunt,  to  borrow  Saint  Jeroms  in  another 
matter.  The  Barbarians  themselves  by  light  of  nature 
saw  this,  and  gave  Ours  kind  entertainment  in  mutuall 
cohabitation  and  commerce :  and  they  having  not  the  Law 
were  a  Law  to  themselves,  practically  acknowledging  this 
Law  of  Nature  written  by  him,  which  is  Natura  naturans, 
in  their  hearts :  from  which  if  they  since  have  declined, 
they  have  lost  their  owne  Naturall,  and  given  us  another 
Nationall  right ;  their  transgression  of  the  Law  of  Nature, 
which  tieth  Men  to  Men  in  the  rights  of  Natures  com- 
mons, exposing  them  (as  a  forfeited  bortd)  to  the  chastise- 
ment of  that  common  Law  of  m.ankind ;  and  also  on  our 
parts  to  the  severitie  of  the  Law  of  Nations,  which  tyeth 
Nation  to  Nation.  And  if  they  Bee  not  worthy  of  the 
name  of  a  Nation,  being  wilde  and  Savage  :  yet  as  Slaves, 
bordering  rebells,  excommunicates  and  out-lawes  are 
lyable  to  the  punishments  of  Law,  and  not  to  the 
priviledges ;  So  is  it  with  these  Barbarians,  Borderers  and 
Out-lawes  of  Humanity.  Arma  tenenti.  Omnia  dat  qui 
justa  negat.  If  the  Armes  bee  just,  as  in  this  case  of 
vindicating  unnaturall,  inhumane  wrongs  to  a  loving  and 
profitable  Nation,  entertained  voluntarily,  in  time  of 
greatest  pretended  amity.  On  this  quarrell  David  con- 
quered all  the  Kingdome  of  the  Ammonites  and  left  it  to 
his  successours  in  many  generations,  notwithstanding 
Moses  had  otherwise  left  a  speciall  caution  for  their 
security,  testifying  that  God  had  given  it  the  sonnes  of 
Lot,  and  prohibiting  invasion  to  Israel.  That  natural 
right  of  cohabitation  and  commerce  we  had  with  others, 
this  of  just  invasion  and  conquest,  and  many  others 
praevious  to  this,  we  have  above  others ;  so  that  England 
may  both  by  Law  of  Nature  and  Nations  challenge 
Virginia  for  her  owne  peculiar  propriety,  and  that  by  all 
right  and  rites  usuall  amongst  men,  not  those  mentioned 
alone  but  by  others  also,  first  discovery,  first  actuall 
possession,  prescription,  gift,  cession,  and  livery  of  seisin, 



sale  for  price,  that  I  mention  not  the  natural!  Inheritance  Englands 
of  the  English  their  naturally  borne,  and  the  unnatural!  "if^'fit^ 
outcries    of    so    many    unnaturally    murthered,    for   just  ^-  ''■^° 
vengeance  of  rooting  out  the  authors  and  aciors  of  so 
prodigious  injustice. 

And   first   for   discovery,   the   English,    Spaniard,  and  ^"' 
Portugal!  seeme  the  Triumviri  of  the  Worlds  first  dis-  '^'"'^'n- 
coveries,   the   Spaniard  and  Portugall  first  opening   the 
Eastern,  Western,  and  Southern  parts,  the  English  the 
Northern  America,   and  all  known  parts  thence   to  the 
North  and  Northeast.     I  could  bring  authority  for  King 
Arthurs  conquests,   above    1000.   yeers   since  in   Island, 
Gronland,  Estotiland :  but  I  feare  this  would  seeme  too 
weake  a  foundation,  and  (which  lyers  get  by  lying)  dis- 
credit our  other  authorities  lesse  suspicious ;    howsoever 
Authors  of  best  note  in  Geography  alledge  those,  which  Menator  D. 
reverence   of   the   truth   makes   me  let   passe.     And   so   Pf^-  ^'*^- 
I  doe  King  Malgo  soone  after  him,  and  Saint  Brandon, 
and  the  Friar  of  Oxford  (which  A.  1360.  is  said  to  discover 
to  the  Pole)  and  Owen  Gwined  Prince  of  North  Wales  m.  Thome. 
his  Sonne  Madock,  A.   1 1 70.  which  conveyed  a  Colony,  &ir  Sei. 
as  learned   men   thinke   into    the   West   Indies.     In   all  Cfl""''-  Ms 
Antiquities,    as    Varro    observed,    there    are    somethings  f''^!"!''  '"  '"^ 

ri     1  /        T     1  1        r  \  1  ■  ■  pnvie  gallerte 

rabulous  (so  1  deeme  the  former)  somethmg  uncertame,  atlVhiteHall 

as  this  last ;   and  somethings  Historical!,  as  that  which  we  hath  these 

shall  deliver.    Robert  Thorne  in  a  Booke  to  Doctor  Leigh  v}ords. 

writeth,  that  his  father  with  another  Merchant  of  Bristol,  ^^^"  ^'^• 

Hugh   Eliot,    were   the   first    discoverers   of   the   New-  finif^annu^ 

found-lands  ;  and  if  the  Mariners  would  have  beene  ruled  Cabota 

by  their  Pilot,  the  Lands  of  the  West  Indies  from  whence  Veneti,  milith 

the  Gold  commeth   had  beene  ours.     What   yeere   this  ^'^''"i,^(-A' 

happened  he  expresseth  not ;    but  the  words  import  that  ^^^yJ'^/J 

it    was    before    Columbus    his    discovery.     And    before  serving  H.  7. 

Columbus  his  discovery  of  the  continent,  Sir  Sebastian  H.  8.  Ed.  6. 

Cabot,  at  the  charges  of  K.  Henry  the  seventh,  with  two  """  flaunted 

Carvels,  in  the  yeere  1496.  (so  himselfe,  in  Ramusio ;  the  q/u^^I  ^''.. 

Map  with  his  picture  in  the  Privy  Gallery  hath   1497.)  he  was  b'orne 

sailed  to  the  New-found-land,  which  he  called  Prima  Vista,  at  Bristol. 
XIX                                    225                                        p 



and  the  Hand  S.  Johns,  because  it  was  discovered  on  the 
Feast  of  S.  John  Baptist ;  from  whence  he  sailed  Northerly 
to  67.  deg.  and  a  halfe,  hoping  by  that  way  to  passe  to 
Cathay,  but  his  mutinous  company  (terrified  haply  with 
Ice  and  cold)  forced  his  returne,  which  hee  made  along 
the  Coast  toward  the  Equinoctial!,  to  the  part  of  the  firme 
land  now  called  Florida,  and  then  his  victualls  failing,  he 
returned  into  England,  where  by  occasion  of  warres  with 
Scotland,  the  imploiment  was  laid  aside.  Afterwards  the 
same  Sir  Sebastian  Cabot  was  sent,  A.  1516.  by  King 
Henry  the  eight,  together  with  Sir  Thomas  Pert  Vice- 
admirall  of  England,  which  after  coasting  this  Continent 
the  second  time,  as  I  have  read,  discovered  the  Coast  of 
Brasil,  and  returned  from  thence  to  S.  Domingo  and 
Puerto  Rico.  Now  Columbus  his  first  discovery  of  the 
Hands,  was  in  1492.  of  the  Continent  in  his  third  voyage 
in  August,  1497.  or  as  others,  1498.  so  that  counting 
most  ravourably  for  Columbus,  Cabot  had  discovered  the 
Continent  in  June  next  before ;  by  one  reckoning  above 
a  yeere,  by  another  above  two  yeeres  before.  And  indeed 
that  New  World  might  more  fitly  have  borne  his  name, 
then  America  of  Americus  vesputius,  or  of  Columbus, 
Cabot  having  discovered  farre  more  of  that  Continent  then 
they  both,  or  any  man  else  in  those  Seas :  to  wit,  from 
67.  degrees  and  an  halfe  to  the  Line,  and  from  thence 
Southerly  to  the  River  of  Plate. 

Hee  also  was  the  principal!  mover  in  the  setting  forth 
of  Sir  Hugh  Willoughby,  in  King  Edwards  time  (under 
Sir  Seb.  Cab.  whom  he  was  constituted  Grand  Pilot  of  England,  with 
Grand  Pilot  of  the  annual!  stipend  of  one  hundred  sixtie  sixe  pound 
England.         thirteene  shillings  foure  pence)  in  which  voyage  Greene- 
land   was   discovered   (neither   is   there   any   other  Wil- 
loughbys  Land  to  be  found,  but  in  erroneous  Maps)  and 
the  Russian  Empire  by  the  North  Cape,  and  the  Bay  of 
Saint  Nicolas.     But  for  Virginia,  as  it  was  then  discovered 
by  Sir  Seb.   Cabot,   so  it  received  that  name  from  our 
continuation      Virgin-Mother,  Great  Elizabeth  :     in  whose  time  formal 
prescription.      &    actual   possession    was    taken    for   her    Majesty,    the 



thirteenth  of  July,  1584.  by  Captain  Philip  Amadas,  and 
Captain  Barlow,  whom  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  had  sent  thither 
with  two  Barkes  furnished ;  who  also  the  next  yeere, 
1585.  sent  Sir  Richard  Greenevile  with  seven  sayle,  which 
there  left  an  English  Colony  under  the  government  of 
M.  Ralph  Lane.  A.  1586.  hee  sent  another  Ship  of  one 
hundred  Tuns  thither  for  their  reliefe :  but  the  Colony 
being  returned  in  Sir  Francis  Drakes  Fleet,  shee  returned 
also.  Sir  Richard  Greenevile  also  about  a  fortnight  after 
their  departure  arrived  with  three  Ships,  and  not  finding 
the  Colonic,  left  fifteene  men  to  keepe  possession,  furnished 
with  provision  for  two  yeeres. 

A.  1587.  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  sent  a  new  Colony  of  one  The  names  of 
hundred  &  fifty  persons,  with  three  saile,  a  Ship  of  one  above \ 
hundred  and  twenty  Tuns,  a  Fly-boat  and  a  Pinnace.  ^^^^ 
Hee  appointed  twelve  Assistants  to  the  Governour,  and  Tome. 
incorporated    them    by    the    name    of    Governour    and 
Assistants  of  the  Citie  of  Raleigh  in  Virginia.     To  these. 
Sir  Walter  Raleigh  sent  succour  five  severall  times,  the 
last  by  Samuel  Mace,  1602.     An.  1603.  the  Bristow  men 
sent  thither,  by  leave  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  in  which 
Expedition  was  Master  Robert   Saltern,  who   the  yeere 
before  had  beene  with  Cap.   Bart.  Gosnold.     And  thus 
are  wee  come  to  the  beginning  of  his  Majesties  gracious 
raigne,  when  the  North  and  South  Plantations  were  by 
new  Patents  eagerly  pursued,   the  one  from  hence,  the 
other  from  the  West  parts  of  England.     Mawooshen  and 
other  parts,  were  many  yeeres  visited  by  our  men,  and 
An.  1607.  ^  Plantation  setled  at  Sagadahoc,  by  two  Ships 
sent  by  that  wise  and  severe  Justice  Sir  John  Popham 
and  others  :     the  successe  whereof  hath  been  such,  that 
from  the  North  Plantation  it  hath  beene  dignified  with 
the  Title  of  New  England.     And  for  the  Southerne  parts, 
A.   1606.  a  Colony  went  firom  hence,  set  forth  by  the  [IV.  ix. 
Virginia  Company,  which  have  ever  since  maintained  their  '   '^■■ 

Plantation  in  differing  fortunes.  As  for  the  former 
Plantations  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  some  children  were 
borne  to  them  there :    and  whether  they  live,  they  con- 




Two  former 
wholly,  l£c. 

subjection  and 
service  to  the 

Right  by  buy- 
ing l^  selling: 
and  by  cession. 


tinued  the  possession  ;  or  if  the  Savages  dealt  perfidiously 
with  them  (as  Powhatan  confessed  to  Cap.  Smith,  that 
hee  had  beene  at  their  slaughter,  and  had  divers  utensills 
of  theirs  to  shew)  their  carkasses,  the  dispersed  bones  of 
their  and  their  Countrey  mens  since  murthered  carkasses, 
have  taken  a  mortall  immortall  possession,  and  being  dead, 
speake,  proclaime  and  cry,  This  our  earth  is  truly  English, 
and  therefore  this  Land  is  justly  yours  O  English. 

Thus  have  we  discovered  the  English  right  by  Dis- 
covery, Possession,  Praescription ;  to  which  we  may  adde, 
that  none  other  Nation  hath  once  adventured  to  settle 
in  those  parts,  nor  scarce  to  view  them :  yea  the  French 
and  Spanish  Plantations  in  Florida,  Virginias  Southerne 
neighbour,  soone  ended  in  bloudy  massacres,  the  Spanish 
cruelly  murthering  the  French,  under  the  conduct  of 
Pedro  Melendes,  which  An.  1567.  was  repaid  them  by 
Dominique  de  Gorgues,  the  acquittance  written  with  his 
sword  in  Spanish  bloud :  Florida  ever  since  expecting 
civilizing  from  her  first  discoverers  the  English :  which 
is  further  ratified  by  the  former  Spanish  disasters  in  the 
Expeditions  of  Pamphilo  di  Navarez,  1527.  and  of  Soto, 
1537.  into  Florida:  which  two  journeyes  consumed  neere 
one  thousand  men  therein  imployed :  besides  other 
Expeditions  of  Ponce  de  Leon  and  others  mentioned  by 
Vega  and  the  Spanish  Authors. 

Now  for  voluntary  subjection  of  the  Natives,  giving 
themselves  and  their  lands  to  the  Crown  of  England, 
M.  Ralph  Lane  hath  testified  for  the  first  Colonie,  that 
Menatonon  their  King  by  his  Messenger,  &  with  him 
twentie  foure  principal  men  sent  from  Okisko  King  of 
Weopomiok  his  Vassall,  formally  acknowledged  Her 
Majesty  as  servants  and  homagers  to  her,  and  under  her 
to  Sir  W.  R.  For  the  last  Plantation  by  the  present 
Patent  of  His  Majesty,  Paspehay,  one  of  their  Kings  sold 
us  land  for  Copper,  and  Powhatan  the  chiefe  Lord  of 
all  the  Savages,  with  thirty  nine  Werowances,  have  yeelded 
to  more  then  formes  and  circumstances  of  homage  ;  besides 
contribution,  having  also  actually  sold  for  Copper  by  him 



received  of  Cap.  John  Smith,  and  made  voluntary  cession 
of  as  much  as  the  English  desired,  going  away  with 
his  people  to  leave  it  to  the  English  onely.  This  purchase 
was  much  increased  by  Sir  Thomas  Dale,  and  for  what- 
soever else  which  he  held,  hee  accepted  a  Copper  Crowne 
as  Vassall  to  His  Majesty  :  which  also  hee  really  performed 
for  a  time,  howsoever  since  they  have  beene  perfidious. 
And  this  perfidiousnesse  of  theirs  hath  further  warranted  Right  by 
the  English  Title.  Temperance  and  Justice  had  before  ^o'f"'"'''- 
kissed  each  other,  and  seemed  to  blesse  the  cohabitations 
of  English  and  Indians  in  Virginia.  But  when  Virginia 
was  violently  ravished  by  her  owne  ruder  Natives,  yea 
her  Virgin  cheekes  dyed  with  the  bloud  of  three  Colonies 
(that  of  Sir  R.  Greenevile,  that  of  Sir  W.  R.  both  con- 
fessed by  themselves,  and  this  last  butchery  intended  to 
all,  extended  to  so  many  hundreths,  with  so  immaine, 
inhumane,  devillish  treachery)  that  I  speake  not  of 
thousands  otherwise  mis-caring  here  and  mis-carrying 
there,  taking  possession  of  Virginia  by  their  facts,  arid 
fates,  by  so  manifold  losses  adding  to  the  price  of  Virginias  Fatal/  posses- 
purchase :  Temperance  could  not  temper  her  selfe,  yea  """■ 
the  stupid  Earth  seemes  distempered  with  such  bloudy 
potions  and  cries  that  shee  is  ready  to  spue  out  her 
Inhabitants :  Justice  cryeth  to  God  for  vengeance,  and 
in  his  name  adjureth  Prudence  and  Fortitude  to  the 

The  Holy  Patriarks  had  a  promise  of  Canaan,  yet  held 
no  possession  but  with  their  dead  bodies ;  Joseph  by  Heb.  1 1 . 
fiiith  gave  charge  concerning  his  bones :  Virginia  by  so 
many  rights  naturalized  English,  by  first  discovery,  actuall 
possession,  chargeable  continuation,  long  prescription, 
voluntary  subjection,  delivery  of  seisin,  naturall  inheri- 
tance of  English  there  borne,  reall  sale,  legall  cession, 
regall  vassallage;  disloyall  treason  hath  now  confiscated 
whatsoever  remainders  of  right  the  unnaturall  Naturalls 
had,  and  made  both  them  and  their  Countrey  wholly 
English,  provoking  us,  if  wee  bee  our  owne,  not  base, 
degenerate,  unworthy  the  name  of  English ;   so  that  wee 



The  Glorie  of 
God  in  his 
Word  and 
advanced  by 

Jo.  15. 

Ps.  19.  I. 

Ps.  92.  4. 

[IV.  ix. 

Ps.  148.  5. 

Ps.  16.  y 

ac.  2. 
Ec.  I. 

The  workes  of 
God,  and 
varietie  there 
seen  set  forth 
his  ghrie. 


shall  not  have  any  thing  left  (like  Davids  Embassadors, 
which  thus  abused,  brought  their  Master  a  just  title  to 
Ammon,  purchased  by  their  disgraces)  to  cover  our  naked- 
nesse,  till  Virginia  cover,  reward,  inrich  us  with  a  totall 
subjection  at  lest,  if  not  a  fatall  revenge.  And  thus  much 
for  our  right  which  God  hath  given  us  :  whose  Virginian 
tribute  is  his  glory,  that  hee  may  indeed  be  Alpha  and 
Omega  (as  hath  beene  said)  of  the  Virginian  Plantation : 
which  if  it  hath  not  satisfied  the  expectation  hitherto,  no 
doubt  that  defect  hath  in  great  part  proceeded  from  this. 

The  end  of  a  thing  is  the  beginning,  being  first  in 
intention  though  last  in  execution :  the  end  which 
Christians  ought  to  ayme  at  is  God,  Doing  all  things  in 
the  name  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  to  the  glory  of  God 
the  Father,  by  the  gracious  guide  and  assistance  of  the 
Holy  Ghost.  Glory  is,  *  Frequens  de  aliquo  fama  cum 
laude.  And  heereby  is  our  Father  glorified,  sayeth  Christ, 
if  yee  bring  forth  much  fruite,  and  so  shall  yee  be  my 
Disciples.  Loe  here  the  scope  of  Christians  Plantations, 
to  plant  Christianity,  to  produce  and  multiply  Christians, 
by  our  words  and  works  to  further  the  knowledge  of  God 
in  his  Word  and  Workes.  The  workes  of  God  glorifie 
their  Creator :  The  Heavens,  saith  David,  declare  the 
glory  of  God,  &c.  I  will  triumph  in  the  workes  of  thy 
hands.  O  Lord,  how  great  are  thy  workes?  and  thy 
thoughts  are  very  deepe.  A  bruitish  man  knoweth  not, 
neither  doth  a  foole  understand  this.  All  creatures  are 
invited  to  praise  the  name  of  the  Lord,  for  hee  hath 
commanded  and  they  were  created :  How  much  more 
should  the  tongue  of  man  be  the  Pen  of  a  readie  writer, 
and  as  it  is  called,  The  glory  of  the  man,  so  imploy  it 
selfe  in  setting  forth  the  glory  of  God,  in  his  Workes  of 
Creation,  Providence,  Redemption.? 

God  is  a  Glorious  Circle,  whose  Center  is  every  where, 
his  circumference  no  where  :  himselfe  to  himselfe  is  Circle 
and  Circumference,  the  Ocean  of  Entitle,  that  very  ubique, 
from  whom,  to  whom  (the  Centre  of  unitie)  all  diversified 
lines  of  varietie  issue  and  returne.     And  although  we 





Profagation  of 
the  Gospell: 
y  rewards 

every  where  feele  his  present  Deitie,  yet  the  difference 
of  heavenly  climate  and  influence,  causing  such  discording 
concord  of  dayes,  nights,  seasons ;  such  varietie  of 
meteors,  elements,  aliments;  such  noveltie  in  Beasts, 
Fishes,  Fowles ;  such  luxuriant  plentie  and  admirable 
raritie  of  Trees,  Shrubs,  Hearbs :  such  fertilitie  of  soyle, 
insinuation  of  Seas,  multiplicitie  of  Rivers,  safetie  of 
Ports,  healthfulnesse  of  ayre,  opportunities  of  habitation, 
materialls  for  action,  objects  for  contemplation,  haps  in 
present,  hopes  of  future,  worlds  of  varietie  in  that 
diversified  world ;  doe  quicken  our  mindes  to  apprehend, 
whet  our  tongues  to  declare,  and  fill  both  with  arguments 
of  divine  praise.  On  the  other  side  considering  so  good 
a  Countrey,  so  bad  people,  having  little  of  Humanitie 
but  shape,  ignorant  of  Civilitie,  of  Arts,  of  Religion ; 
more  brutish  then  the  beasts  they  hunt,  more  wild  and 
unmanly  then  that  unmanned  wild  Countrey,  which  they 
range  rather  then  inhabite ;  captivated  also  to  Satans 
tyranny  in  foolish  pieties,  mad  impieties,  wicked  idlenesse, 
busie  and  bloudy  wickednesse :  hence  have  wee  fit  objects 
of  zeale  and  pitie,  to  deliver  from  the  power  of  darknesse, 
that  where  it  was  said,  Yee  are  not  my  people,  they  may  Ose  2. 
bee  called  the  children  of  the  living  God :  that  Justice 
may  so  proceed  in  rooting  out  those  murtherers,  that  yet 
in  judgement  (imitating  Gods  dealing  with  us)  wee  may 
remember  Mercy  to  such  as  their  owne  innocence  shall 
protect,  and  Hope  shall  in  Charitie  judge  capable  of 
Christian  Faith.  And  let  men  know  that  hee  which  •/«'»•  5-  2° 
converteth  a  sinner  from  the  errour  of  his  way,  shall  save 
a  soule  from  death,  and  shall  hide  a  multitude  of  sinnes. 
And  Saviours  shall  thus  come  on  Mount  Zion  to  judge  Qbad.  ult. 
the  Mount  of  Esau,  and  the  Kingdome  (of  Virginia) 
shall  be  Lord.  Thus  shall  wee  at  once  overcome  both 
Men  and  Devills,  and  espouse  Virginia  to  one  husband, 
presenting  her  as  a  chast  Virgin  to  Christ.  If  the  eye 
of  Adventurers  were  thus  single,  how  soone  and  all  the 
body  should  be  light?  But  the  loving  our  selves  more 
then  God,  hath  detained  so  great  blessings  from  us  to 


2.  Cor.  1 1.  2. 
Matth.  6.  22. 



I.  Tim.  ^.  8.  Virginia,  and  from  Virginia  to  us.  Godlinesse  hath  the 
promises  of  this  life,  and  that  which  is  to  come.  And  if 
wee  be  careful!  to  doe  Gods  will,  he  will  be  ready  to  doe 

All   the   rich    endowments    of   Virginia,    her   Virgin- 
portion  from  the  creation  nothing  lessened,  are  wages  for 
all  this  worke :     God  in  wisedome  having  enriched  the 
Savage  Countries,  that  those  riches  might  be  attractives 
for  Christian  suters,  which  there  may  sowe  spirituals  and 
reape  temporals. 
Jnsmres  to         But  what  are  those  riches,  where  we  heare  of  no  Gold 
Objections:^  nor  Silver,  and  see  more  impoverished  here  then  thence 
want  of  "goM  enriched,  and  for  Mines  we  heare  of  none  but  Iron  ?     Iron 
and  Silver       mindes !     Iron  age  of  the  world !  who  gave  Gold  or  Silver 
Mines.  the  Monopoly  of  wealth,  or  made  them  the  Almighties 

favorites.''  Precious  perils,  specious  punishments,  whose 
original!  is  neerest  hell,  whose  house  is  darknesse,  which 
have  no  eye  to  see  the  heavens,  nor  admit  heavens  eye 
(guilty  malefactors)  to  see  them ;  never  produced  to  light 
but  by  violence,  and  convinced,  upon  records  written  in 
bloud,  the  occasioners  of  violence  in  the  World ;  which 
have  infected  the  surface  of  their  native  earth  with 
deformity  and  sterility  (these  Mines  being  fit  emblemes 
of  mindes  covetous,  stored  with  want,  and  ever  wanting 
their  owne  store)  her  bowels  with  darknesse,  damps, 
deaths,  causing  trouble  to  the  neighbour  Regions,  and 
mischiefe  to  the  remotest!  Penurious  mindes!  Is  there 
no  riches  but  Gold  Mines.''  Are  Iron  Mines  neglected,, 
rejected  for  hopes  of  Silver.?  What,  and  who  else  is  the 
Alchymist,  and  impostor,  which  turnes  the  World,  and 
Men,  and  all  into  Iron.''  And  how  much  Iron-workes 
in  Warres  and  Massacres  hath  American  Gold  and  Silver 
wrought  thorow  all  Christendome .?  Neither  speake  I 
this,  as  if  our  hopes  were  blasted,  and  growne  deplorate 
and  desperate  this  way,  the  Country  being  so  little 
searched,  and  the  remote  in-land-Mountaines  unknowne : 
but  to  shew  the  sordid  tincture  and  base  alloy  of  these 
Mine-mindes.     Did  not  the  Spanish  Iron  (tell  me  you. 



that  contemne  Iron-mines)  draw  to  it  the  Indian  Silver 
and  Gold?  I  will  not  be  a  Prophet  for  Spaine  from 
Virginia.  But  I  cannot  forget  the  wily  apophthegme  of 
the  Pilots  Boy  in  the  Cacafiiego,  a  great  Ship  laden  with 
treasure  taken  in  the  South  Sea,  by  Sir  Francis  Drake ; 
who  seeing  the  English  Ordnance  command  such  treasure 
from  the  Spanish  Cacafuego ;  Our  Ship,  said  he,  shall  be 
called  the  Cacapkta,  and  the  English  may  be  named  the 
Cacafuego.  I  will  not  be  so  unmannerly  to  give  you 
the  homely  English ;  it  is  enough  that  English  Iron 
brought  home  the  Spanish-Indian  Silver  and  Gold.  But 
let  us  consult  with  the  wisest  Councellour.  Canaan, 
Abrahams  promise,  Israels  inheritance,  type  of  heaven, 
and  joy  of  the  earth !  What  were  her  riches  ?  were  they 
not  the  Grapes  of  Eshcol,  the  balme  of  Gilead,  the  Cedary 
neighbourhood  of  Libanus,  the  pastury  vale  of  Jericho, 
the  dewes  of  heaven,  fertility  of  soile,  temper  of  climat, 
the  flowing  (not  with  Golden  Sands,  but)  with  Milke 
and  Hony  (necessaries,  and  pleasures  of  life,  not  bottome- 
lesse  gulfes  of  lust)  the  commodious  scituation  for  two 
Seas,  and  other  things  like  (in  how  many  inferiour.'')  to 
this  of  Virginia.  What  golden  Country  ever  nourished 
with  her  naturall  store  the  hundreth  part  of  men,  in  so 
small  a  proportion  of  earth,  as  David  there  mustered, 
being  iiooooo.  of  Israel,  and  500000.*  of  Juda,  not 
reckoning  the  Tribes  of  Levi  and  Benjamin,  all  able  men 
for  warres.''  And  after  him,  in  a  little  part  of  that  little 
Jehoshaphat  (More  I  dare  say  then  the  Spaniards  can 
finde  in  one  hundred  times  so  much,  of  their  Mine  lands, 
and  choose  their  best  in  Peru,  New  Spaine,  and  the  Hands) 
the  Scriptures  containing  an  infallible  muster-booke  of 
1 1 60000.  able  Souldiers  in  his  small  territories.'' 

That  then  is  the  richest  Land  which  can  feede  most 
men,  Man  being  a  mortall  God,  the  best  part  of  the  best 
earth,  and  visible  end  of  the  visible  World.  What 
remarkeable  Gold  or  Silver  Mines  hath  France,  Belgia, 
Lumbardy,  or  other  the  richest  peeces  of  Europe.?  what 
hath   Babylonia,   Mauritania,  or  other  the  best  of  Asia 



[IV.  ix. 


2.  Sam.  24. 
luith  I .  Chroti. 
21.   //  seemes 
that  there  were 
above  two 
millions  of  men 
besides  women 
and  children. 



and  Africke?  What  this  our  fertile  Mother  England? 
Aske  our  late  Travellers  which  saw  so  much  of  Spaine, 
the  most  famous  part  of  Europe  for  Mynes  of  old,  and 
inriched  with  the  Mynes  of  the  New  World,  if  an 
Englishman  needs  to  envy  a  Spaniard,  or  prefer  a  Spanish 
life  and  happinesse  to  his  owne.  Their  old  Mynes  made 
them  the  servants  of  Rome  and  Carthage  :  and  what  their 
Mynes  and  mindes  doe  now  I  leave  them  to  others. 
Once,  as  the  Mynes  are  in  barrennest  soyle,  and  covetous 
men  have  least,  even  when  they  are  had  of  most  money 
(mediis  ut  Tantalus  undis)  so  I  have  heard  that  in  Spaine 
is  lesse  Gold  and  Silver,  then  in  other  parts  of  Europe, 
(I  dare  not  mention  the  proportions)  from  both  Spanish 
and  English  relation :  their  usuall  money  also  (to  meddle 
with  no  more)  is  of  base  mettall,  and  their  greatest  summes 
computed  by  Maravedis  lesse  then  our  later  tokens: 
except  which  (devised  for  poorer  uses  of  the  poorest) 
England  of  long  time  knowes  no  base  monyes :  and  hath 
seene  plentie  of  Silver  and  Gold,  of  Wine  and  Oyle  which 
(grow  not  in  her)  when  Spaine,  which  produceth  these, 
is  fed  with  salads,  and  drinketh  water,  helped  now  and 
then  with  Hogges-kinne  unsavoury  Wine.  The  Indian 
Fountaines  runne  with  golden  and  silver  streames  (sic 
vos  non  vobis)  not  to  themselves,  but  into  that  Spanish 
Cisterne ;  and  these  Cisternes  are  like  those  of  the  London 
Water-house,  which  hath  the  Conduit  Pipes  alway  open 
in  the  bottome,  so  that  a  thousand  other  Cisternes  hold 
more  water  then  it :  so  may  it  be  said  of  the  other ; 
it  is  not  Concha  but  Canalis,  a  Pipe  rather  then  Cisterne, 
a  Cash-keeper  rather  then  Owner ;  and  (which  is  spoken 
of  better  things)  remaining  poore,  makes  many  rich.  To 
proceed,  are  not  Myners  the  most  miserable  of  Slaves, 
toyled  continually,  and  unto  manifold  deaths  tired  for 
others,  in  bringing  to  light  those  Treasures  of  darknesse, 
and  living  (if  they  live,  or  if  that  bee  a  life)  in  the  suburbs 
of  Hell,  to  make  others  dreame  of  Heaven.?  Yea 
Paradise,  the  modell  of  heaven,  had  in  it  no  Minerals, 
nor  was  Adam  in  his  innocency,  or  Noah  after  the  Worlds 



recovery,  both  Lords  of  all,  employed  in  Mines,  but  (in 
those  happy  workes  which  Virginia  inviteth  England  unto) 
in  Vines,  Gardening,  and  Husbandry.  Neither  let  any  man 
thinke  that  I  pleade  against  the  sourenesse  of  the  Grapes, 
like  the  Foxe  which  could  not  reach  them  :  but  I  seriously 
shew  that  they  are  calves  and  not  men,  which  adore  the 
golden  Calfe,  or  Nabuchadnezzars  great  golden  statue, 
as  if  the  body  were  not  more  then  raiment,  and  those 
things  to  be  preferred  to  money,  for  whose  sake  mony 
(the  creature  of  man ;  base  Idolatry  where  the  Creator 
worships  his  creature!)  was  first  ordained,  and  still  hath 
both  use  and  being. 

Doe  we  not  see  in  this  respect,  that  the  Silkes,  Calicos, 
Drugges,  and  Spices  of  the  East  swallow  up  (not  to 
mention  the  Belgian  whirlepoole)  all  the  Mines  of  the 
West?  and  that  one  Carricke  carrieth  more  Rials  thither, 
then  perhaps  some  whole  Region  in  Spaine  retaineth  for 
vulgar  use?  And  whence  are  English,  Portugals,  or 
Dutchmen  fitted  for  that  commerce?  as  if  America  had 
ominously  (for  other  just  reason  there  is  none)  beene 
called  India,  as  if  the  West  were  but  drudge  and  factor 
for  the  East.  And  what  hath  dispeopled  the  New  World, 
not  leaving  in  some  places  one  of  Millions,  but  Auri 
sacra  fames,  others  killing  them  in  the  Mines,  or  they 
killing  themselves  to  prevent  the  Mines?  Let  it  be 
riches  enough,  that  Sir  Thomas  Dale  testified  by  Letters 
from  thence,  and  after  his  returne  to  me  that  foure  of 
the  best  Kingdomes  of  Christendome  were  not  for  naturall 
endowments  comparable  to  Virginia :  and  which  I  have 
heard  of  one  which  hath  travelled  in  all  the  best  Regions 
of  Europe,  and  hath  seene  more  of  Virginia  then  perhaps 
any  man  else,  and  which  needes  not  speake  for  any  gaine 
there  or  thence  gotten,  as  no  reputed  favourite  or  favourer 
of  that  Society  and  their  actions ;  that  he  hath  seene  no 
Country  to  be  preferred  for  soile,  nor  for  commodious 
Rivers  to  be  compared. 

And  if  successe  hath  not  beene  correspondent  to  English 
hopes :    who  seeth  not  the  causes  of  those  diseasters  ? 



yirginias  high 

Cap.  Joh. 

Answer  to  the 
objected  ill 
successes  and 
causes  thereof. 



Division  that  taile-headed  Amphisbaena  and  many- 
headed  monster,  deformed  issue  of  that  difformed  old 
Serpent,  in  some  of  the  Colony  there  &  Company  here, 
hath  from  time  to  time  thrust  in  her  forged  venonious 
tongue,   wherby  they  have   swolne  with   deadly  poison 

Jud.  5 1 16.      of  great  thoughts  of  heart  (onely  by  pride  doe  men  make 

Prov.  13. 10.  contention)  with  blinde-staring  eyes  of  self-love  abounding 
in  their  own  sense  :  whence  suspicions,  jealousies,  factions, 
partialities  to  friends  and  dependants,  wilfuU  obstinacies, 
and  other  furious  passions  have  transported  men  from 
Virginias  good  and  their  owne.  Covetousnesse  hath 
distorted  others  to  minde  earth  and  not  heaven,  in  hasti- 
nesse  of  more  then  speedy  returne  and   present  gaine, 

I.  Tim.  6.  forgetting  that  Godlinesse  is  the  best  gaine,  and  that  they 
are  planting  a  Colony,  not  reaping  a  harvest,  for  a  publike 
and  not  (but  in  subordinate  order)  private  wealth.  A 
long  time  Virginia  was  thought  to  be  much  encombered 

[IV.  ix.  with    Englands    excrements,    some    vicious    persons,    as 

1 816.]  corrupt  levin  sowring,  or  as  plague  sores  infecting  others, 
and  that  Colony  was  made  a  Port  Exquiline  for  such 
as  by  ordure  or  vomit  were  by  good  order  and  physicke 
worthy  to  be  evacuated  from  This  Body :  whence  not 
only  lazie  drones  did  not  further  the  Plantation,  but 
wicked  Waspes  with  sharking,  and  the  worst,  that  is 
beggerly  tyrants,  frustrated  and  supplanted  the  labours 
of  others.  Caelum  non  animum  mutant  qui  trans  mare 
currunt.  A  prodigious  Prodigall  here,  is  not  easily  meta- 
morphosed in  a  Virginian  passage  to  a  thrifty  Planter: 
nor  can  there  neede  wiser  choise  or  more  industrious  course 
in  any  undertaking,  then  is  requisite  in  a  Christian 
Colonies  plantation  amongst  Infidels.  Which  I  suppose 
hath  beene  carefully  by  many  Adventurers  practised  :  and 
whatsoever  faults  happened  by  ignorance  in  the  beginnings, 
neglect  of  seasons,  riot,  sloath,  occasionall  wants  of  or 
in  Governours  or  Government,  abuses  of  Mariners, 
trechery  of  Fugitives,  and  Savages ;  and  other  diseases, 
which  have  in  part  attended  all  new  Plantations,  and 
consumed    many :     experience    I     hope    by    this     time 



hath  taught  to  prevent  or  remedy.  The  late  barbarous 
Massacre  (hinc  illae  kchrymae)  still  bleedeth,  and  when 
things  were  reported  to  be  in  better  forwardnesse  then 
ever,  in  great  part  blasted  those  hopefuU  blossomes, 
disjointed  the  proceedings  in  the  Iron  workes,  Vineyards, 
Mulberry  plants ;  and  in  sudden  shifts  for  life,  exposed 
them  to  manifold  necessities ;  insomuch,  that  many  of 
the  Principals  being  slain,  the  rest  surprised  with  feare, 
reduced  themselves  almost  from  eighty  to  eight  Planta- 
tions, whereby  pestered  with  multitude,  and  destitute  of 
Corne  and  other  forsaken  necessaries,  they  incurred  a 
grievous  and  generall  sicknesse,  which  being  increased 
by  infection  of  some  passengers  tainted  in  their  Ship- 
passage  with  corrupt  Beere,  there  followed  a  mortality 
which  consumed  about  five  hundred  persons,  besides  three 
hundred  and  fifty  or  thereabouts  murthered  in  that 
Savage-Massacre.  All  which  notwithstanding,  there 
remaine,  some  have  if  truely  calculated  and  conjectured 
eighteene  hundred  persons :  for  whose  security  and 
provision  it  hath  pleased  his  Majesty  to  have  a  Royall 
care,  as  likewise  the  Honorable  Lords  of  his  Majesties 
privy  Councell,  besides  the  honorable  endevours  of  the 
Councell  and  well  affected  members  of  that  Society,  which 
God  almighty,  the  great  Founder  of  Colonies,  prosper. 

Now  that  I  may  shew  Virginia  worthy  those  princely, 
honorable  and  industrious  thoughts,  I  have  adventured 
briefely  to  point  out,  rather  then  to  paint  out  her  beauty 
and  attractive  ornaments. 

First  Religion  (as  is  before  observed)  inviteth  us  there 
to  seeke  the  Kingdome  of  God  first,  and  all  other  things 
shall  be  ministred  to  us,  and  added  as  advantage  to  the 
bargaine  :  seeke  the  Kingdome  of  God,  and  see  an  earthly 
Kingdome  in  recompence,  as  the  earnest,  and  the  heavenly 
Kingdome  for  our  full  paiment.  Of  glorifying  God  in 
his  word  and  workes  in  this  designe  is  already  spoken. 

Secondly,  Humanity  and  our  common  Nature  forbids 
to  turne  our  eyes  from  ovir  owne  flesh  ;  yea  commands 
us  to  love  our  neighbours  as  our  selves,  and  to  play  the 



The  massacre 
hath  been  the 
chiefe  cause  of 

This  number 
of  1800.  was 
presented  by 
the  Companie 
to  the  Lords  of 
the  Councell. 

Arguments  for 
plantation,  as 
I.  Religion. 

2.  Humanitie. 





4.  Honour  of 
the  King. 

'^.  Honor  of  the 


good  Samaritan  with  these  our  neighbours  (though  of 
another  Nation  and  Religion,  as  the  wounded  Jew  was 
to  him)  to  recover  them  if  it  be  possible,  as  by  Religion, 
from  the  power  of  Sathan  to  God ;  so  by  humanity  and 
civility  from  Barbarisme  and  Savagenesse  to  good  manners 
and  humaine  polity. 

Thirdly,  the  Honour  of  our  Nation  enjoyneth  us  not 
basely  to  loose  the  glory  of  our  forefathers  acts,  which 
here  have  beene  shewed  in  King  Henry  the  seventh,  King 
Henry  the  eight.  King  Edward  the  sixt,  and  Queene 
Elizabeths  times,  all  which  illustrated  their  names  by 
Discovery  of  Realmes  remote,  unknowne  parts  and  ports 
(and  the  first,  first  of  all  Kings,  and  the  last  holding  to 
the  last)  Discovering  and  possessing  these,  and  leaving 
them  as  just  inheritance  to  his  Majesty.  What  shame 
to  a  degenerate  posterity,  to  loose  so  honorable  a  claime, 
and  gaine ;  yea,  to  neglect  that  which  many  English 
have  purchased  with  doing  and  suffering  so  much,  and 
not  with  their  sweate  alone,  their  care  and  cost,  but  with 
their  deerest  bloud  and  manifold  deaths.'' 

Fourthly,  wee  may  reckon  the  Honour  of  our  King, 
and  his  Royall  posterity :  to  which,  in  time  Virginia  may 
performe  as  much  with  equall  manuring  as  ever  Britannia 
and  Ireland  could  promise  when  first  they  became  knowne 
to  the  then  civiller  World.  And  were  not  comparisons 
odious!  I  am  sure  I  heard  Sir  Thomas  Dale  confidently 
and  seriously  exulting  in  private  conference  with  me,  in 
the  hopes  of  future  greatnesse  from  Virginia,  to  the 
English  Crowne.  And  if  the  wise  King  wisely  said,  the 
honour  of  a  King  is  in  the  multitude  of  his  Subjects,  loe 
here  the  way  to  preserve,  employ,  encrease  them ;  and 
for  his  Majesty  to  reach  his  long  royall  armes  to  another 
World.  The  Roman  Empire  sowed  Roman  Colonies 
thorow  the  World,  as  the  most  naturall  and  artificial! 
way  to  win  and  hold  the  World  Romaine. 

Fifthly,  the  honour  of  the  Kingdome,  thus  growing 
and  multiplying  into  Kingdomes,  that  as  Scotland  and 
England  seeme  sisters,  so  Virginia,  New  England,  New 



found  Land  in  the  Continent  already  planted  in  part  with 
English  Colonies,  together  with  Bermuda,  and  other  Hands 
may  be  the  adopted  and  legall  Daughters  of  England. 
An  honorable  desijgne,  to  which  Honor  stretcheth  her 
feire  hand,  the  five  fingers  whereof  are  adorned  with  such 
precious  Rings,  each  enriched  with  invaluable  Jewels  of 
Religion,  Humanity,  Inheritance,  the  King,  the  King- 
dome  :  Honos  alit  artes,  omnesque  incenduntur  ad  studia 

And   if  Honour   hath   prevailed  with   honorable   and  [IV.  ix. 
higher  spirits,  we  shall  come  laden  with  arguments  of  ^^^7-] 

profit  to  presse  meaner  hands  and  hearts  to  the  service  gfprofi"'"^" 
of  Virginia.     Onely  I  desire  that  men  bring  their  hearts  generally 
first,  and  consider  that  the  very  names  of  a  Colony  and  propounded. 
Plantation  doe  import  a  reasonable  and  seasonable  culture, 
and   planting    before    a    Harvest    and    Vintage    can    be 
expected  :   which  if  they  here  exercise  our  Faith  and  Hope 
both  for  earth  and  heaven,  where  all  things  are  prepared ; 
let  us  not  in  ruder  and  cruder  foundations  and  beginnings 
there,  precipitate  unto  hasty  fals. 

And  before  we  come  to  Virginias  particular  probabilities  Illustrated  by 
for  this  Kingdomes  good,  we  need  not  far  fetched  specu-  '^'  Castiltan 
lations,   we   have  evidence  from  experience.     Castile  (a 
Kingdome  which  now  stoops  to  none,  and  which  some 
of  her  flatterers  advance  above  all,  making  it  Catholike 
without  respect  to  Faith)  grew  from  an  almost  nothing 
out  of  the  Moorish  deluge,  to  be  but  a  pettie  something 
in  comparison  of  others  in  Europe,  till  Ferdinands  time 
who  sent  Columbus  to  America.     And  how  poore  abilities 
or  probabilities  had  they  for  it,  when  Columbus  upon  Upon  lesse 
felse  grounds  having  conceived  strong,  strange  hopes  of  probabilities. 
the  Easterne  Indies,  stumbled  upon  a  W^esterne  World 
whereof  hee  never  dreamed,  which   therefore  he  called 
India,    and    Hispaniola    Ophir :      to    which    Expedition 
(neither   founded    on    sound   reason,    nor  experience   of 
former  Discoveries,  when  as  yet  the  Mariners  Art  was 
but  crept   out   of  the  Cradle,  and  blessed  only  in   the 
Event)  the  state  of  Castile  was  as  poorely  furnished  as 




it  seemes,  eyther  with  money  or  credit,  the  Queene 
pawning  part  of  her  Jewels  for  2000.  Duckets,  to  set 
Columbus  forth  with  three  poore  Carvels  for  this  Dis- 
covery. Little  was  it  then  imagined,  that  in  Hispaniola 
should  be  found  (which  happened  in  the  taking  of 
Domingo  by  Sir  Francis  Drake)  a  Spanish  Scutchion  with 
a  Horse,  whose  hinder  feet  trod  on  the  Globe,  his  fore-feet 
prauncing  as  if  he  would  foot  out  another  World  (like 
Alexander  hearing  Philosophers  discourse  of  other  Worlds, 
weeping  that  hee  had  not  yet  finished  the  conquest  of 
this)  having  this  Motto  annexed,  Non  sufficit  Orbis. 
Yea,  but  they  found  Gold  and  Silver  in  abundance?  the 
See  Oviedo  k3  Pockes  they  did !  and  plagued  all  Europe  with  the  great 
"^ 'l"^^  ones,  with  the  small  consuming  America:    and  if  they 

did  find  Gold  and  Silver,  how  poore  were  the  proportions 
till  the  Mexican  Discovery  almost  thirty  yeeres,  and  that 
of  Peru  forty  yeeres  after  their  Indian  plantation.  And 
who  knowes  what  Virginia  in  that  space  may  produce  by 
better  Discovery  of  it,  and  further  Discovery  of  parts 
adjoyning,  whereof  we  have  ten  thousand  times  more 
pregnant  hopes,  then  they  had  in  their  first  Expedition, 
by  knowledge  gathered  from  their  Discoveries. 

Besides,    though   Gold   and   Silver   from    thence   hath 

enriched  the  Spanish  Exchequer,  yet  the  Magazines  have 

Their  greatest  found  Other  and  greater  wealth,  whereof  Virginia  is  no 

benefit  tn         j^ggg  capeable,  namely,  the  Countrey  Commodities.     What 

'm  in  Mines     Mynes  have  they,  or  at  least,  what  doe  they  use  in  Brasill, 

to  the  com-   '    or  in  all  the  Hands,  where  yet  so  many  wealthy  Spaniards 

mon  subject.      and  Portugalls  inhabit  ?     Their  Ginger,   Sugar,   Hides, 

Tobacco  and  other  Merchandize,  I  dare  boldly  affirme, 

yeeld  far  far  more  profit  to  the  generalitie  of  the  Spanish 

Subjects  thorow  that  vast  World,  then  the  Mynes  do  or 

have  done  this  last  Age.     Which  I  shall  make  apparant 

by   honourable   testimonie,   in   one   of  the  last   English 

Exploits  on  the  Spanish  Indies.     The  Right  Honorable 

Earle  of  Cumberland  in  a  Letter  of  his  after  the  taking 

of  Port  Rico,  (chiefe  Towne  if  not  the  greatest  Hand  in 

those    parts,    and    far    short    of    Hispaniola   and    Cuba) 



affirmeth,  that  if  hee  would  have  left  the  place,  hee  might 
have  had  by  good  account  as  much  Sugar  and  Ginger  in 
the  Countrey,  as  was  worth   500000.  pounds.'    But  he 
intended  to  keepe  it,  as  the  Key  of  the  Indies,  which  TheEarkhad 
who  soever  possesseth  (I  use  his  owne  words)  may  at  his  P'"'P°''^^  "> 
pleasure  goe  to  any  Chamber  in  the  House,  and  see  how  Sarkk'i  with 
they  sleepe  before  hee  be  either  stopped  or  descried :    so  a  Garrison  to 
as  they  must  at  every  doore  keepe  so  great  a  force  to  ^oU  it,  but  a 
guard  them,  as  will  consume  a  great  part  of  their  yeerely  g^^f '"^^if^e 

n  J  J    •..  r  1  ,.        1  -j-i.  \    and  mortahtte 

Revenue ;    and  send  it  rrom  place  to  place  with  so  great  ^^^j^^^w 
a  wastage,  as  will  cause  them  to  curse  their  new  Porter :    most  of  his 
for  when  they  have  done  what  they  can,  they  shall  beare  men,  he  was 
his  charge  to  their  owne  destructions,  and  still  be  loosing  fi^"^ '"  1'"^' 
places  both  of  strength  and  wealth.     Thus  that  valorous  'i^^i^fU'JJ'^i; 
and  renowmed  Earle,  whose  bloud  ennobled  his  attempts,  ^^j^j. 
whose  attempts  added  glory  to  his  bloud,  and  noblenesse  I  findethisin 
to  his  Nobilitie :     which  I  rather  recite  that  you  might  "^  written 
see  the  great  wealth  which  the  Spaniards  reape  of  Ginger  f^"^^l.(° 
and  Sugar,  to  which  that  of  Hides  in  that  Hand  holds  shipping' 
such    proportion,    that    one    inhabitant    thereof    named  Cities,  Men, 
Cherigo,   had   no   fewer  then   twelve   thousand   Beeves :    ^<:-  ofSpaine, 
where  Beeves  growing  wild,  it  was  tolerable  to  any  Ilander  ^'^*'^, 
to  kill  a  beast,  if  hee  returned  the  skinne  to  the  Owner :   3^/j„„^^  i„ 
and  what  he  speakes  of  a  Key  and  a  Porters  advantage,  thatindustri- 
Mutato  nomine  de  te,  change  the  name,  and  if  Virginia  ous  Gentleman 
and  Summer  Hands  fall  short  some  wayes,  they  will,  more  ^-  ^- 
then  equall  it  other  wayes,  in  Case !      But  I  must  containe  Q^'^fi^^  ^y 
my  selfe,  lest  I  purchase  a  Purchas  Case  for  medling.       the  Navie. 

Now  if  any  shall  thinke  that  the  many  transplantations 
of  people  into  those  parts,  would  exhaust  England,  Spaine 
will  answere  that  point  also,  now  in  these  dayes  com- 
playning  no  more  of  scarcitie  of  people  (notwithstanding 
their  many  and  long  Warres  in  so  many  parts  of  Europe, 
except  the  expulsion  of  the  Moores  and  Marans,  have 
caused  it)  then  when  first  they  undertooke  those  con- 
suming vast  Enterprizes,  not  of  a  Virginia,  but  of  a 
World.  And  yet  what  in  comparison  is  Spaine  for 
multitudes  of  people,  whose  vastnesse  is  said  to  yeeld 

XIX  241  Q 


[IV.  ix. 


Arg.  J.  from 
necesslAe  by 
our  multitudes. 

Arguments  of 
and  commo- 


(the  King,  Dukes,  Marquesses  and  Earles  only  with  their 
retinue  excepted)  from  eighteene  yeeres  of  age  to  fiftie, 
but  1 125390.  men  of  all  sorts,  as  I  have  scene  in  an 
Extract  of  the  Royall  Muster-booke,  which  how  much 
is  it  exceeded  by  the  numerous  excesse  of  people  in  this 
Hand,  straitned  in  farre  lesse  roome,  and  wanting  necessary 
employments,  which  almost  exacteth  a  Virginian  vent  and 
adventure.  For  how  much  more  convenient  is  a  trans- 
migration, into  a  fruitfuU,  large  and  wholesome  Region, 
where  the  Countrie  hath  need  of  a  Colonie  to  cultivate 
it,  as  well  as  those  Coloni  and  Inhabitants  have  need  of 
a  Countrie  to  inhabit  rather  then  to  breed  a  fiilnes  in 
This  Bodie,  which  without  some  such  evacuation  either 
breeds  matter  for  the  pestilence  and  other  Epidemicall 
Diseases,  or  at  least  for  Dearth,  Famine,  Disorders,  over- 
burthening  the  wealthier,  oppressing  the  poorer,  disquiet- 
ing both  themselves  and  others,  that  I  mention  not  the 
fatall  hand  of  the  Hangman.''  And  thus  you  have 
Virginias  hopes  in  generall  propounded  by  Spanish  example 
urged  and  enforced  by  our  necessitie  of  seeking  vent  to 
such  home-fiilnesse. 

But  looke  upon  Virginia ;  view  her  lovely  lookes 
(howsoever  like  a  modest  Virgin  she  is  now  vailed  with 
wild  Coverts  and  shadie  Woods,  expecting  rather  ravish- 
ment then  Mariage  from  her  Native  Savages)  survay  her 
Heavens,  Elements,  Situation ;  her  divisions  by  armes 
of  Bayes  and  Rivers  into  so  goodly  and  well  proportioned 
limmes  and  members;  her  Virgin  portion  nothing 
empaired,  nay  not  yet  improoved,  in  Natures  best 
Legacies ;  the  neighbouring  Regions  and  Seas  so  com- 
modious and  obsequious ;  her  opportunities  for  offence 
and  defence ;  and  in  all  these  you  shall  see,  that  she  is 
worth  the  wooing  and  loves  of  the  best  Husband.  First, 
for  her  Heavens  and  Climate,  she  with  her  Virgin  Sisters 
hath  the  same  (being  extended  from  30.  to  45.  degrees 
of  North  latitude)  with  the  best  parts  of  Europe,  namely 
the  fat  of  Graecia,  Thracia,  Spaine,  Italie,  Morea,  Sicilia, 
(and  if  we  will  looke  more  Northward  to  the  height  of 



France  and  Britaine,  there  her  Sisters  New  England,  New 
Scotland,  and  New-found-land,  promise  hopefull  and  kinde 
entertainment  to  all  Adventurers.     If  you  looke  South-  i- The  same 
wards,  you  may  parallel  it  with  Barbarie,  Egypt,  and  f^'^^oJ^tj 
the   fertilest    parts    of   Africke)   and   in   Asia,    all    that    "    °"" 
Chuersonessus,    sometime   the   seate   of   foure   thousand 
Cities,  and  so  many  Kingdomes,  now  called  Natolia,  with 
her  Neighbours  Antiochia,  and  other  Regions  of  Syria, 
Damascus,  Libanus,  with  Babylonia  and  the  glorie  of  the 
Earth :  and  Types  of  Heaven,  Judea  and  Paradise ;    the 
Silken  Countries  also  of  Persia,  China  in  her  best  parts, 
and  Japan,  are  in  the  elevation  ;  and  Virginia  is  Daughter 
of  the  same  Heavens,  which  promise  no  lesse  portion 
to  this  Virgin,  then  those  Matrons  had  for  the  foundation- 
stock  of  their  wealth  and  glory. 

Secondly,   this  Climate  as  it  promiseth  wealth,   so   it  ^■  Temperate. 
doth   health    also,    enjoying    the    temper    of    the    most 
temperate  parts,  even  of  that  in  which  Adam,  Abraham, 
with  the  Prophets  and  Apostles  were  bred  in,  and  received 
as  an  Earthly  priviledge ;   and  in  which  Christ  conversed 
in  the  flesh.     And  thirdly  for  extension,  if  covetousnesse  3.  Large 
gape  wide,  ten  Judaeas,  and  a  hundred  Paradises,  may  extension. 
be  equalled   for  quantitie   in  Virginia,   whose   mid-land 
Regions  are  wholly  unknowne,  till  we  arrive  at  that  Nova 
Albion,  which  yeelded  it  selfe  English  before  the  first 
Virginian  plantation. 

Fourthly  for  commodious  divisions,  the  Lands  and  Seas  4.  Commodi- 
contend  by  fresh  Rivers  and  Armes  of  the  Sea  so  to  <""  'ii^"ion  of 
diversifie  the  soyle  as  if  in  luxuriant  wantonnesse  they  ^f 
were  alway  engendring  manifold  Twinnes  of  Commoditie 
and  Commodiousnesse,  Profit  and  Pleasure,  Hunting  and 
Fishing,    Fruits    and    Merchandizing,    Marinership    and 
Husbandry,  Opus  and  Usus,  Meate  and  Drinke,  Wares 
and  Portage,    Defending   and    Offending,    Getting    and 
Keeping,  Mountaines  and  Valleyes,  Plaines  and  Hillocks, 
Rivers  Navigable  and  shallower  Foords,  Hands  and  Land- 
iles  (or  Peninsulae)  Woods  and  Marishes,  Vegetatives  and 
living  creatures  marvellously  diversified.     Looke  on  the 




Map,  and  tell  me  if  any  Countrey  in  the  World  promiseth 
more  by  the  lookes  then  it.  Yea  I  have  observed  in  the 
Letters  of  greatest  Malcontents  from  thence,  foe  and  friend 
and  themselves  are  blamed  rather  then  the  Countrey,  the 
least  finger  of  Virginias  hand  (I  meane  the  least  of  five 
Rivers,  or  as  Master  Alexander  Whitakers  relateth,  the 
least  of  seven)  in  a  small  part  of  that  great  Countrie,  is 
bigger  then  the  First-borne  of  Britaines  waters,  the  famous 
Thames,  all  Navigable,  some  one  hundred  miles,  some 
one  hundred  and  sixtie,  receiving  Tributes  by  the  way 
of  innumerable  Springs,  Brookes,  Riverets  (such  as  that 
of  Ware,  and  fit  for  portage  of  Wares  in  smaller  Barkes, 
of  which  kind  James  River  hath  five  Attendants  in 
ordinary)  the  fall  of  every  one  of  the  five  is  within  twentie 
or  fifteene  miles  of  some  other :  and  not  above  fifteene 
miles  in  some  places  is  the  Great  River  of  Roanoke  said 
to  be  distant  from  some  of  those  which  fall  into  James 
River,  yeelding  a  commodious  intercourse  twixt  those 
Southerly  and  these  more  Northerly  parts  of  the  Countrey. 
I  know  not  how  Nature  hath  here  also  wantonized  and 
danced  a  Loath  to  depart  in  the  winding  of  those  Streames, 
which  seeme  willingly  againe  and  againe  to  embrace  that 
beloved  Soile,  and  to  present  her  with  rich  CoUers  of 
silver  Esses,  murmuring  that  they  must  leave  so  fresh  and 
fertile  a  Land,  of  which  at  last  with  Salt  teares  they  take 
their  leave,  but  contracting  with  their  New  Sea  Lord  to 
visit  their  old  Land-lord  and  former  Love  every  Floud. 
Meane  whiles  those  many  impetuous  clippings  and  sweet 
embraces,  searching  refuges  every  way  make  shew  as  if 
they  would  meet  together  in  consultation,  and  agree  on 
some  Conspiracie,  which  howsoever  disappointed,  yeeld 
neverthelesse  many  conveniences  of  entercourse  and  easier 
portage,  each  River  comming  within  foure,  eight,  ten 
miles,  more  or  fewer  in  divers  places  of  another.     AH 

[IV.  ix.  these  Rivers  runne  into  a  faire  Bay,  on  which  the  Earth 

18 19.]  every  way  is  a  greedie  gazing  Spectator,  except  where 

ch  i  ^^^  Ocean  rusheth  in  to  ravish  her  beauties,  flowing  neere 
two  hundred  miles  into  it,  and  forcing  a  Channell  one 



hundred  and  fortie,  of  depth  betwixt  seven  and  fifteene 
fathome,  and  ten  or  fourteene  miles  in  ordinary  breadth. 
The  Earth  yet  undermining  it  by  Hands,  and  mustering 
those  River  Captaines  and  innumerable  Springs  and 
Brookes,  maintaineth  his  fresh  challenge  with  continuall 
Warres,  forcing  backe  the  Ocean  every  Ebbe  to  retire, 
which  yet  loth  to  lose  so  sweete  a  possession  returneth 
within  few  houres,  freshly  flowing  with  Salt  reenforce- 

Fifthly,  the  soile  is  blessed,  every  Element  bestowing   i.FertiUsoik 
a  rich  portion  on  her.     The  fire  hath  treasures  laid  up 
to    maintaine    her   fewell    unto    prodigality    (yea   which 
seldome  meete,  a  thriftie  prodigality)  for  many  yeeres. 
Her  store  of  waters  you  have  heard,  but  not  her  watery 
store  of  fishes   unto   incredibility   in   kinds,   goodnesse, 
numbers.     The  Aire  is  no  lesse  luxuriant  in  the  Fowles 
of  Heaven.     But  the  Earth  (fruitfiiU  Mother  of  Man- 
kind)  she  is  prodigiously  prodigall,   in   fatnesse  of  the 
soile;    talnesse,   sweetnesse,   strength,   varietie,   number- 
lesse  numbers  of  her  Trees  :    her  Oakes  no  lesse  excellent  6.  Trees  fir 
then  frequent,  many  of  them  bearing  two  foote  and  an  ''"»^er  and 
halfe  square  of  good  Timber  twenty  yards  long  :    of  which  ^^^"1 "'" 
also   are    divers   kinds.      Elmes    and   Ashes    (of   which 
Sope-ashes  are  made)  Wal-nuts  in  three  sorts.  Cypresses 
(or    much    resembling    them)    Cedars    and    other    sweet 
smelling  Timbers,  Chestnuts,  Plummes  of  divers  sorts,  - 
Cheries   and    other   Trees,    &c.    reckoned   by   Virginian 
Relators,  I  omit.     But  most  remarkable  and  promising 
are  the  Mulberie  and  the  Vine,  the  one  to  the  backe,  the 
other  to  the  belly,  yeelding  Silkes  and  Wine. 

As  for  Silke,  how  great  profits  are  raised  thereof  to  j -Specially for 
the  Chinois  and  Persian  }     Yea  to  come  neerer,  in  Naples 
and  other  parts  of  Italy,  which  have  provoked  France 
to  a  generall  imitation.     And  how  unvaluable  are   the 
expenses  of  this  Kingdome  for  that  materiall,  Ut  matronae 
in  publico  luceant-i"     Likewise  for  Wines  from  France,   'i- And  fir 
Spaine,  Germanic,  and  other  parts  how  many  thousands  ^^""■ 
are  yeerely  expended  to  the  profits  of  Strangers,  that  I 



July  9.  A.R, 


See  sup.  f.  15, 

<).  Just  advan- 
tage from  the 
Savages  to 
make  use  of 
their  labours, 

10.  Drugs, 
and  divers 

1 1 .  Iron 


say  not  to  enemies,  or  at  least  to  suspected  friends?  It 
hath  pleased  his  Majestie  to  take  these  two  into  his 
Princely  consideration  and  by  his  Letter  to  the  Right 
Honorable  the  Earle  of  Southampton,  and  the  Company 
of  Virginia  to  commend  and  command  this  care  to  them. 

The  Countrey  it  selfe  naturally  produceth  Vines  in 
great  abundance,  and  some  of  a  very  good  sort :  divers 
plants  also  have  beene  sent  thither  of  the  better  kinds 
of  Christendome,  with  eight  Vignerons  procured  from 
Languedock  for  the  husbanding  of  that  commoditie.  The 
Soyle  is  no  lesse  naturally  happy  in  Mulberie  Trees  of 
the  best  kind  and  some  Silke-wormes  also :  and  generall 
order  hath  beene  taken  for  the  abundant  planting  of  them 
in  all  places  inhabited :  large  supply  also  of  Silke-worme- 
seed  from  his  Majesties  store,  and  men  skilfiill  in  that 
kind  for  the  well  ordering  of  that  businesse  have  beene 
sent.  In  a  word,  the  very  prosperity  and  pregnant  hopes 
of  that  Plantation  made  the  Devil  and  his  lims  to  envy, 
feare  and  hate  it.  Hence  that  bloudy  Massacre  which 
caused  almost  a  sudden  Chaos  to  the  hinderance  of  those 
affaires,  by  the  convulsions,  combustions,  and  almost 
confusion  of  that  Body  and  their  Designes :  whereof 
yet  we  hope  not  only  a  recovery  but  greater  advantage, 
the  greatest  danger  from  the  Savages,  growing  out  of 
our  mens  confidence,  which  that  terrible  stroke  (except 
a  stupid  Devill  possesse  us)  hath  cut  off ;  which  likewise 
requires  that  servile  natures  be  servily  used ;  that  future 
dangers  be  prevented  by  the  extirpation  of  the  more 
dangerous,  and  commodities  also  raised  out  of  the  servile- 
nesse  and  serviceablenesse  of  the  rest. 

As  for  Sassafras,  Salt,  Terra  Lemnia,  Gummes  and  other 
profitable  Drugges  I  shall  not  neede  speake :  nor  of  their 
Silke-grasse  naturally  growing,  besides  a  kind  of  Hempe 
or  Flaxe,  yeelding  most  excellent  Cordage.  Pot-ashes, 
Sope-ashes,  Pitch  and  Tarre  have  beene  the  employment 
of  Polacres  sent  thither. 

In  foure  yeeres  space  before  the  Massacre  (the  Iron 
Oare    of   Virginia    being    found   very    good    and    very 



plentiful!)  above  five  thousand  pounds  were  spent,  and 
one  hundred  and  fiftie  persons  sent  for  that  imployment ; 
which  being  brought  in  manner  to  perfection,  was 
interrupted  by  that  fatall  accident,  since  which  the 
restitution  is  with  all  possible  diligence  (as  it  is  said) 
ordered  and  furthered. 

There  have  beene  also  sent  skilfiill  men  from  Germany,  12.  Timber 
for  setting  up  of  Saw-mils  :  Virginia  yeelding  to  no  place  fir  "11  uses. 
in  the  knowne  World  for  Timbers  of  all  sorts,  commodious 
for  strength,  pleasant  for  sweetnesse,  specious  for  colours, 
spacious  for  largenesse,  usefiill  for  Land  and  Sea,  for 
housing  and  shipping :  in  which  Timber  uses  England 
and  Holland  alone  are  said  to  disburse  about  300000. 
pounds  sterling  yeerely.  And  the  defects  at  home,  where 
the  Hearth  hath  climbed  into  the  Roofe,  where  back-fewell 
hath  devoured  our  buildings  in  the  Woods,  and  belly- 
fewell  hath  devoured  the  Woods,  and  converted  them  to 
arable :  where  so  many  ships  are  employed  for  provisions 
of  and  for  shipping,  Virginia  by  divine  bountie  is  Magnae 
spes  altera  Britanniae.  Herein  we  may  verifie  the  old 
Proverbe,  That  he  which  liveth  longest,  shall  fetch  his 
wood  farthest ;  but  so,  as  he  shall  be  paid  for  the  fetching 
with  great  advantage. 

And  if  an   Hand  needs   woodden   Wals   to   secure   it   i^-More 
against  others,  to  enrich  it  from  others,  Virginia  offers  "ij"-?^  ■  ■'I'l 
her  service  herein,  and  will  looke  so  much  more  cheerefully  hmses^ ships. 
on  you,  how  much  more  you  shall  disburthen  her  in  this  [iv.  ix. 
kind:    yea,  as  England  hath  wooed  and  visited  Virginia,  1820.] 

so  herein  Virginia  will  be  glad  and  rejoyce  to  visit 
England,  in  her  there-built  ships,  and  to  dwell  here  with 
us  in  thence-brought  Timbers,  and  esteeme  her  selfe 
advanced  to  adorne  our  Towres,  and  take  view  of  our 
Pomps  and  Spectacles. 

And    touching    shipping   and    the   materials    thereof;   '^^■The 
Timbers,  Pitch,   Tarre,  Cordage,   Sayles,  Anchors,   &c.  l^^-f'l^n,  j-^^ 
necessitie  of  the  times  exacteth  in  our  defects  at  home,  Effing. 
for    securitie    from    enemies    abroad,    employment    of 
Mariners,    Merchants    and    our    numerous    multitudes, 




offending  our  Offenders,  defending  our  Allies,  that  I 
adde  not  the  Riches  of  the  World,  and  glory  of  Exploits, 
all  which  depend  on  Navigation.  Hence  Tyrus  and  her 
Daughter  Carthage  of  old  (Matre  pulchra  filia  pulchrior) 
hence  the  Egyptian  Alexandria  and  many  Nations  since, 
have  reaped  wealth  and  honour.  Hence  the  Lumbards 
and  Easterlings  sucked  out  the  sweetes  of  this  Kingdome 
in  former  times,  whiles  we  like  children  were  fed  by  their 
hands,  and  they  were  inriched  by  the  Importation  and 
Exportation  of  Merchandise  to  and  from  us  :  which  when 
that  glorious  Elizabeth  altered,  and  sought  to  stand  in  the 
Seas  on  her  owne  legs,  and  to  flie  over  them  with  her 
owne  wings,  it  not  only  wanne  her  renowne  but  dread 
abroad,  and  such  strength  at  home,  that  notwithstanding 
her  manifold  wars  offensive  and  defensive,  and  motherly 
protection  of  her  Neighbours  round  about  with  Men  and 
Monies ;  her  Custome,  her  Navie,  and  the  wealth  of  her 
people  is  thought  to  have  received  in  her  time  a  seven-fold 
advancement.  And  what  hath  so  long  upholden  and 
enhanced  the  Hanse  Townes.''  What  hath  raysed  the 
rich  and  glorious  States  of  Venice  and  Genoa.''  What 
hath  since  freed,  and  doth  still  sustaine  the  Hollanders, 
but  their  moving  Magazines  and  Castles,  their  strength, 
and  magnificence  being  (by  a  Miracle  in  State)  hereby 
most,  wherein  it  is  least,  in  their  Sea-forrests ;  Nature 
denying  that  to  their  Soyle,  which  Art  hath  super- 
abundantly supplied  by  shipping,  to  their  Lands,  to  their- 
Seas,  for  use,  for  admiration.''  Hence  hath  the  Abassine 
or  Prester  John  lost  his  estate,  the  Turke  not  encreased 
his  by  swallowing  the  rest  of  Christendome,  the  Persian, 
the  MoguU  and  other  mighty  Asian  Potentates  have  not 
bin  mighty,  howsoever  sirnamed  Great ;  have  beene  so 
long  awed,  and  as  it  were,  imprisoned  within  their  owne 
shores,  there  also  often  braved,  assaulted,  forced  to  receive 
Lawes  and  conditions,  yea  to  pay  Customes  for  their  owne 
ships,  and  prohibited  Trade  with  others  by  a  handfull  of 
Portugalls.  Hence  the  Portugals  themselves  crept  out 
of  their  Straites  and  obscuritie,  and  hence  the  Castilian. 



colours  have  been  so  far  displayed,  and  set  the  rest  of  the 
World  in  this  present  Maze :  Hence  our  Edgar,  Edward 
the  Third,  and  Great  Elizabeth,  have  left  such  memories 
of  them,  after  them  ;  hence  all  Maritime  States  and  Kings 
have  received  encrease  or  diminishing ;  as  their  Navies 
have  beene,  so  have  they.  Yea,  without  a  Navie,  Salomon 
had  not  beene  so  meet  a  Type  of  Christ,  so  glorious  in 
Domesticall,  Politicall  or  Ecclesiasticall  magnificence. 

Haile   then,   al-haile   Virginia,   hope   of   our   decayed   i^.  Saving  of 
Forrests,  Nursery  of  our  Timbers,  second  supply  to  our  ^^P^^'"  "'"*' 
shipping,  the  succenturiatae  copiae  in  distresse  of  Navall  jJnn'bi" 
materials :     and    those    independant    on  forreine    States,  firreine 
disburthened    of    Taxes,    Customes,     Impositions,    and  Countries. 
Suspensions  of  forreine  Princes :   yea  gainfull  not  in  the   '  ^-  l^p^- 
ships  alone,  but  in  Shipmen  and  Mariners  trained  up  and  f^"V" 
multiplyed  by  that  imployment,  with  mutuall  entercourse  of  Mariners. 
of  Wares  and  manifold  Commodities.     Hee  that  lookes  i-].Manypro- 
on  the  best  Corne-fields  soone  after  the  sowing,   seeth  babilities  by 
expense  and  labour  without  any  profit  but  in  expectation.  ^'''""P^^"'"- 
Now  is  our  Seed-time ;    and  if  cost  and  industry  want  ^.^^^^^  y^    ' 
not,  Virginia,  in  her  Soyle  and  Climate  not  only  promiseth  exemplified  by 
these  materials,  there  also  to  be  made  at  easier  rates ;   but  Spaniards. 
infinite  other  Commodities  also  which  may  be  transplanted 
fi-om  these  and  other  parts,  as  the  Spaniards  in  their  Indies, 
have  given  us  example.     These  have  reserved  Wines  and 
Oyle,  as  Staple  Commodities  to  be  carried  from  Spaine 
(that   these  Americans   may   still   have   need   of  Spanish 
Commodities)  which  else  would  easily  grow  there.     They 
have  againe  furnished  those  parts  both  from  Spaine  and 
many  other  Countries,  with  Figs,  Oranges,  Limons,  and 
fruits  for  present  use  and  for  Merchandize,  with  Sugar- 
canes,  Gingers,  Cattell  and  other  Commodities,  yeelding 
exceeding  summes  of  Treasure  to  the  Planters.     And  I   ig.  The 
know  not  but  in  a  settled  Virginian  Plantation,  Sugars,  Counirie, 
Gingers,  Hides,  &c.  may  there  proove  as  gainfull,  as  they  '^'^^^  ^ 

have  in  the  Spanish  Indies,  that  is,  beyond  all  conceit  of  ^'f'""  """'"h 

1-  J  J  iv;r  /"''  "■'^  tnere 

ordmarie  valuation,  and  as  good  as  many  Mynes.  ^^^  Merchan- 

Now  for  the  Cattell  and  Fowles,  I  might  here  present  disc  here. 



*C<7/.  Smith 
tels  of  1000. 
Bassses  at  a 
draught:   M. 
5000.  the 
least  of  two 
foot  long,  300. 
as  big  as  Cod, 
by  Sir  T.Dale. 
[IV.  ix. 


19.  Benefits 
by  fishing. 
D.  D.  Brit. 


Et  qua  non 

singula,  multie 


their  Deere  of  all  sorts,  reported  to  have  three  or  foure 
Fawnes  at  a  time,  and  none  under  two  (which  some  impute 
to  the  qualitie  of  that  Countrey,  having  happened  like- 
wise to  the  Goats  transported  from  hence)  and  were  it 
not  for  this  increase,  eyther  they  must  faile,  or  the  Natives 
(these  sparing  neither  old  nor  young,  nor  old  with  young, 
nor  observing  any  rule  of  Season  or  Reason  therein)  I 
might  adde  Shag-haired  Oxen-seene  by  Sir  Samuell  Argoll, 
Beavers,  Otters,  Foxes,  Wilde  and  Civet  Cats,  Muske 
Rats,  and  many  Beasts  which  beare  good  Furres ;  their 
large  Turkeyes,  Cranes,  Herons,  Partridges,  and  in- 
numerable other  Fowles :  fish  also  of  innumerable 
numbers  and  manifold  kinds.  Sturgeon,  Porpose,  Base, 
Rock-fish,  Carpe,  Shad,  and  the  rest.  It  seemeth  to 
us  incredible,  which  is  related  of  the  both  numbers  * 
and  excellencie  at  one  draught  taken.  As  for  the  varietie 
of  Corne,  the  excellencie  also  and  multiplication  to  1500. 
or  2000.  for  one  stalke  of  Maiz,  the  usefialnesse,  their 
succeeding-exceeding  Harvests,  their  Roots,  Herbs, 
Pulse,  and  the  rest,  I  referre  to  all  the  Writers  in  that 
Argument,  and  to  as  many  as  have  beene  Eye-witnesses 
themselves  to  be  Relaters. 

Were  it  but  a  fishing  trade,  yet  his  understanding  is 
contemptible,  that  thinkes  contemptibly  of  it.  He  that 
should  reade  Doctor  Dees  relations  of  so  many  hundred 
Busses,  and  Flemmish  saile  on  the  English,  and  Spanish, 
on  the  Irish  coasts :  or  what  Master  Gentleman  hath 
related  of  the  Commodities  raised  that  way  by  the 
Holanders,  summed  to  millions  of  pounds  in  Herring, 
Cod  and  Ling :  and  that  which  others  relate  of  3  600.  saile 
of  Fishermen  in  Holand  and  Zeland,  with  other  things 
of  like  nature  gathered  together  by  Captaine  Smith  in 
his  New  Englands  Trials,  with  the  experiments  of  that 
coast  also  part  of  our  Virginian  subject  shall  see,  as 
greatest  bodies  composed  of  least  parts,  so  greatest  summes 
raised  out  of  least  and  meanest  meanes,  that  being  dundant 
in  tale,  which  seemeth  wanting  in  weight.  Once,  the 
impregnable  wals  of  the  united  Provinces  are  their  Ships 



(whereof  some  reckon  small  and  great  of  all  sorts  20000,) 
and  their  principall  and  most  generall  Trade  is  Fishing, 
which  is  the  Seminary  of  their  Mariners  of  which  some 
have  reckoned  above  1 00000.  and  summed  their  returnes 
thence  growing  to  7000000.  pounds  in  a  yeare.     I  am 
none  of  Neptunes  Secretaries;   yet  know  this,  that  there 
is  no  fishing  to  the  Sea,  and  no  Country  so  strong  by  Sea  as 
that  which  findeth  most  employment  in  this  kinde,  where 
no  exportation  of  treasure,  no  custome,  no  consumption 
and  exhausting  of  commodities  can  be  quareUed.     Thus 
then,  whether  we  consider  Wines,  Silkes,  and  other  the 
appurtenances    of    our    pleasures,    as    Dies,    Drugges, 
Gummes,   Sugars,   Ginger,   Furres,   and  the  like,  which 
cost  this  Kingdome  yearely  some  hundreths  of  thousands 
of  our  pounds :  or  whether  wee  reckon  those  more  staple 
and  necessary  commodities  for  Shipping,  and  all  sorts  of 
Timber,  Cordage,  and  other  like,  no  lesse  costly,  Virginia 
inviteth  our  hopes,  and  covenanteth  to  bestow  them  on 
the  industrious :  so  that  we  shall  save  those  treasures  and 
costs   that   way   expended,    shall  lesse   depend   on   other 
Nations,  lesse  feare  imbarguing,  detention,  imposts ;   yea,  ^o.  Tobacco. 
shall  from  other  Nations  raise  by  returne  of  our  excesse  A  Books 
in   these   kindes   great   Summes,   besides   the   furnishing  presented  to 
of   the   Kingdome    with    greater   encrease   of   Shipping,  f^^asT/"' 
Marriners,     and     innumerable     employments,     and     the  Bennet.   It  is 
securing  and  enriching  the  Ports,  both  of  Ireland  and  said  that  some 
England.     As  for  Tobacco  I  have  said  little  of  it,  because  maliciously 
it  is  so  generally  knowne  (which  yet  is  said  to  be  worth  Mherallthetr 
to  Spaine  1 00000.  pounds  yearely;   and  that  (I  grieve  to  ^l yi°.J^-° 
speak  it)  from  the  rume-fome-froth-spirits  of  England)  &  and  Ber- 
the  abundance  brought  from  Virginia  and  Summer  Hands  mudas,  and 
(inopes  nos  cepia  fecit)  exceedeth  the  Market :  and  because  '^^  gpodfrom 
to  many  by  immoderate  use  thereof  are  corrupted  here  at  'gf""jj/" 
home,  and  the  present  benefit  thereby  accrewing  in  quicke  g,owtA. 
returne,  hindreth  designes  of  better  consequence  there.   2 1 .  Hopes  of 
And  thus  much  of  Virginias  present  or  very  probable  A'"''^  Trade 
Commodities:  to  which  we  may  adde  the  hopes  in  future  -^g'^J/'^^ii^ 
times  by  finding  there  as  good  vent  for  our  Wools  and  commodities. 




Clothes,  both  to  the  English  and  civilized  Indian,  as  the 
Spaniards  doe  in  their  Indies  by  their  Wines  and  Oyle, 
of  which  I  have  already  said  that  they  permit  not  the 
generall  growth  in  their  Indian  plantations  for  the  continu- 
ance and  necessitie  of  commerce  with  Spaine.  And  who 
seeth  not  the  exceeding  benefit  which  may  arise  by 
compleat  commerce,  in  venting  our  owne  superfluities 
of  Men  ;  of  others,  and  specially  the  principall  of  English 
Commodities,  Cloth  and  Wooll,  with  the  Gospel  of  our 
Lord  Jesus ;  and  returning  from  thence,  Clapboord,  Pipe- 
staves,  Caviare,  Oade,  Madder,  Salt,  Cordage,  Pitch, 
Tarre,  Sope-ashes,  Pot-ashes,  Cotton-wools,  Gaules, 
Furres,  Hops,  Hides,  Gummes,  Dyes,  Gingers,  Sugars, 
Silkes,  Wines,  Iron,  Timbers,  Fish,  Ships,  Mariners, 
Merchants,  and  a  World  of  the  Worlds  most  useful  good 
things  thorow  an  open  Sea,  obnoxious  to  no  forreine 
Potentate,  from  and  to  known  and  secure  Ports  and 
Harbours  ? 
22.  Manifold  It  is  also  not  only  usefuU  at  all  times,  but  necessary 
necessities  of  to  these  times,  as  to  transport  superfluous  numbers  from 
hence  to  Virginia,  so  to  cure  the  diseases  of  the  times 
caused  by  the  wants  of  Monies  (the  life  of  trading,  and 
sinewes  of  a  great  State)  attended  with  wants  of  sale  for 
the  Merchant,  and  consequently  of  Clothiers  and  other 
subordinate  professions ;  want  of  worke  for  Spinsters, 
Weavers,  and  innumerable  poorer  Trades  and  Handi- 
craftsmen ;  want  of  trading  for  Citizens  (neither  hath  such 
a  generall  breaking  beene  ever  knowne,)  so  many  shops 
in  the  principall  limmes  and  streets  of  this  Citie,  yea,  in 
Cheapside  the  faire  face,  yea,  in  the  eye  of  that  beauteous 
face,  the  Gold-Smiths  Row  (where  besides  so  many 
shoppes  converted  to  other  Trades,  I  have  told  this  last 
Winter  betwixt  Friday-street  and  Bread-street  the  third 
part  shut  up)  want  of  employment  for  decayed  Gentlemen, 
both  the  elder  Unthrifts  and  younger  Gallants ;  which 
want  of  moneyes  and  store  of  wants  thence  issuing,  is  in 
greatest  part  caused  by  the  Merchandizes  sought  and 
bought  in  other  Countries,  whereby  our  Moneyes  fall  into- 


these  times. 


forraine  Whirle-pooles  without  hopes  of  recovery ; 
whereas  if  our  Trade  lay  (as  we  see  the  Spanish)  with 
our  owne  Colonies  and  Plantations  else-where,  wee  should 
hold  them  still  current  in  our  owne  Nation,  and  draw 
others  to  bring  to  us  both  Wares  and  Moneyes  from 
other  Regions  for  the  Commodities  aforesaid.  And  thus 
should  the  Vices  of  the  Times  be  remedied,  and  the  vices 
of  men  or  vicious  ijien  finde  from  Tobacco,  Silkes,  Wines 
and  other  excesses  (like  the  sting  of  Scorpions  from  the 
Oyle  of  Scorpions)  a  cure  thence,  whence  they  received 
their  wounds ;  and  so  many  ruptures  should  eyther  be 
prevented  or  healed ;  provisions  also  procured  for  employ- 
ment of  honest  and  humble  povertie  at  home,  and  the 
inordinate  spirits  of  others  tamed  by  the  Sea,  and  trained 
at  labour  to  better  Discipline. 

I  adde  fiarther,  that  the  prosecution  of  the  Virginian  [IV.  ix. 
Plantation,    is    both    profitable    and    necessary    for    the  1822.] 

strengthning  of  the  Plantations  already  begun  in  Summer  ^/^^  stren7h'r 
Hands,  New  England,  and  New  found  Land,  and  that  i„g  other 
other  expected  in  New  Scotland.  Plantations. 

Now  if  we  adde  the  hopefiall  passage  to  the  South  Sea,   H-  Probabili- 
that  one  argument  is  more  then  all  the  rest,  if  our  eyes  ''"  ^ "   °"''. 
shall  once  be  blessed  with  that  desired  sight.     For  the  „,a„ie  manU 
trade  of  the  whole  world  is  then  made  compendious,  all  commodities 
the  rich  trades  of  the  East  Indies  are  obvious  and  neerer  thereby. 
hand,  and  no  force  is  able  to  scoure  so  large  a  Coast  as 
that  Westerne  shoare  of  all  America,  and  secure  it  from 
our  trading.     Hence,  if  we  finde  not  golden  Countries 
before  not  possessed  by  other  Christians  (whereof  also 
Sir  Francis  Drakes  Nova  Albion  so  long  since  subjected 
by  voluntary  surrender  to  the  English  Crowne,  hath  given 
us  hope)  yet  trade  will  bring  the  Mines  of  the  West  into 
our  ships,  and  the  Spices  and  other  rich  Merchandize  of 
the  East  into  our  shops  at  easier  charge,  and  therefore  25.  Necessitie 
saleable  at  easier  rates.  of  maintaining 

But  this  Designe  of  the  South  Sea  may  seeme  desperate,  ^fff"'^"  '» 
and  the  Argument  ridiculous.  I  shall  therefore  indevour  '^fj^^JjZ'" 
to  give  better  light  therein,  and  withall  to  adde  another  others. 




Argument  as  weightie  as  it,  and  greater  then  all  ex- 

I  may  adde  also  the  case  of  Warre,  which  I  desire  not ; 
but  which  may  happen,  and  Bellona  may  even  now  seeme 
pregnant  and  alreadie  conceived,  whose  abortion  might  be 
wished,  if  necessitie  adde  not  honour  to  the  lawfulnesse. 
I  but  propound  a  case  possible.  The  most  certaine, 
honorable,  and  beauteous  front  of  Peace,  hath  a  backe 
part  of  Warre,  and  therefore  in  securest  Peace,  Prudence 
is  not  so  secure,  but  she  armeth  herselfe  against  feares  of 
War,  forewarning  and  forearming  men  by  the  Sword 
drawne  to  prevent  the  drawing  of  Swords,  and  eyther 
eschewes  it,  or  reaps  good  out  of  it. 
South  Sea  why  It  is  not  unknowne  what  expenses  England  hath 
so  called.  sustained  in,   and  ever  since   Sir   Sebastian   Cabots  first 

Discoverie,  as  in  those  of  Sir  Hugh  Willoughby,  Bur- 
rough,  Pet  and  Jackman  by  the  North-east,  of  Hudson, 
Poole,  Fotherby,  and  divers  other  Navigations  by  the 
North ;  of  Sir  Martine  Frobusher,  Captaine  Davies,  Sir 
Thomas  Button,  Master  Knight,  Hudson,  Hall,  Baffin, 
and  other  manifold  Discoveries  by  the  North-west,  all 
seeking  a  compendious  passage  to  Cathay,  and  to  the  East 
Indies.  The  Reasons  which  mooved  them  were  far  more 
hopefiill  then  that  of  Columbus,  which  found  notwith- 
standing far  better  and  speedier  successe.  Successe  is  a 
servile  Argument,  for  Sense  rather  then  for  Reason,  and 
in  this  whole  Virginian  project,  I  speake  to  English 
Adventurers,  and  not  to  pettie  Pedlers,  or  Virginian 
Savages,  to  such  whose  eyes  are  in  their  heads  and  not 
in  their  hands :  Careat  successibus  opto,  Quisquis  ab 
eventu  facta  notanda  putet.  Yet  hath  not  Successe  beene 
wholy  frustrate,  yea  both  Reason  and  Sense  plead  for  a 
Passage,  and  Virginias  usefulnesse  therein. 

I  will  not  bring  uncertaine  testimonies  of  a  Portugall 
taken  in  a  Carrike  in  Queene  Elizabeths  dayes,  and  of 
another  Portugall  in  Guinie,  which  affirmed  to  Sir  Martine 
Frobusher  that  hee  had  past  it ;  nor  of  Garcia  Loaisa, 
which  is  said  by  the  Coast  of  New-found-land  to  have 



gone  to  the  Moluccas;    nor  of  Vasco  Coronado  in  his 
Letter  to  the  Emperour  Charles,  and  other  antiquated 
Witnesses  of  Antiquitie. 

I  have  already  in  due  place  produced  *  Thomas  Cowles,  *^'^  '"P-  ''^ 
Juan  de  Fuca,  Thomas  Dermer,  Sir  Thomas  Button,  '^ooi{-%'^' 
Master  Brigges,  besides  the  constant  and  generall  report  oermers 
of  all  the  Savages  from  Florida,  to  the  great  River  of  Letter  in  this. 
Canada.  Now  for  the  hopes  of  Virginia  by  a  South-Sea 
Discovery,  how  neere  is  England  that  way  to  the  Trade 
of  both  Indies,  that  is,  of  all  the  remoter  World?  It 
stands  midway  betwixt  us  and  the  most  frequented  Ports 
of  the  West,  which  perhaps  may  shortly  come  to  full  age 
and  sue  out  her  Liverie,  how  ever  hitherto  kept  in  close 
Wardship,  and  debarred  the  rights  of  common  humanite, 
that  is,  the  commerce  with  other  Nations,  without  dis- 
cerning Friend  and  Foe.  Strange  jealousie  and  worthy 
of  jealous  Suspicion!  to  admit  Trade  in  all  European 
Ports,  not  Sivill  and  Madrid  excepted  and  to  prohibit 
the  same  in  all  the  East  and  West,  where  it  can  lesse  be 
prohibited!  there  to  repute  all  in  nature  of  Pyrats,  and 
accordingly  to  make  prize  of  ships,  goods,  and  men  which 
shall  attempt  to  sayle  that  vast  Ocean,  or  offer  Trade  in 
any  of  those  Habitations!  But  leaving  that  to  con- 
sideration of  my  Betters,  in  the  East  both  English  and 
Dutch  have  maintayned  their  just  Trade  by  force,  which 
by  unjust  force  was  denied,  and  have  paid  themselves 
largely  for  all  losses  sustayned  by  the  Insultings  or  Assault- 
ings  of  those  Monopolians,  with  gaine  with  honour : 
that  trade  being  almost  denied  to  those  injurious  deniers, 
their  owne  reputation  and  traffique  now  bleeding,  which 
would  have  cut  the  throates  of  all  others  adventures,  of 
all  other  adventurers.  I  neither  prophesie,  nor  exhort 
unto  the  like  in  the  West :  Our  prudent  and  potent 
Mother  Elizabeth  wan  renowne  and  wealth  in  their  owne 
harbours  and  Cities  at  home,  and  no  lesse  in  the  remotest 
of  their  Lands  and  Seas.  Yea,  the  South  Sea  by  furthest 
compasse  was  neere  to  her  long  and  just  armes,  and  their 
Cacaplata  and  Saint  Anne,  with  other  their  richest  Ships 




and  Ports  were  ransacked  by  English  Cacafuegos,  and  the 
charges  of  those  warres  borne  by  those  enemies  which 
caused  them.  Nulla  salus  bello,  pacem  te  poscimus 
omnes.  He  whose  words  and  workes  hath  ever  beene 
Beati  pacifici,  knowes  best  when  and  how  to  exact  his 
and  the  Worlds  right,  in  the  World,  of  which  God  hath 
granted  a  Monopoly  to  no  man;  and  (if  others  can 
embrace  the  whole  Globe  with  dispersed  habitations)  not 
[IV.  ix.  to  suffer  his  long  arme  to  be  shortned,  and  the  strong 

'^^^•J  armes  of  his  to  be  pinioned,  and  forced  to  accept  of  a 
bounded  and  limited  commerce  in  a  little  corner  at  others 
pleasure.  Once,  in  just  and  even  peace,  Virginia  stands 
fit  to  become  Englands  Factor  in  America ;  if  war  should 
happen,  both  it  and  Bermuda  are  fit  Sentinels  and  Scouts, 
yea  fit  Searchers  and  Customers,  fit  Watch-towers  and 
Arsenals  to  maintaine  right  against  all  wrong-doers.  And 
for  the  South  Sea,  if  a  passage  be  found  neere  unto 
Virginia,  as  Master  Dermer  was  confident  upon  relations 
(as  he  writ  to  me)  of  a  thousand  witnesses,  wee  then  see 
Virginias  lap  open,  yeelding  her  Ports  and  Harbours  for 
the  Easterne  treasures  to  be  the  neerest  way  conveied  by 
the  West.  Yea  if  it  be  more  remote,  as  Chacke  and 
Fuca  relate,  yet  hath  Virginia  an  usefiall  neighbourhood 
both  for  sicke  men,  weatherbeaten  Ships,  and  provisions 
exhaust  in  long  Voyages,  to  make  them  fitter  for  returne. 
And  if  such  passage  were  not  at  all,  yet  the  Mountaines 
of  Virginia  cannot  but  send  Rivers  to  that  Sea ;  so  that 
as  the  wealth  of  Peru  is  brought  to  Panama,  and  thence 
by  Land  convaied  to  the  Ports  of  this  Sea,  so  may  the 
wealth  of  the  South  Sea,  and  the  Regions  of  the  West 
of  America  be  that  way  passed  to  English  hands.  The 
like  may  be  said  of  the  Hands  of  Salomon,  the  South 
unknowne  Continent,  which  aftertimes  may  discover 
(probably  as  rich  as  the  rest)  that  I  mention  not  the  knowne 
Regions  of  the  East  already  traded.  And  although  the 
passage  be  not  yet  perfectly  knowne,  yet  may  the  seasons 
and  fittest  opportunities  and  provisions  for  that  discovery 
be  most  easie  from  Virginia:   and  there,  if  crossed  with 



:stormes  or  other  disasters,  they  may  finde  securest  refuge 
and  refreshing.  An  if  (which  God  avert)  we  may  not 
have  the  wares  of  peace,  yet  the  peace  of  warres  (that  is, 
a  fit  rendevous  and  retiring  place,  where  to  cheere  and 
iiearten,  to  repaire  and  supply  upon  all  occasions)  is  there 
offered  by  the  advantages  of  both  Seas.  For  in  both, 
that  vast  body  must  needes  be  of  slow  motion,  where 
the  limraes  are  so  disjoynted,  and  one  member  unfit  to 
helpe  another  by  remotenesse.  And  if  it  should  but  force 
the  adversary  to  maintaine  Garrisons  in  his  Ports  on  both 
sides,  to  secure  them  from  invasion,  and  a  double  Navie 
of  War  in  both  Seas,  the  one  to  secure  the  Coasts,  the 
other  to  secure  his  Shippes  in  the  South  Sea  passing  from 
the  Philippinas,  or  from  one  Port  to  another ;  and  in  the 
North  Sea  to  wafte  his  Treasures  and  Merchandise  into 
Europe,  the  wings  of  that  Eagle  would  be  so  pulled  with 
•such  costs,  that  hee  could  not  easily  make  invasive  flight 
upon  his  neighbours  in  these  parts ;  yea,  both  those  and 
these  Dominions  would  be  exposed  to  the  easier  invasions 
of  others.  Tam  Marte,  quam  Mercurio,  in  Peace  and 
Warre,  so  useful!  may  Virginia  and  Bermuda  be  to  this 

Now  if  any  say  Medice  cura  teipsum,  and  alleadge 
that  they  themselves  are  not  able  to  stand  against  an 
enemy:  I  answere,  first,  for  Bermuda,  or  Summer  Hands, 
that  little  body  is  all  heart,  and  hath  the  strength  of 
Nature  and  Art  conspiring  her  impregnablenesse.  For 
the  Rockes  every  way  have  so  fortified  the  scituation,  that 
she  would  laugh  at  an  Armada,  at  a  World  of  Ships ; 
where  the  straight  passage  admits  not  two  Ships  abreast  to 
enter,  and  hath  ten  Forts  with  Ordnance  to  entertaine 
them.  She  feares  no  ravishment,  and  as  little  needes  she 
famishment,  so  that  unlesse  God  for  our  sinnes,  or  the 
Divell  by  the  worst  of  sinnes,  treason,  and  the  worst  of 
his  Sonnes,  some  Judas,  expose  her  to  the  Enemy,  she 
can  know  no  other  love  or  Lord  but  English.  And  for 
Virginia  against  the  Savages  greatest  fright,  Captaine 
5mith  maintained  himselfe  without  losse,  with  gaine  with 
XIX  257  R 


*M.  Tiomas 
Turner  an 
English  Mer- 
chant living 
then  in  Por- 
tttgall  in  name 
of  an  Almaine. 

Q.  Elizabeths 


thirty  eight  men :  against  others  she  hath  so  fit  places  for 
fortification ;  so  fit  meanes  and  materials  to  secure  her^ 
as  eye-witnesses  report,  that  the  worst  of  enemies  to  be 
feared  is  English  backwardnesse  or  frowardnesse,  like 
Sampsons  Foxes  either  drawing  backe,  or  having  fire  at; 
their  tongues  ends. 

Now  if  Queene  Elizabeth  of  glorious  memory,  were- 
able  from  England  onely  to  annoy  her  enemies,  so  great 
and  potent,  so  much  and  farre :  what  may  we  in  Gods 
name  hope  of  a  New  England,  New  found  Land,  Bermuda,, 
and  Virginia  already  planted  with  English  ?  When  upon, 
newes  of  the  fall  of  that  great  Northen  Starre,  the  Duke 
of  Braganzas  brother  spake  of  her  as  the  Jesuites  had< 
slandered ;  hold  your  peace  brother,  said  the  Duke  him- 
selfe  (one  *  then  present  related  this  to  me)  had  it  not 
beene  for  her  Religion  (for  which  wee  most  honour  her,, 
for  which  God  did  most  blesse  her)  she  might  justly  have 
beene  ranked  with  the  ancients  Romans :  England  is  a 
small  thing,  as  the  Map  sheweth,  to  Spaine,  and  yet  we 
durst  not  looke  out  of  doores  for  her  and  hers.  Thus 
worthily  that  worthy  man,  of  the  Worthy  of  women  in 
her  time.  Great  and  glorious  Elizabeth !  how  didst  thou, 
contemne  the  Iberian  threates.''  How  didst  thou  invert,, 
divert,  subvert  their  attempts.''  How  victoriously  didst 
thou  evade  their  invincible  Invasion.?  how  didst  thou 
invade  the  Invaders,  at  their  gates,  in  their  ports  .f"  how 
didst  thou  meete  them  in  the  Atlanticke,  pursue  them  to- 
the  South,  to  the  Indian  Seas,  and  round  about  the  World  } 
How  did  the  skie,  windes,  waves  serve  to  a  higher- 
providence  in  thy  deliveries,  in  thy  triumphs.''  how  often 
were  the  prodigious  Carrikes  of  the  East,  and  prodigall' 
Vessels  of  the  West,  either  staid  at  home  for  feare,  or 
driven  to  fort-covert  by  the  way,  or  costly  wafted  on  their 
way,  or  burned  in  the  way,  or  sunke  out  of  the  way,  or' 
carried  quite  away  to  visite  the  English  shoares,  and. 
adorne  the  Trophees  of  great  and  glorious  Elizabeth? 
Rouze  up  your  brave  spirits  English  hearts  in  loyall 
subjection  to  your  Royall  Soveraign :  be  ready  to  offer 



right,  feare  not  to  suffer  wrong :    seeke  the  good,  and 
see  the  goods  which  Virginia  offers.     Here  could  I  wilder 
my  selfe  in  thickets  of  arguments,  and  could  Muster  more  [IV.  ix. 
motives  and   more   necessarily  concluding   for  Virginias  1824.] 

advancement,  if  that  which  we  desire  not  be  enforced 
on  us,  then  I  have  already  numbred  in  plantation  and 
commerce :  Yea  almost  all  those  former  arguments  are 
pressed  of  necessity,  or  offer  their  service  voluntarily, 
some  more,  others  no  lesse  serviceable  that  way,  then  to 
publike  peace  and  traffique,  which  also  are  securest  when 
they  neede  not  feare  a  Warre. 

The  honour  of  Religion  defended  by  the  Defender  of 
the  Faith  ;  of  our  Nation,  King,  Kingdome ;  the  Materials 
of  Ships,  Mariners,  Armes,  Victuals ;  Fishing,  Merchan- 
dise, and  Prize  subservient  to  each  Voyage,  that  one  may 
supply  if  the  other  faile  ;  in  crossed  Voyages,  a  convenient 
receptacle  for  refreshing;  fit  place  of  stay  in  not  fitting 
and  unseasonable  seasons :  a  safe  repository  for  spoiles 
gotten  in  expectation  of  greater  purchase :  a  redresse  to 
weatherbeaten  and  storme-distressed  Ships :  a  refuge  to 
such  as  the  enemy  hath  battered  and  endangered :  an 
Hospitall  for  sicke,  wounded,  and  presently  unserviceable 
Mariners  and  Souldiers :  a  storehouse  to  repaire  Timbers, 
Tackling,  and  other  provisions,  to  Ships  and  Men :  a  fit 
meane  (in  supplying  us  from  thence  with  necessaries)  to 
keepe  those  Monies  in  our  owne  hands,  whereby  we  are 
destitute  of  the  principall  sinewes  of  warre,  yea  perhaps 
the  enemy  armed  against  us :  a  schoole  and  training  place 
for  our  youth  to  endure  labour  and  hardship,  and  to 
prepare  them  like  the  Jewes  in  Nehemiahs  time,  to  use 
the  Sword  with  one  hand,  and  instruments  of  labour  in 
the  other :  an  exercise  to  breede  Men  for  longer  Voiages : 
a  backedoore  to  breake  out  suddenly  on  the  enemy:  an 
ambushment,  whiles  Ships  from  hence  &  thence  shal  at 
once  be  expected,  and  he  which  flees  the  one  shall  fall  into 
the  other :  a  redoubling  of  oxxr  forces  when  they  meete : 
a  safe  harbour  in  Bermuda  or  in  Virginia  for  a  hundred 
sailes,  or  many  more,  to  awaite  all  opportunities :  a  place 




likely  to  yeelde  to  men  of  merit  entertainment  and  reward : 
a  place  yeelding  opportunity  by  trade  there  to  weaken  our 
possible  or  probable  enemies,  to  whom  now  wee  seeke 
for  trade,  and  consequently  to  weaken  them  by  the  want 
of  our  Commodities,  and  to  adde  a  double  strength  to 
our  selves :  a  place  commodious  to  prevent  warre  by 
diverting  it,  to  divert  it  by  preventing :  to  subvert  the 
enemies  Plantations  by  sudden  assaults,  or  force  them  to 
costly  Garisons :  to  evert  their  Merchandising  by  trade 
suspended,  surprized,  or  defended  with  chargeable  wast- 
age :  to  intervert  their  intelligence  and  profits :  to  invert 
the  hearts  of  Malecontents,  and  those  hands  which  feare 
now  curbeth  and  bridleth :  to  convert  to  our  parts  those 
which  maintaine  a  fugitive  and  wilde  enmity  with  them : 
to  avert  the  profits  of  their  Mines  by  other  imployments : 
and  in  a  word,  to  make  that  use  of  others  against  them, 
which  their  examples  have  taught  us  in  acquiring  the  great 
Empires  of  Mexico  and  Peru,  with  other  parts  of  America, 
which  without  the  helpe  of  Indians  against  Indians, 
banding  themselves  with  a  contrary  faction,  such  handfiils 
had  never  beene  able  to  have  effected :  What  shall  I  say 
more?  If  others  impotence  and  importunities  force  a 
War,  Virginia  and  Summer  Hands  seeme  to  this  English 
body  as  two  American  hands,  eares,  feete;  two  eyes  for 
defence :  two  Keyes  (as  before  is  said)  for  ofi^ence :  two 
Armes  to  get,  encompasse,  embrace :  two  Fists  to  strike : 
the  Sword  and  Dagger ;  Ship  and  Pinnace ;  Castle  and 
Rampire,  Canon  &  Musket,  Arsenale  and  Peere,  and 
whatsoever  God  shall  please  to  give  to  humaine  industry, 
who  gives  all  things  of  free  grace,  but  to  such  to  whom 
he  hath  given  grace  freely  to  seeke  them ;  and  is  alway 
a  facile  and  easie  giver,  but  to  them  onely  which  love  not 
their  ease  and  idle  pleasure.  And  although  I  am  no 
Secretary  of  Gods  Counsell  for  the  Indies,  yet  event  hath 
revealed  thus  much  of  his  will,  that  no  other  Christian 
Nation  hath  yet  gotten  and  maintained  possession  in  those 
parts,  but  the  English :  to  whom  therefore  wee  may 
'  gather  their  decreed  serviceablenesse  in  Peace,  advantagi- 



ousnesse  in  Warre,  and  opportunity  for  both,  to  be  both 
Magazine  and  Bulwarlce,  and  ready  even  by  natxirall 
scituation   to   sit  on   the   skirts  of  whatsoever  enemies, 
which  passe  from  America  to  Europe. 

Three  Spanish  witnesses,  Acosta,  Oviedo,  and  Herrera,  -^costa.  I.  3. 
have   related    this,    in    describing    the    course    of    that  o*-"l'^"^" 
Navigation ;    yea,  all  experience,  the  Heavens  also  and  Summary  y 
Elements  subscribe  to  it.     For  such  is  the  statute  of  the  Gen.  hist.  1. 1. 
windes,  which  all  Shipping  in  that  Sea  must  obey :  they  Hereras. 
must  goe  one  way  and  returne  another.     To  the  Indies  ^escri.oflnd. 
the  course  from  Europe  is  by  the  Canaries,  and  thence  '■  '^'  '^^ 
entring  the  Tropike,  they  meete  with  the  Brises,  which 
are  perpetuall  Easterne  windes,   or   I   know  not  what 
impetuosity  by  the  motion  of  the  heavens  breathed  into 
the  lower  aire  betwixt  the  Tropikes,  and  pressing  all 
vapours  and  exhalations  unto  that  service  in  one  or  other 
point  Easterly :   which  force  the  Ships  to  retxurne  neerer  The  brises  and 
the  American  coast  there  to  seeke  as  it  were  some  alloy  '°""',  °f. 
of  that  impetuous  motion  (even  as  you  see  Water-men     "^'i'""'- 
in  the  Thames  rowing  against  the  tide,  to  covet  neere  the 
shoare  where  the  tide  is  weakest)  and  thence  passing  the 
Tropike  to  seeke  Westerly  windes,  which  from  twenty 
seven  to  thirty  seven  doe  there  usually  remaine,  as  wee 
see  in  Eddies  caused  by  stronger  motions.     Thus  the  Eddy  windes. 
Spanish   Ships   on   the   South   Sea   make  one  way  from 
Acapulco  to  the  Philippinas,  which  is  the  Tropicke ;   and 
another  without  in  the  height  of  Japan,  to  returne.     And 
thus  in  the  Atlanticke  the  Ships  from  their  severall  ports 
come  to  the  Havana  in  Cuba,  and  thence  must  take  their 
course  neere  to  Virginia  and  Summer  Hands,   to  finde 
the  Azores :    in  which  way,  from  thence  it  is  easie  for 
English  Ships  (not  far  from  their  owne  home  or  Ports) 
to  disperse  themselves  in  expectation  of  a  surprisall. 

The  want  of  such  helpes  in  Queene  Elizabeths  glorious 

times,  enforced  our  men  of  Warre  still  to  awaite  both  for  [IV.  ix. 

the  Indian  Carrickes,  and  all  American  Ships,  hovering   „.      '^^5] 

'■  °    Disadvantage 

to  our  Ships  of  warre  by  want  of  some  such  Plantation  as  this  is  and  may  be:  whence  many 

Voyages  were  frustrated  in  part  or  wholly. 




about  the  Azores  Hands  subject  to  the  Spanish  Crowne, 
where  they  neither  had  harbour  in  stormes,  nor  could  in 
any  wants  refresh  themselves  with  water,  victuals,  or 
other  provisions  but  by  force ;  where  a  greater  and 
stronger  Armada  of  the  enemy  waited  to  wafte  home  their 
Ships  returning ;  where  it  often  hapned  that  the  Ships 
could  not  so  soone  be  descried,  but  they  gat  either  into 
some  Port,  and  under  some  Fort  which  secured  them ;  or 
else  there  ran  themselves  aground,  and  saving  what  they 
could  with  their  persons,  fired  the  rest,  so  to  sacrifice  it 
to  Neptune  or  Vulcan,  rather  then  permit  it  to  English 
hands.  Neither  had  the  English  any  neere  Port  where 
to  supply  themselves  in  any  distresse,  or  exhaustion  of 
provisions,  but  must  necessarily  returne  home  for  England, 
if  not  (as  sometimes)  perishing  in  the  way,  with  little 
or  perhaps  no  prize  attained.  Likewise  in  long  Voyages, 
as  to  the  East  Indies,  and  to  the  South  Sea,  having  no 
harbour  to  friend,  every  disease  proved  mortall  to  their 
Voyage,  and  forced  at  lest  a  returne,  that  is,  a  miscarrying 
of  the  designe,  if  not  of  themselves :  whereas,  such  a 
refuge  as  Virginia  and  Summer  Hands  might  either  have 
recovered  the  Voyage  intended,  or  refreshed  and  inabled 
them  to  make  as  good  a  purchase  upon  the  enemy,  making 
him  to  pay  their  charges,  perhaps  with  more  gaine  then 
the  first  intents  could  have  produced.  Examples  will 
make  this  more  evident. 

And  first  to  begin  with  the  first  of  our  great  Dis- 

S.  Seb.  Cabot,  coverers ;  Sir  Sebastian  Cabot,  and  Sir  Thomas  Pert,  were 

set  forth  by  King  Henry  the  eight  (as  before  is  mentioned) 

in  a  Voyage  of  American  Discovery,  a  Ship  of  which 

Fleete  comming  from  the  coast  of  Brasil  to  Domingo 

(Oviedo  mentions  it  in  the  Spanish  stile,  branding  them 

with    Piracy,    yet   laieth    nothing    to    their  charge    but 

discovery  and  offer  of  trade,  paying  with  Pewter  dishes 

Jnno  15 17.     for  what  they  tooke)  was  thence  repeUed  Anno  1517.  and 

Oviedo.  Gen.  obtained  some  provisions  at  Saint  John,  from  whence  in 

hut.  1.1^.       ^.jjg-j.  j-eturne  to  England,  Oviedo  thinkes  they  perished : 

'■  '^'        "^    at  least  the  Voyage  miscarried,  as  appeareth  by  Master 



Thornes  and  Master  Edens  testimony  thereof,  for  want  of 
-provisions.     The  like  happened  to  Master  Hores  Voyage,  Master  Hon. 
-described  in  Master  Hakluit  Anno  1536.  when  want  of  '536. 
victuals  made  them  eate  one  another,  and  at  last  to  steale 
a  French  Ship,  in  which  they  returned. 

Anno  1564.  Sir  John  Hawkins  having  made  a  profit-  Sir  Jo.  Haw- 
able  Voyage  by  sale  of  Negros  on  the  coast  Townes  of  ^i"^-  1564. 
America,  was  driven  to  seeke  reliefe  of  the  French  (then 
planted  in  Florida,  rooted  thence  not  long  after  by  Spanish 
butchery)   And   in   another   Voyage    1567.    incurred   by  1567. 
perfidious  treachery  of  the  Spaniards,  a  most  lamentable 
-disaster.     He  then  sailed  in  the  Jesus  of  Lubecke,  having 
to  his  consorts,  the  Minion,  the  William  and  John,  the 
Judith,   the  Angell  and   the   Swallow.     Having   gotten 
■Negros  in  Guinnee  and  made  his  market  in  the  Spanish 
Indies,   he  put  in  for  reliefe  at   Saint  John  de  Ulhua, 
Whiles  his  Fleete  was  there,   the  Spanish  Fleete  came 
thither  with  their  new  Viceroy,  which  he  could  easily 
have  kept  out  of  the  harbour,  but  there  being  then  no 
Warres  betwixt  England  and  Spaine,   certaine  Articles 
were  concluded  betwixt  them ;    from  which  the  Viceroy 
perfidiously  resulting,   with   close   trechery   (contrary   to  SpanisA 
.'his  faith  plighted)  assaulted  the  English  with  a  strong  pc'Mf- 
power  on  the  sudden  :   the  issue  whereof  was  the  firing, 
drowning,  taking  many  of  the  English,  whom  they  put 
also  to  execrable  tortures.     Onely  the  Minion  and  Judith 
-of  that  whole  Fleete  escaped,  if  it  be  an  escaping  to  avoide 
Scylla  and  rush  on  Charibdis.     For  they  were  so  shaken 
in  fight  first,  after  with  stormes,  lastly  and  worst  of  all, 
Tvith  famine,  that  they  were  forced  to  expose  a  hundred 
and  foureteene   men   to   the   mercy   of  cruell  elements, 
-crueller  Savages,  cruellest  Spaniards,  who  exercised  in  the  Spanish 
Inquisition   with   bondage,   rackes,   whips,   fires,   famish-  (^'^^t*'- 
ments,    &  plurima   mortis    imago,   what   the   other   had 
spared ;    so  that  of  a  hundred  and  fovireteene  not  above 
the    odde    foxire,    and    those    foure    after    Odysses    of 
wandrings,  and  Iliades  of  miseries  returned  home  from 
'the  foure  corners  of  the  World.     Had  Sir  John  Hawkins 




had  a  Virginian  opportunity  of  refreshing,  the  first  danger- 
should  not  have  needed,  and  the  last  had  not  proved, 
worse  then  the  first :  that  exposing  being  not  farre  From 
the  Virginian  shoare,  and  the  current  fitting  to  carry  him 
thither.  Sir  Francis  Drake  was  then  Captaine  of  the 
Judith,  and  repaied  that  courtesie  to  the  Spaniards  after, 
who  to  shew  the  fesibility  of  such  refreshing  Anno  1585. 
having  sacked  Saint  lago,  Domingo,  Carthagena,  and 
Saint  Augustine,  returned  by  Virginia  to  relieve  the 
Colony  there  planted  by  Sir  W.  Raleigh. 

Anno  1 59 1.  Captaine  George  Raymund  in  the  Pene- 
lope, Captaine  Foxcroft  in  the  Merchant  RoyaU,  and. 
Caf.  Lancas-  Captaine  Lancaster  in  the  Edward  Bonadventure,  set  forth 
ter.  1 59 1.  a  Voyage  intended  for  the  East  Indies.  Their  Company 
were  so  weakened  with  sicknesse,  that  the  Viceadmirall 
was  sent  backe  from  Soldanha  with  sicke  men.  The 
Admirall  was  lost,  the  Rereadmirall  returned,  and  for 
want  of  provisions  put  over  from  Saint  Helena  to 
Trinidad,  in  hope  of  reliefe.  Yet  being  there  dis- 
appointed, they  intended  to  get  to  Newfoundland,  but: 
being  crossed  with  stormes  in  the  way,  and  forced  backe* 
to  Port  Ricco,  the  Ship  was  driven  away  and  lost  not  far 
from  Mona,  whiles  the  famished  Company  were  seeking- 
refreshing  (which  how  easily  had  a  Bermuda  or  Virginia, 
supplied,  had  an  English  plantation  flourished  there.?)' 
Sir  James  Lancaster  and  the  rest  being  forced  to  return 
after  much  misery,  in  French  Ships  for  France,  and  thence- 

Anno  1596.  the  Beare,  the  Beares  Whelpe,  and  the- 

Cap.  Ben.       Benjamin,  were  set  forth  for  China  under  the  command 

Wood.  1596.  g£  Captaine  Benjamin  Wood.     Frier  Joaon  dos  Santos- 

^Ethiopia        mentions  both  the  two  former  of  Raymund  and  Lancaster, 

Orientalii.       and  two  also  of  these  seene  on  the  coast  of  Mozambique. 

[IV.  ix.  Bartolome  Leonardo  de  Argensola  in  his  Booke,  printed 

1826.]  g^j  Madrid  1609.  hath  published  the  Letter  of  the  Chinese 

Visitor  of  Chincheo,  in  which  he  writeth  to  Don  Pedro 

de  Acunna,  Governour  of  the  Philippinas,  that  the  King 

of  China  had  done  two  Sangleys  to  death,  for  shewing; 




the  haven  to  these  two  English  Ships :  and  Acunna 
describes  that  the  English  were  Pyrates,  &c.  after  the 
Spanish  wont.  These  Ships  were  unheard  of  in  England, 
untill  a  Letter  of  Alcasar  de  Villa  sennor,  Auditor  of 
Domingo,  writ  to  the  King  his  Master,  being  by  an 
English  Ship  intercepted,  gave  intelligence  of  one  of 
those  two  Ships  which  distressed  for  want  of  necessaries, 
by  mortality,  had  foure  men  only  left  alive  in  her,  which 
seeking  reliefe,  put  themselves  into  their  Boate,  and 
comming  on  shoare  in  the  Hand  Utias,  not  farre  from 
Domingo,  with  Jewels  and  great  riches,  confessed  that 
they  had  taken  three  Portugall  prizes.  The  Spaniards 
at  first  received  them  on  good  conditions,  but  some 
villaines  seeing  their  wealth,  murthered  them,  for  which 
this  Auditor  had  sentenced  Roderigo  de  Fuentes,  with 
others,  as  his  Letter  to  the  King  of  Spaine  importeth. 
Now  had  there  then  beene  a  Virginian  or  Bermudan 
Plantation,  how  easily  might  they  have  attained  thither 
(the  Boat  at  least)  and  escaped  that  butchery.?  I  could 
hither  adde  instructions  from  the  English  Indian  Ships 
1604.  and  1608.  from  Captaine  Fenton  1582.  from  the 
Earle  of  Cumberlands  Voyages  before  related,  in  the 
yeares  86.  89.  91.  93.  96.  97.  and  from  Master  Candish, 
Master  Davis,  and  others. 

But  we  have  made  too  long  a  Virginian  Voyage,  having 
no  better  freight  then  Arguments,  which  the  Times  doe 
now  promise,  if  not  worthy  wise  mens  approbation,  yet 
good  mens  indulgence ;  where  in  a  weake  body,  and  East  Indie 
manifold  weighty  imployments,  the  willingnesse  of  a  heart  J««>">- 
truely  English,  sincerely  Christian,  may  seeme  tolerable, 
if  not  commendable ;    pardonable  if  not  plausible. 

Another  labour  remaines  to  set  downe  rules  and  projects 
of  best  fecibility  and  accomplishing  this  noble  worke, 
but  I  am  onely  a  Freeman,  no  Councellour  of  that 
Plantation,  and  have  neither  Lands  there,  nor  other 
adventure  therein,  but  this  of  my  love  and  credit,  which 
with  the  allegiance  to  my  Soveraigne,  and  desire  of  the 
publike  good  of  this  Kingdome,  is  more  to  me  then  all 




the  treasures  of  America.  I  seeke  the  good  and  not  the 
goods  of  England  and  Virginia.  I  follow  the  hand  of 
God,  which  have  given  England  so  many  rights  in 
Virginia,  right  naturall,  right  nationall,  right  by  first 
discovery,  by  accepted  trade,  by  possession  surrendred 
voluntarily,  continued  constantly,  right  by  gift,  by  birth, 
by  bargaine  and  sale,  by  cession,  by  forfeiture  in  that  late 
damnable  trechery  and  massacre,  and  the  fatal  possession 
The  Conclu-  taken  by  so  many  murthered  English.  Gods  bounty 
siott.  before,  his  justice  now  hath  given  us  Virginia,  that  we 

should  so  in  judgement  remember  mercy,  as  to  give 
Virginia  againe  to  God,  in  Christian  acknowledgement 
of  his  goodnesse  and  mercy,  of  his  word  and  workes,  and 
in  our  owne  more  serious  conversion  to  prepare  that  of 
Virginia.  God  goeth  before  us  in  making  this  designe 
honorable  to  Religion,  to  Humanity,  to  our  Ancestors, 
to  our  King,  to  our  Kingdome.  God  goeth  before  us, 
and  hath  given  Virginia  so  rich  a  portion,  to  allure  and 
assure  our  loves ;  in  multiplying  our  people,  and  thereby 
our  necessities  enforcing  a  vent :  in  endowing  Virginia 
with  so  large  a  jointure,  so  temperate,  so  commodious 
for  the  climate  compared  with  other  Countries,  beyond 
other  Countries  in  her  own  diversified  Lands,  Seas, 
Briefe  recapl-  Rivers ;  in  so  fertile  a  soyle,  in  so  strong,  sweete,  stately, 
tulaAm  of  the  (Jelicate  Woods  and  Timbers,  in  her  naturall  hopes  of 
Tbfeprmiss'es  ^i^^^,  of  Silkes,  of  the  bodies  of  Natives  servile  and 
serviceable :  in  Drugges,  Irons,  and  probability  also  of 
other  Mines;  in  all  materials  for  Shipping,  and  other 
buildings :  God  goeth  before  us  in  offering  that  meane 
to  save  that  which  wee  seeke  and  spend  in  other  (perhaps 
enemies)  Countries ;  to  breede  up  Marriners,  to  train  up 
Souldiers,  to  exercise  labourers,  by  transportation  of 
English  and  Eviropsean  creatures  to  plant  another  England 
in  America,  enriched  with  the  best  things  of  Europe; 
to  give  us  Fish,  Tobacco,  and  other  present  improvements 
as  earnest  of  future  better  hopes ;  and  that  in  these  times, 
which  have  so  manifold  necessities  thereof,  in  regard  of 
monies,  men,  and  trades  decayed,  in  regard  of  neighbour 



plantations,  in   the  probabilities  of  a  South-Sea  glory, 
and  in   the  case   of  obtruded   warre,   obtruding  on   us 
absolute  necessity,  and  including  and  concluding  every 
way  so  manifold  use.     God  the  Father,  Sonne  and  holy 
Ghost,  which  goe  before  us  in  these  things,  if  not  in 
miraculous  fire  and  cloudy  piUars,  (as  when  Israel  went  Ex.  13. 
to  Canaan)  yet  in  the  light  of  reason,  and  right  conse- 
quence of  arguments ;   come  into  us  and  fill  us  with  the 
spirit    of    wisedome    and    understanding,    the    spirit    of 
counsell  and  of  fortitude,  the  spirit  of  knowledge,  and  the 
feare  of  the  Lord  (I  may  adde  the  spirit  of  unity  and 
<:ounsell)  that  he  may  vouchsafe  to  goe  with  us,  and  we  Es.  11. 
with  him,  and  after  him  to  Virginia,  Amen, 
O  Amen.     Be  thou  the  Alpha  and 
Omega  of  Englands  Plantation 
in  Virginia  O  GOD. 

The  end  of  the  ninth  Booke. 



English  Discoveries 

and  Plantations  in  New  England  and  New-Found- 
land  ;  with  the  Patent  and  Voyages  to  New- 
Scotland  :  Relations  also  of  the  Fleets 
set  forth  by  Queene  Elizabeth 
against  the  Spaniards. 


[IV.  X. 


Chap.  I. 

A  briefe  Relation  of  the  Discoverie  and  Plantation 
of  New-England  :  and  of  sundry  Accidents 
therein  occurring,  from  the  yeere  of  our  Lord 
1607.  to  this  present  1622.  Published  by  the 
President  and  Councell,  and  dedicated  to  the 
Princes   Highnesse  here  abbreviated. 

Hen  this  Designe  was  first  attempted, 
some  of  the  present  Compjany  were 
therein  chiefly  interessed ;  who  being 
carefull  to  have  the  same  accomplished, 
did  send  to  the  discovery  of  those 
Northern  parts  a  brave  Gentleman,  Cap. 
Henry  Challons,  with  two  of  the  Natives  1.  Ca. 
of  that  Territorie,  the  one  called  Maneday,  the  other  Challons. 
Assecomet.  But  his  misfortunes  did  expose  him  to  the 
power  of  certaine  strangers,  enemies  to  his  proceedings, 



2.  Cap. 

Lord  Chiefe 

3.  Cap.  Pop- 
ham  55f  Cap. 

[IV.  X. 


Sir  John  Pop- 
hams  death. 

Captaine  Pop- 
hams  death. 


so  that  by  them,  his  Company  were  seized,  the  ships  and 
goods  confiscated,  and  that  Voyage  wholly  overthrowne. 

This  losse,  and  unfortunate  beginning,  did  much  abate 
the  rising  courage  of  the  first  Adventurers ;  but  immedi- 
ately upon  his  departure,  it  pleased  the  Noble  Lord  Chiefe 
Justice,  Sir  John  Popham  Knight,  to  send  out  another 
shippe,  wherein  Captayne  Thomas  Hanam  went  Com- 
mander, and  Martine  Prinne  of  Bristow  Master,  with  all 
necessary  supplyes,  for  the  seconding  of  Captayne  Challons 
and  his  people ;  who  arriving  at  the  place  appointed,  and 
not  finding  that  Captayne  there,  after  they  had  made  some 
Discoverie,  and  found  the  Coasts,  Havens,  and  Harbours 
answerable  to  our  desires,  they  returned.  Upon  whose 
Relation  the  Lord  Chiefe  Justice,  and  we  all  waxed  so 
confident  of  the  businesse,  that  the  yeere  following  every 
man  of  any  worth,  formerly  interessed  in  it,  was  willing 
to  joyne  in  the  charge  for  the  sending  over  a  competent 
number  of  people  to  lay  the  ground  of  a  hopefull 

Hereupon  Captaine  Popham,  Captaine  Rawley  Gilbert, 
and  others  were  sent  away  with  two  ships,  and  an  hundred 
Landmen,  Ordnance,  and  other  provisions  necessary  for 
their  sustentation  and  defence ;  untill  other  supply  might 
be  sent.  In  the  meane-while,  before  they  could  returne, 
it  pleased  God  to  take  us  from  this  worthy  member,  the 
Lord  Chiefe  Justice,  whose  sudden  death  did  so  astonish 
the  hearts  of  the  most  part  of  the  Adventurers,  as  some 
grew  cold,  and  some  did  wholly  abandon  the  businesse. 
Yet  Sir  Francis  Popham  his  Sonne,  certaine  of  his  private 
friends,  and  other  of  us,  omitted  not  the  next  yeere 
(holding  on  our  first  resolution)  to  joyne  in  sending  forth 
a  new  supply,  which  was  accordingly  performed. 

But  the  ships  arriving  there,  did  not  only  bring 
uncomfortable  newes  of  the  death  of  the  Lord  Chiefe 
Justice,  together  with  the  death  of  Sir  John  Gilbert,  the 
elder  Brother  unto  Captaine  Rawley  Gilbert,  who  at  that 
time  was  President  of  that  Councell :  But  found  that 
the  old  Captaine  Popham  was  also  dead ;    who  was  the 



onely  man  (indeed)  that  died  there  that  Winter,  wherein 
they  indured  the  greater  extremities;    for  that,   in   the 
depth  thereof,  their  Lodgings  and  stores  were  burnt,  and 
they  thereby  wondrously  distressed. 

This  calamitie  and  evill  newes,  together  with  the 
resolution  that  Captaine  Gilbert  was  forced  to  take  for 
his  owne  returne  (in  that  he  was  to  succeed  his  Brother, 
in  the  Inheritance  of  his  Lands  in  England)  made  the 
whole  Company  to  resolve  upon  nothing  but  their  returne  Death  of  the 
with  the  ships  ;  and  for  that  present  to  leave  that  Countrey  PI""'"'*"'- 
againe,  having  in  the  time  of  their  abode  there  (notwith- 
standing the  coldnesse  of  the  season,  and  the  small  helpe 
they  had)  built  a  prettie  Barke  of  their  owne,  which  served 
them  to  good  purpose,  as  easing  them  in  their  returning. 

The  arrivall  of  these  people  here  in  England,  was  a 
wonderfull  discouragement  to  all  the  first  undertakers, 
in  so  much  as  there  was  no  more  speech  of  setling  any 
other  Plantation  in  those  parts  for  a  long  time  after : 
only  Sir  Francis  Popham  having  the  ships  and  provision,  Sir  Fr. 
which  remayned  of  the  Company,  and  supplying  what  P'f'"'^- 
was  necessary  for  his  purpose,  sent  divers  times  to  the 
Coasts  for  Trade  and  fishing ;  of  whose  losse  or  gaines 
himselfe  is  best  able  to  give  account. 

Our  people  abandoning  the  Plantation  in  this  sort  as 
you  have  heard ;    the  Frenchmen  immediately  tooke  the  Frenchmen 
opportunitie  to  settle  themselves  within  our  limits  ;  which  ^      *'^^'- 
beeing  heard  of  by  those  of  Virginia,  that  discreetly  tooke 
to    their    consideration    the    inconveniences    that    might 
arise,  by  suffering  them  to  harbour  there,  they  dispatched 
Sir  Samuel  Argall,  with  Commission  to  displace  them.  Sir Sa.  A/gall. 
which  he  performed  with  much  discretion,  judgement, 
valour,  and  dexteritie.     For  having  seized  their  Forts, 
which  they  had  built  at  Mount  Mansell,  Saint  Croix,  and 
Port  Reall,   he  carried   away   their   Ordnance ;    he   also 
surprised  their  Ship,  Cattle,  and  other  Provisions,  which 
he  transported  to  the  Colonic  in  Virginia,  to  their  great 
benefit.     And  hereby  hee  hath  made  a  way  for  the  present 
hopefull  Plantation  to  be  made  in  Nova  Scotia,  which  Nova  Scotia. 




Cap.  Hobson 
imployed  tiiith 
Cap.  Herley, 
l^c.  161 1. 

Hunts  Savage 
hunting  of 


we  heare  his  Majestic  hath  lately  granted  to  Sir  William , 
Alexander  Knight,  one  of  his  Majesties  most  Honorable 
Councell  of  the  Kingdome  of  Scotland,  to  be  held  of 
the  said  Crowne,  and  that  not  without  some  of  our 
privities,  as  by  approbation  under  writing  may  and  doth 
appeare.  Whereby  it  is  manifest  that  wee  are  so  farre 
from  making  a  Monopoly  of  all  those  Lands  belonging 
to  that  Coast  (as  hath  beene  scandalously  by  some 
objected)  that  wee  wish  that  many  would  undertake  the 

In  this  Interim  there  were  of  us  who  apprehended 
better  hopes  of  good  that  might  ensue  by  this  attempt, 
being  thereunto  perswaded,  both  by  the  Relations  of  our 
people  that  had  indured  the  many  difficulties  whereunto 
such  actions  are  subjected,  chiefly  in  the  Winter  Season; 
and  likewise  by  the  informations  given  them  by  certaine 
of  the  Natives,  that  had  beene  kept  a  long  time  in  their 
hands ;  wherefore  we  resolved  once  more  to  trie  the 
veritie  thereof,  and  to  see  if  possibly  we  might  finde 
some  thing  that  might  induce  a  fresh  resolution  to 
prosecute  a  Worke  so  pious  and  so  honourable.  And 
thereupon  they  dispatched  Captayne  Hobson,  of  the  He 
of  Wight,  together  with  Captayne  Herley,  Master  John 
Matthew,  Master  Sturton,  with  two  Savages,  the  one 
called  Epenow,  the  other  Manawet,  with  Commission  and 
directions  fit  for  them  to  observe  and  follow,  the  better 
to  bring  to  passe  what  was  expected.  But  as  in  all 
humane  affaires,  there  is  nothing  more  certaine,  then  the 
uncertaintie  thereof;  so  fell  it  out  in  this;  for  a  little 
before  such  time  as  they  arrived  upon  the  Coast  with  the 
foresaid  Savages,  who  were  Naturals  of  those  parts,  it 
happened  there  had  beene  one  Hunt  (a  worthlesse  fellow 
of  our  Nation,  set  out  by  certaine  Merchants  for  love 
of  gaine,  who,  not  content  with  the  commoditie  he  had 
by  the  fish,  and  peaceable  Trade  he  found  among  the 
Savages,  after  he  had  made  his  dispatch,  and  was  ready 
to  set  sayle  more  Savage-like  then  they)  seized  upon  the 
poore  innocent  creatures,  that  in  confidence  of  his  honestie 




had  put  themselves  into  his  hands.  And  stowing  them 
under  Hatches,  to  the  number  of  twentie  foure,  carried 
them  into  the  Straits,  where  he  sought  to  sell  them  for 
slaves,  and  sold  as  many  as  he  could  get  mony  for.  But 
when  it  was  understood  from  whence  they  were  brought, 
the  Friers  of  those  parts  took  the  rest  from  them,  and  Friers 
kept  them  to  be  instructed  in  the  Christian  Faith ;  and  ''"'"*>'• 
so  disappointed  this  unworthy  fellow  of  the  hopes  of 
gaine  he  conceived  to  make  by  this  new  and  Devillish 

This   being   knowne   by  our   two   Savages,    formerly  Wicked  effects 
spoken    of,    they   presently   contracted    such   an    hatred  "f^*'^'^^"- 
against  our  whole  Nation,  as  they  immediately  studied 
how  to  be  revenged ;    and  contrived  with  their  friends 
the  best  meanes  to  bring  it  to  passe ;  but  Manawet  dying 
in  a  short  time  after  the  shippes  arrivall  there,  and  the 
other  observing  the  good  order,  and  strong  guard  our 
people  kept,  studied  only  how  to  free  himselfe  out  of  our  [IV.  x. 
hands,  and  thereupon  laid  the  plot  very  orderly,   and  '829.] 

indeed  effected  his  purpose,  although  with  so  great  hazard 
to  himselfe  and  friends,  that  laboured  his  rescue,  that 
Captayne  Hobson  and  his  whole  Company  imagined  hee 
had  beene  slaine.  And  though  in  the  recovery  of  his 
bodie  they  wounded  the  Master  of  our  ship,  and  divers 
other  of  our  Company,  yet  was  not  their  Designe  without 
the  slaughter  of  some  of  their  people,  and  the  hurts  of 
other,  compassed,  as  appeared  afterward. 

Hereupon  Captaine  Hobson  and  his  Company,  con- 
ceiving the  end  of  their  attempt  to  bee  frustrate,  resolved 
without  more  adoe  to  returne,  and  so  those  hopes,  that 
charge  and  Voyage  was  lost  also,  for  they  brought  home 
nothing  but  the  newes  of  their  evill  successe  of  the 
unfortunate  cause  thereof,  and  of  a  Warre  now  new 
begun  betweene  the  Inhabitants  of  those  parts,  and  us. 
A  miserable  comfort  for  so  weake  meanes  as  were  now 
left,  to  pursue  the  conclusion  of  so  tedious  an  Enterprise. 

While  this  was  a  working,  we  found  the  meanes  to 
send  out  Captaine  John  Smith  from  Plimmouth,  in  a  Cap.  J. Smith. 
XIX  273  s 


Cap.  Mason 
Governor  in 
New  found- 
land  Planta- 



ship,  together  with  Master  Dermer,  and  divers  others 
with  him,  to  lay  the  foundation  of  a  new  Plantation,  and 
to  try  the  fishing  of  that  Coast,  and  to  seeke  to  settle  a 
Trade  with  the  Natives:  But  such  was  his  misfortune, 
as  being  scarce  free  of  our  owne  Coast,  he  had  his  Masts 
shaken  over-boord  by  stormes  and  tempests,  his  ship 
wonderfully  distressed,  and  in  that  extremitie  forced  to 
come  backe  againe ;  so  as  the  season  of  the  yeere  being 
almost  spent,  wee  were  of  necessitie  enforced  to  furnish 
him  with  another  ship,  and  taking  out  the  provision  of 
the  first,  dispatched  him  away  againe,  who  comming  to 
the  height  of  the  Westerne  Hands,  was  chased  by  a  French 
Pirate,  and  by  him  made  Prisoner,  although  his  ship  in 
the  night  escaped  away,  and  returned  with  the  losse  of 
much  of  her  provision,  and  the  overthrow  of  that  Voyage, 
to  the  ruine  of  that  poore  Gentleman  Captayne  Smith, 
who  was  detayned  Prisoner  by  them,  and  forced  to  suffer 
many  extremities,  before  he  got  free  of  his  troubles. 

Notwithstanding  these  Disasters,  it  pleased  God  so  to 
worke  for  our  incouragement  againe,  as  he  sent  into  our 
hands  Tasquantum,  one  of  those  Savages  thati  formerly 
had  beene  betrayed  by  this  unworthy  Hunt  before  named, 
by  whose  means  there  was  hope  conceived  to  worke  a 
peace  betweene  us,  and  his  friends^  they  beeing  the 
principall  Inhabitants  of  that  Coast,  where  the  fire  was 
kindled.  But  this  Savage  Tasquantum,  being  at  that 
time  in  the  New-found-land  with  Captaine  Mason,  Gover- 
nour  there  for  the  undertakers  of  that  Plantation  :  Master 
Darmer  (who  was  there  also,  and  sometimes  before 
imployed  as  wee  have  said  by  us,  together  with  Captayne 
John  Smith)  found  the  meanes  to  give  us  intelligence  of 
him,  and  his  opinion  of  the  good  use  that  might  bee 
made  of  his  Employment,  with  the  readinesse  of  Captayne 
Mason,  to  further  any  of  our  Attempts  that  way,  eyther 
with  Boates  or  other  provision  necessarie,  and  resolving 
himselfe  to  goe  from  thence,  advised  us  to  send  some  to 
meete  with  him  at  our  usuall  place  of  fishing ;  to  ayde 
him  in  his  indevour,  that  they  joyning  together,  might 



bee  able  to  doe  what  he  hoped  would  be  very  acceptable 
unto  all  wel-wishers  of  that  businesse.  Upon  this  newes, 
we  dispatched  the  next  season  Cap.  Rocraft,  with  a  Cap.  Rocraft. 
company  for  that  purpose,  in  hope  to  have  met  with 
Captaine  Darmer;  but  the  care  and  discretion  of  Cap. 
Mason  was  such,  finding  Captayne  Darmers  resolution 
to  goe  beyond  his  meanes,  that  he  perswaded  him  first 
to  go  for  England,  that  providing  himselfe  there,  as  was 
requisite,  hee  might  proceed  in  time  expedient,  which 
counsell  he  observed  (as  fit  it  was)  although  our  expecta- 
tion of  his  joyning  with  Captaine  Rocraft  was  thereby 
disappointed.  Yet  so  it  happened,  that  Captaine  Rocraft 
at  his  arrivall  in  those  parts,  met  with  a  French  Barke 
that  lay  in  a  Creeke  a  fishing,  and  trading,  which  hee 
seized  on,  and  sent  home  the  Master  and  Company  in  French  seized. 
the  same  ship  which  hee  went  out  in. 

With  this  Barke  and  his  owne  Company,  he  meant  to 
keepe  the  Coast  that  Winter  quarter,  being  very  well 
fitted  both  with  Salt,  and  other  necessaries  for  his  turne : 
but  as  this  was  an  Act  of  extremitie  (the  poore  man  being 
of  our  owne  Religion)  so  succeeded  it  accordingly.  For 
in  a  short  time  after,  certaine  of  this  Captaynes  Company, 
conspired  together  to  cut  his  throate,  and  to  make  them- 
selves Masters  of  the  whole  spoyle,  and  so  to  seeke  a 
new  Fortune  where  they  could  best  make  it.  This 
Conspiracie  being  discovered  to  the  Captayne,  he  let  it  Compirade. 
go  on,  till  the  time  that  it  should  have  beene  put  in 
execution,  when  hee  caught  them  in  their  owne  traine, 
and  so  apprehended  them  in  the  very  instant  that  they 
were  purposed  to  begin  their  Massacre. 

But  after  hee  had  prevented  the  mischiefe,  and  seized 
upon  the  Malefactors,  hee  tooke  to  his  consideration 
what  was  best  to  bee  done  with  them.  And  being  loth 
by  himselfe  to  dispatch  them  as  they  deserved,  hee 
resolved  to  put  them  a  shoare,  thinking  by  their  hazard, 
that  it  was  possible  they  might  discover  something,  that 
might  advance  the  publike ;  and  so  giving  them  some 
Armes   for    their  defence,   and   some  victuall   for  their 






[IV.  X. 


sustentation,  untill  they  knew  better  how  to  provide  for 
themselves,  hee  left  them  a  place  called  Sawaguatoek,, 
where  they  remayned  not  long,  but  got  from  thence  to 
Menehighon,  an  Hand  lying  some  three  leagues  in  the 
Sea,  and  fifteene  leagues  from  that  place,  where  they 
remayned  all  that  Winter,  with  bad  lodging,  and  worse 
fare,  yet  came  all  safe  home  save  one  sickely  man,  which 
dyed  there,  the  rest  returned  with  the  Shippe  wee  sent 
for  Rocrafts  supply  and  provision,  to  make  a  Fishing 

After  these  fellowes  were  landed,  the  Captaine  finding 
himselfe  but  weakely  man'd,  and  his  Ship  to  draw  too 
much  water  to  Coast  those  places,  that  by  his  instructions 
hee  was  assigned  to  discover,  hee  resolved  to  goe  for 
Virginia,  where  he  had  lived  a  long  time  before,  and  had 
(as  hee  conceived)  many  friends,  that  would  helpe  him 
with  some  things  that  hee  had  occasion  to  use.  Arriving 
there,  he  was  not  deceived  of  his  expectation ;  for  Sir 
Samuel  Argall  being  their  Governour,  and  one  that 
respected  him  much  for  his  owne  sake  was  the  readier 
to  helpe  him,  in  regard  of  the  good  hee  wished  to  the 
businesse  wherein  he  was  imployed. 

But  all  this  could  not  prevaile,  for  after  that  Sir  Samuel 
Argall  came  from  thence  (his  departure,  being  more 
sudden  then  was  expected)  it  fell  out  that  the  new 
Governour  entred  the  Harbour :  and  finding  Rocraft 
ready  to  bee  gone,  sent  to  him  to  command  him  to  come 
aboord  to  speake  with  him,  which  hee  readily  obeyed,  as 
soone  as  hee  could  fit  his  boat  and  men  for  that  purpose. 
And  so  leaving  his  Barke  with  her  great  Anker  at  head, 
and  taking  with  him  the  halfe  of  ms  company,  he  was 
forced  to  stay  aboard  the  new  Governors  Ship  that  night. 
In  the  meane  while  a  storme  arising,  our  Barke  wanting 
hands  to  doe  their  labour,  drove  a  shoare,  and  there 
Barke  sunke.  sunke.  But  yet  the  Governour  and  Captaine  so  laboured 
the  next  day,  when  they  knew  thereof,  as  that  they  freed 
her  againe,  but  that  occasion  forced  our  Captain  to  stay 
so  long  in  the  Countrey  to  fit  himselfe  a  new,  as  in  the 



interim  a  quarrell  fell  out  betweene  him  and  another  of 
that  place ;   so  as  Rocraft  was  slaine,  and  the  Barke  sunke  Rocraft  slaine. 
the  second  time,  and  finally  disabled  from  yeelding  us 
any  benefit  to  this  present. 

But  we  not  knowing  this  disaster,  and  Captain  Darmer  (^"h  Darmers 
arriving  with  his  Savage  out  of  New-found  land,  dis-  ^''"'•*'- 
patched  him  away  the  next  season,  in  a  Ship  wee  sent 
againe  for  the  fishing  businesse,  and  assigned  him  a 
company  to  joyne  with  Rocraft  and  his  people.  Captain 
Darmer  arriving  there,  and  not  finding  Rocraft,  was  a 
little  perplexed,  and  in  doubt  what  to  doe :  yet  hearing 
by  those  Mutiners  which  hee  found  there,  that  hee  was 
gone  for  Virginia ;  he  was  hopefull  of  his  returne ;  and 
lived  in  that  expectation,  till  such  time  as  he  heard  (by 
a  Ship  that  came  from  thence  to  fish  for  the  Colony)  the 
confusion  of  his  fortune,  and  the  end  of  his  misery  in 
this  world.  Then  hee  determined  to  take  the  Pinnace, 
that  the  yeere  before  was  assigned  to  Rocraft,  for  him  to 
make  the  Trade  with,  and  with  her  to  proceed  on  his 
designe,  and  so  embarked  himselfe  and  his  provision  and 
company  in  her.  And  leaving  the  Fisher-men  to  their 
labour,  he  coasted  the  shoare  from  thence,  searching  every 
Harbour,  and  compassing  every  Cape-land,  till  hee  arrived 
in  Virginia ;  where  hee  was  in  hope  to  meet  with  some 
of  the  provision,  or  company  of  Rocraft,  to  help  to  supply 
him  or  what  hee  wanted ;  as  also  to  lay  a  Decke  upon  Neeessitie  of  a 
his  Pinnace,  that  before  had  not  any,  and  now  was  taught  ^f^^  '" 
by  experience  the  neeessitie  of  having  that  defect  supplied.  J"^"^"'jf 

But  those  hopes  failed  him  (all  being  before  that  time 
ruined  and  dispersed)  so  farre,  as  he  saw  it  in  vaine  to 
hope  for  helpe  by  that  meanes,  and  therefore  attempted 
to  make  the  best  of  what  hee  had  of  his  owne.  And 
going  to  set  his  men  a  worke,  they  all  in  few  dayes  after 
their  arrivall,  fell  sicke  of  a  disease  which  hapned  at  that 
time  in  the  Countrey,  so  as  now  he  was  not  onely  forced 
to  be  without  hope  of  their  helping  of  him,  but  must 
labour  himselfe  all  hee  could  to  attend  and  sustaine  them ; 
but  so  God  favoured  him,  that  they  recovered,  and  in 




time  convenient  he  dispatched  his  businesse  there,  and 
put  himselfe  to  Sea  againe,  resolving  to  accomplish  in 
his  journey  backe  to  New-England,  what  in  his  last 
Discovery  he  had  omitted.  In  his  passage  he  met  with 
Hollanders  in  certaine  Hollanders,  who  had  a  trade  in  Hudsons  River 
Hudson!  some    yeeres    before    that    time,    with    whom    he    had 

'^^'''  conference  about  the  state  of  that  coast,  and  their  pro- 

ceedings with  those  people :    whose  answere  gave  him 
good  content.     Hee  betooke  himselfe  to  the  following  of 
Dormers  dis-    his    businesse,    discovering    many    goodly    Rivers,    and 
covertes.  exceeding  pleasant  and  fruitfiill  Coasts  and  Hands,  for 

the  space  of  eightie  leagues  from  East  to  West,  for  so 
that  Coast  doth  range  along,  from  Hudsons  River  to 
Cape  James. 

Now  after  wee  had  found  by  Captaine  Rocrafts  relation 
made  the  yeere  before,  the  hopes  hee  conceived  of  the 
benefits  that  Coast  would  afford,  towards  the  upholding 
of  the  charge  for  setling  our  Plantation,  by  reason  of 
the  commodities  arising  by  Fishing  and  Furres,  if  a  course 
might  bee  taken  for  the  managing  of  that  businesse,  as 
was  fit  for  such  a  designe ;  as  well  as  for  the  advancement 
of  the  publike  good  of  our  whole  Nation,  and  satisfaction 
of  every  well  disposed  person  that  had  a  will  to  be 
interressed  therein.  It  was  held  to  be  most  convenient 
l^evi  Patent  to  Strengthen  our  selves  by  a  new  Grant  to  bee  obtained 
thought  on.  fj-oj^  jjjg  Royal  Majesty :  the  rather,  finding  that  those  of 
Virginia  had  by  two  severall  Patents  setled  their  bounds, 
and  excluded  all  from  intermedling  with  them  that  were 
not  free  of  their  Company ;  and  had  wholly  altered  the 
forme  of  their  Government,  from  the  first  ground  layed 
for  the  managing  the  affaires  of  both  Colonies,  leaving 
us  as  desperate,  and  our  businesse  as  abandoned.  These 
considerations  (as  is  said)  together  with  the  necessitie  of 
setling  our  affaires,  bounds  and  limits,  distinct  from  theirs, 
made  us  resolve  to  petition  his  Majestie  for  the  renewing 
of  our  Grant.  By  which  time  the  rumour  of  our  hopes 
was  so  publikely  spread  abroad,  and  the  commodities  of 
the  Fish  and  Trade  so  looked  into,  as  it  was  desired  that 



all  that  Coast  might  bee  made  free,  as  well  to  those  of 
Virginia,  as  to  us  to  make  their  commoditie :  How  just 
or  unjust  that  motion  was,  wee  will  not  argue,  seeing  the 
businesse  is  ended.  By  this  meanes  our  proceedings  were 
interrupted,  and  wee  questioned  about  it ;  first,  by  the 
Counsel]  of  Virginia,  whom  wee  thought  to  have  beene 
fully  satisfied  therein,  before  wee  could  have  way  given 
us  for  a  new  Patent,  both  parties  having  beene  heard 
by  certaine  of  the  Lords  of  the  Councell ;  and  the  [IV.  x. 
businesse  by  them  so  ordered,  as  wee  were  directed  to  '831.] 

proceed  and  to  have  our  Grant  agreeable  to  the  libertie 
of  the  Virginia  Company,  the  frame  of  our  government 
excepted ;  but  this  order  not  being  liked  of,  it  was  againe 
heard  and  concluded.  Lastly,  the  Patent  being  past  the 
Seale,  it  was  stopt  upon  new  suggestions  to  the  King, 
and  by  his  Majesty  referred  to  the  Councel  to  be  setled, 
by  whom  the  former  Orders  were  confirmed,  the  difference 
cleered,  and  we  ordered  to  have  our  Patent  delivered  us. 
These  disputes  held  us  almost  two  yeeres,  so  as  all  men 
were  afraid  to  joyne  with  us,  and  we  thereby  left  hopelesse 
of  any  thing  more,  than  that  which  our  owne  fortunes 
would  yeeld  to  advance  our  proceedings,  in  which  time 
so  many  accidents  hapned  unto  us  at  home  and  abroad, 
that  wee  were  faine  to  give  order  by  the  Ships  wee  sent 
a  fishing,  for  the  retiring  of  Master  Darmer  and  his 
people,  untill  all  things  were  cleered,  and  wee  better 
provided  of  meanes  to  goe  through  with  our  designe : 
But  this  worthy  Gentleman  confident  of  the  good  likely 
to  ensue,  and  resolutely  resolving  to  pursue  the  ends 
he  aymed  at,  could  not  be  perswaded  to  looke  backe,  as 
yet ;  and  so  refusing  to  accept  our  offer,  began  againe 
to  prosecute  his  Discovery,  wherein  he  was  betrayed  by  Dermer 
certaine  new  Savages,  who  sodainly  set  upon  him,  giving  betraied  by 
him  fourteene  or  fifteene  wounds ;  but  by  his  valour  and  j^J'^f^'^^/^ 
dexteritie  of  spirit  hee  freed  himselfe  out  of  their  hands,  /^^^^^  f^  „g_ 
yet  was  constrained  to  retire  into  Virginia  againe  the 
second  time,  for  the  cure  of  his  wounds,  where  he  fell 
sicke  of  the  infirmities  of  that  place,  and  thereof  dyed :    His  death. 




so  ended  this  worthy  Gentleman  his  dayes,  after  he  had 

remained  in  the  discovery  of  that  Coast  two  yeeres,  giving 

us  good  content  in  all  hee  undertooke;    and  after  hee 

had  made  the  peace  betweene  us  and  the  Savages,  that 

so  much  abhorred  our  Nation  for  the  wrongs  done  them 

by  others,  as  you  have  heard :    but  the  fruit  of  his  labour 

in  that  behalfe  wee  as  yet  receive  to  our  great  commoditie. 

Peaceable        who  have  a  peaceable  Plantation  at  this  present  among 

Plantation  iy  them,  where  our  people  both  prosper  and  live  in  good 

its  manes.       liking,  and  assurednesse  of  their  neighbours,  that  had 

beene  formerly  so  much  exasperated  against  us,  as  will 

more  at  large  appeare  hereafter. 

But  having  passed  all  these  storms  abroad,  and  under- 
gone  so   many   home-bred   oppositions,    and   freed   our 
Patent,  which  wee  were  by  order  of  State  assigned  to 
Patent  renew,    for    the    amendment    of    some    defects    therein 

renewed.  contained,  wee  were  assured  of  this  ground  more  boldly 
to  proceed  on  than  before ;  and  therefore  wee  tooke 
first  to  consideration,  how  to  raise  the  meanes  to  advance 
the  Plantation.  In  the  examination  thereof,  two  wayes 
did  first  offer  themselves :  The  one  was  the  voluntary 
contribution  of  the  Patentees ;  The  other,  by  an  easie 
ransoming  of  the  freedomes  of  those  that  had  a  will  to 
partake  only  of  the  present  profits  arising  by  the  Trade 
and  Fishing  upon  the  Coast.  The  first  was  to  proceed 
from  those  Noble-men,  and  others  that  were  Patentees, 
and  they  agreed  by  order  among  themselves  to  disburse 
a  hundred  pounds  a  piece,  for  the  advancement  of  such 
necessary  businesse  as  they  had  in  hand.  The  second 
was  to  bee  accomplished  by  setling  such  liberties  and 
orders  in  the  Westerne  Cities  and  Townes,  as  might 
induce  every  reasonable  man,  in,  and  about  them, 
affecting  the  publike  good,  or  a  regular  proceeding  in 
the  businesse  of  Trade,  to  embrace  an  uniformitie,  and 
to  joyne  a  communitie  or  joynt  stock  together,  &c. 



BUt  this  Countrey,  what  by  the  general!  and  particular 
situation  is  so  temperate,  as  it  seemeth  to  hold  the 
golden  meane,  and  indeed  is  most  agreeable  to  the  nature 
of  our  owne,  which  is  made  manifest  by  experience,  the 
most  infallible  proofe  of  all  assertions ;  insomuch  as  our 
people  that  are  setled,  enjoy  their  life  and  health  much 
more  happily  then  in  other  places ;  which  can  be  imputed 
to  no  other  cause,  then  to  the  temperature  of  the  Climate  : 
Now  as  the  Clime  is  found  to  be  so  temperate,  so  delicate 
and  healthfiall,  both  by  reason  and  experience;  such  is 
the  soile  also,  some  parts  thereof  yeelding  wonderfiill 
increase,  both  of  Corne,  the  Natives  have  most  use  of ; 
as  also  of  our  owne,  of  all  sorts :  with  infinite  varietie 
of  nourishing  Rootes,  and  other  Hearbs  and  Fruits 
common  among  them,  but  rare  with  us.  Besides,  the 
Coast  doth  abound  with  most  convenient  Havens  and 
Harbors,  full  of  singular  Hands  fit  for  Plantation ; 
replenished  with  Plants  and  Wood  of  all  sorts ;  as  Cake, 
Cedars,  Spruce,  Fir,  Pyne,  Walnut,  Chestnut,  Elme, 
Sassafras,  Plum-trees,  and  Calamus  Aromaticus,  &c. 

The  people  are  tractable  (if  they  be  not  abused)  to 
commerce  and  Trade  withall,  and  as  yet  have  good  respect 
of  us.  The  Seas  are  stored  with  all  kindes  of  excellent 
Fish,  and  in  many  places  upon  the  Coast,  fit  to  make 
Salt  in.  The  Countrey  aboundeth  with  diversitie  of 
wilde  Fowle,  as  Turkies,  Partridges,  Swans,  Cranes,  wild 
Geese  of  al  sorts,  wild  Ducks  of  three  sorts,  many  Doves, 
especially  when  Strawberries  are  ripe. 

There  are  severall  sorts  of  Deere  in  those  parts,  and 
some  that  bring  forth  two,  three,  and  foure  young  at 
once,  which  is  a  manifest  proofe  of  the  fertilitie  of  the 
Soile,  or  temper  of  the  Clime,  or  both  together.  There 
is  also  a  certaine  Beast,  that  the  Natives  call  a  Mosse, 
hee  is  as  big  bodied  as  an  Oxe,  headed  like  a  fallow 
Deere,  with  a  broad  Palme,  which  hee  mues  every  yeere, 
as  doth  the  Deere,  and  neck  like  a  Red  Deere,  with  a 
short  Mane  running  downe  along  the  Ranes  of  his  back, 
his  haire  long  like  an  Elke,  but  esteemed  to  be  better 




Fertile  Soile. 




The  Mosse  a 
strange  beast 


[IV.  X. 



How  they  take 
the  Mosse  or 


Severall  Plan- 
tations along 
the  Coast. 


then  that  for  Sadlers  use,  he  hath  likewise  a  great  bunch 
hanging  downe  under  his  throat,  and  is  of  the  colour 
of  our  blacker  sort  of  fallow  Deere,  his  legs  are  long,  and 
his  feet  as  big  as  the  feet  of  our  Oxen,  his  taile  is  longer 
then  the  Single  of  a  Deere,  and  reacheth  almost  downe 
to  his  Huxens,  his  skinne  maketh  very  good  Buffe,  and 
his  flesh  is  excellent  good  food,  which  the  Natives  use 
to  Jerkin  and  keepe  all  the  yeere  to  serve  their  turne, 
and  so  proves  very  serviceable  for  their  use.  There  have 
beene  many  of  them  scene  in  a  great  Hand  upon  the 
Coast,  called  by  our  people  Mount  Mansell,  whither  the 
Savages  goe  at  certaine  seasons  to  hunt  them  ;  the  manner 
whereof  is  by  making  of  severall  fires,  and  setting  the 
Countrey  with  people,  to  force  them  into  the  Sea,  to 
which  they  are  naturally  addicted,  and  then  there  are 
others  that  attend  them  in  their  Boates  with  Bowes  and 
weapons  of  severall  kindes,  wherewith  they  slay  and  take 
at  their  pleasure.  And  there  is  hope  that  this  kind  of 
Beasts  may  be  made  serviceable  for  ordinary  labour,  with 
Art  and  Industry. 

The  knowne  Commodities  of  that  Countrey  are  Fish 
of  severall  sorts,  rich  Furres,  as  Beavers,  Otters,  Martins, 
blacke  Fox,  Sables,  &c.  There  are  likewise  plentie  of 
Vines,  of  three  kinds,  and  those  pleasant  to  the  taste, 
yet  some  better  then  other.  There  is  Hempe,  Flax, 
Silkgrasse,  severall  veines  of  Ironstone,  commodities  to 
make  Pitch,  Rosen,  Tarre ;  Deale-boords  of  all  sorts, 
Spars,  Masts,  for  Ships  of  all  burdens ;  in  a  word,  there 
comes  no  commoditie  out  of  France,  Germany,  or  the 
Sound,  but  may  be  had  there  with  reasonable  labour  and 

Further,  wee  have  setled  at  this  present  severall 
Plantations  along  the  Coast,  and  have  granted  Patents 
to  many  more  that  are  in  preparation  to  bee  gone  with 
all  conveniencie.  Those  of  our  people  that  are  there 
have  both  health  and  plenty,  so  as  they  acknowledge  there 
is  no  want  of  any  thing,  but  of  industrious  people,  to 
reape  the  commodities  that  are  there  to  be  had,  and  they 



are  indeed  so  much  affected  to  the  place,  as  they  are  loth 
to  bee  drawne  from  thence,  although  they  were  directed 
to  returne  to  give  satisfaction  to  those  that  sent  them, 
but  chose  rather  to  performe  that  office  by  Letters, 
together  with  there  excuse  for  breach  of  their  duty  in 
that  behalfe.  And  thus  you  see  there  is  no  labour  well 
imployed,  but  hath  his  reward  at  one  time  or  other. 
These  incouragements  have  imboldned  us  to  proceed  to 
the  ingaging  of  our  selves  for  the  building  of  some  Ships 
of  good  burden,  and  extraordinary  mould,  to  lie  upon 
the  Coast  for  the  defence  of  Merchants  and  Fishermen 
that  are  imployed  there,  as  also  to  Waft  the  Fleets,  as 
they  goe  to  and  from  their  Markets :  and  wee  purpose 
from  henceforth  to  build  our  shipping  there,  where  we^ 
find  all  commodities  fit  for  that  service,  together  with 
the  most  opportune  places  that  can  bee  desired. 

Lastly,  finding  that  we  have  so  far  forth  prevailed,  as 
to  wind  our  selves  into  familiaritie  with  the  Natives 
(which  are  in  no  great  number)  along  the  Coast,  for  two 
hundred  Leagues  together,  wee  have  now  dispatched  some 
of  our  people  of  purpose,  to  dyve  into  the  bowels  of  the 
Continent,  there  to  search  and  finde  out  what  Port,  or 
Place,  is  most  convenient  to  settle  our  mayne  Plantation 
in,  where  wee  meane  to  make  the  Residencie  of  our  State 
and  Government,  as  also  to  bee  assured  what  other  com- 
modities may  bee  raysed  for  the  publike,  and  private 
benefit  of  those  that  are  dealers  in  that  businesse,  and 
willing  to  bee  interessed  in  any  the  Lands  there  :  "Whither 
is  gone  this  yeere  already,  for  Trade  and  Fishing  onely, 
thirtie  Saile  of  the  better  sort  of  Ships  belonging  to  the  Thirtie  saile. 
Westerne  parts,  besides  those  who  are  gone  for  transpor-  '^^^• 
tation  of  the  Planters,  or  supply  of  such  as  are  already 
planted,  whose  returne  (as  is  supposed)  will  amount  (at 
the  least)  to  thirty  thousand  pound,  the  greater  part 
whereof  comes  home  in  Bullion.  And  therefore  as 
touching  the  third  happinesse  of  these  parts,  which  is 
the  Sea,  there  needeth  no  other  greater  commendation, 
then  this  benefit  of  Fishing  assured  unto  us  by  common 







Experience;  although  it  affords  many  other  hopes,  both 
in  regard  of  the  facnitie  of  the  Navigation,  the  boldnesse 
of  the  Coast,  the  conveniencie  of  Roades,  Havens  and 
Harbors,  for  performance  of  all  manner  of  imployments ; 
yet  is  there  also  found  Showes  of  Pearle,  Ambergreece, 
great  numbers  of  Whales,  and  other  merchantable  meanes 
to  raise  profit  to  the  industrious  Inhabitants  or  diligent 

Chap.  II. 

The  Voyage  of  M.  Henry  Challons  intended  for 
the  North  Plantation  of  Virginia,  1606.  taken 
by  the  way,  and  ill  used  by  Spaniards :  written 
by  John  Stoneman  Pilot. 

N  Tuesday  the  twelfth  of  August,  1606. 
M.  Henry  Challons  Gentleman  set  forth 
from  Plimouth,  in  our  small  Ship  of  the 
burthen  of  fiftie  five  Tunnes  or  there- 
about, called  the  Richard  of  Plimouth. 
Wherein  went  twentie  nine  Englishmen, 
and  two  of  the  five  Savages  (whose  names 
were  Mannido  and  Assacomoit)  which  were  brought  into 
England  the  yeere  before  out  of  the  North  parts  of 
Virginia,  from  our  goodly  River  by  him  thrice  discovered, 
called  in  the  Latitude  of  43.  degrees,  20.  minutes 

were  imployed  for  a  farther  discovery  of  these  Coasts : 
And  if  any  good  occasion  were  offered,  to  leave  as  many 
men  as  wee  could  spare  in  the  Country.  Being  victualled 
for  eleven  or  twelve  moneths,  at  the  charges  of  the 
Honourable  Sir  John  Popham  Knight,  Lord  chiefe  Justice 
of  England,  Sir  Fardinando  Gorges  Knight,  Captaine  of 
the  Fort  of  Plimouth,  together  with  divers  other  worship- 
full  Knights,  Gentlemen  and  Merchants  of  the  West 
Countrye :  John  Stoneman  of  Plimouth  being  Pilot,  who 
had  beene  in  the  foresaid  parts  of  Virginia  the  yeere 
before,  with  George  Waymouth  :  The  Masters  name  was 
Nicholas  Hine  of  Cockington,  neere  Dartmouth ; 




The  last  day  of  August  wee  fell  with  the  He  of  Madera,  Ma<^era. 
where  we  watered  and  refreshed  our  selves,  and  stayed 
three  dayes,  being  very  kindly  used  by  the  Inhabitants. 
The  third  day  of  September  wee  departed  from  thence, 
passing  betweene  Gomora  and  Palma,  two  of  the  Canary 
lies,  and  from  thence  were  driven  by  contrary  winds,  to 
take  a  more  Southerly  course  then  we  intended,  and  so 
spent  more  then  sixe  weekes  before  wee  could  recover 
any  of  the  Ant-Iles.     The  first  that  wee  could  recover, 
was  the  He  of  Saint  Lucia,  in  the  Latitude  of  14.  degrees.  Saint  Lucia. 
20.  minutes,  where  we  refreshed  our  selves  with  Wood 
and  Water.     And  saw  certaine  of  the   Savages  there, 
about  fortie  or  fiftie,  came  unto  us  at  our  Ship  in  one 
of  their  Cannoas,  bringing  unto  us  Tobacco,  Potatos, 
Plantins,  and  Cassavi  Bread,  the  which  Savages  had  slaine 
more  then  fortie  of  our  Nation,  the  yeere  before,  1605.  F'rtif  English 
as  after  wee  understood  by  Philip  Glasco,  and  Miles  Pett,  '^''""  h 
being  two  of  Captaine  Nicholas  Saint  Johns  company,   i^of'^eethe 
which  was  there  treacherously  slaine  among  the  rest.         stone,sup. 

Having  stayed  heare  three  dayes,  about  the  two  and  pog.  1255. 
twentieth  of  October  we  departed  thence  to  the  North- 
ward.     And  in  passing  by  the  He  of  Dominica,   wee  Dominica. 
chanced  to  see  a  white  Flag  put  forth  on  the  shoare, 
whereat  marvelling,  wee  supposed  that  some  Christians 
had  sustained  shipwrack  their.     And  forthwith  a  Cannoa 
came  ofi^  from  the  shoare  towards  us,  which  when  they 
came  neere,  being  very  little  wind,  we  layed  our  Ship 
by  the  lee  and  stayed  for  them  a  little,  and  when  they 
were  come  within  a  little  distance  of  the  Ship,  wee  per- 
ceived in  the  Cannoa  a  Friar,  who  cried  aloud  in  the  Fr'tar  Blascui 
Latine  tongue,  saying,  I  beseech,  as  you  are  Christians,       request. 
for  Christ  nis  sake  to  shew  some  mercy  and  compassion 
on  mee,  I  am  a  Preacher  of  the  Word  of  God,  a  Friar 
of  the  Order  of  Franclscus   in   Sivill,   by   name  Friar 
Blasius.     And  that  hee  had  beene  there  sixteene  moneths 
a  Slave  unto  those  Savages;    and  that  other  two  Friars 
which   were   of   his  company   they   had   murthered   and 
thro^ne  into  the  Sea,     We  demanded  of  him  then,  how 




he  got  so  much  favour  to  preserve  his  life,  his  Brethren 
being  murthered :  Hee  answered,  because  hee  did  shew 
the  Savages  how  to  fit  them  Sayles  for  their  Cannoas,  and 
so  to  ease  them  of  much  labour  often  in  rowing,  which 
greatly  pleased  the  Savages  as  appeared,  for  wee  saw  them 
to  use  sayles  in  their  Cannoas,  which  hath  not  beene 
seene  before. 

Then  we  demanded  of  him  where  they  had  this  Linnen 

Cloth  to  make  those  Sayles :    hee  answered.  That  about 

Three  gallims  two  yeeres  before  that,  three  Gallions  comming  to  the 

^°c  %  I  West  Indies  were  cast  away  on  the  He  of  Gwadalopa, 

^P"-      where  abundance  of  Linnen  Cloth  and  other  Merchandise 

was  cast  on  shoare.     We  demanded  farther,  what  was 

the  cause  of  his  being  in  this  place,  and  how  he  came 

thither :    he  answered,  That  the  King  of  Spaine  did  every 

yeere,  send  out  of  every  great  Monastery  certaine  Friars 

Causes  of        into  the  remote  parts  or   the  Indies,  both  to  seeke  to 

yeerly  sending  convert  the  Savages,  as  also  to  seeke  out  what  benefits 

of  Spaine  "     °^  commodities  might  be  had  in  those  parts,  and  also  of 

what  force  the  Savages  were  of,  and  what  number  of 

them   were   in   the  seven   Ant-Iles,   viz.    Saint   Vincent 

Granado,  Saint  Lucia,  Mattalina,  Dominica,  Gwadalopa, 

Aisey.     The  which  the  said  Friar  Blaseus  said  he  had 

diligently  noted  and  observed,  and  did  hope  to  make 

perfect  relation  of  such  great  benefits  and  riches  as  was 

to  be  drawne  from  thence,  as  he  doubted  not  but  would 

bee  greatly  accepted  of  his  King,  if  hee  might  live  to 

returne  to  declare  it :    For,  said  hee,  I  have  seene  in  one 

River  discending  from  the   Mountaines  in   the   lie  of 

Gold  in  Dominica,  the  Sand  to  glitter  like  Gold  or  find  Copper, 

Domimca.        whereupon  I  tooke  some  of  it,  and  chewed  it  betweene 

my  teeth,  and  found  it  perfect  Mettall,  the  Savages  noting 

me,  began  to  have  some  jealousie  of  me,  so  as  I  durst 

not  take  any  farther  notice  of  it,  neither  would  they  suffer 

him  forward  to  come  neere  to  that  place.     And  farther 

hee  said.  That  if  the  great  plentie  of  divers  Fruits  and 

Roots  fit  for  mans  sustenance  were  perfectly  knowne, 

together  with  the  Sugar-canes  that  they  have  in  those 



lies,  and  the  fertilitie  of  the  soyle  he  thought  it  would 
be  very  shortly  inhabited;  and  as  for  the  number  of 
Savages  there,  as  neere  as  we  could  understand,  was  scarce 
one  thousand  of  all  sorts  of  men,  women,  and  children 
in  all  the  said  seven  lies. 

Now,  being  moved  with  pittie  at  the  lamentable  com- 
plaint, and  humble  suit  of  this  distressed  Friar,  wee  tooke 
him  into  our  Ship,  and  sent  away  the  Savages  much 
discontented.     And  from  thence  wee  sayled  to  the  He  of 
Saint  John  De-port-rico,  where  on  the  nine  and  twentieth 
of  October,  wee  arrived  on  the  Southside,  and  forthwith 
sent  the  Friar  on  shoare,  and  delivered  him  to  two  Heards-  They  land  the 
men,  which  most  thankfully  received  him,  and  of  their  ^'/'"' ""  ^'"'' 
courtesie  brought  us  a  fat  Cow,  and  proferred  us  more     ""' 
with  Hogs,  Calves,  or  any  thing  else  that  they  could 
procure  us  in  recompence  of  the  good  deed  done  to  the 

Wee  departed  from  thence,  and  sayled  out  betweene 
the    lies    of    Saint    John    De-portrico,    and    Hispaniola  [IV.  x. 
standing  away  to  the  Northward.     And  leaving  the  great  '834-] 

shoalds  called  Abriolo,  on  our  Larboord  side,  being  in 
the  Latitude  of  21.  and  22.  degrees,  from  thence  West- 
ward, our  course  North  North-west,  and  North-west  and 
by  North,  untill  wee  were  in  the  Latitude  of  27.  degrees 
or  better,  and  about  one  hundred  and  eightie  leagues  from 
Saint  John  de  Port  Rico. 

In  this  place  having  had  a  very  great  storme  of  Wind 
and  Raine  continuing  fiftie  sixe  houres  and  more  before 
on  the  tenth  day  of  November,  about  ten  of  the  clocke 
in  the  morning,   suddenly  we  found  our  selves  in  the 
middest  of  a  Fleet  of  eight  Sayle  of  ships  in  a  very  thicke  They  by 
fogge  of  mist  and  raine,  so  as  we  could  not  see  them  ""^''PPy  ''"P 
before  they  were  very  neere,  and  within  shot  of  tHem,  Lanhh'sfips. 
wherein  three  of  them  were  on  the  wind-ward  of  us,  on 
a  third  and  fourth  more  to  lee-ward :    those  at  the  wind- 
ward came  rome  unto  us,  and  shot  at  us,  requiring  us 
to  speake  with  their  Admirall.     When  we  saw  that  by 
no  meanes  we  could  avoid  them,  but  that  they  would 




They  are 
horded,  taken 
and  abused. 

King]  ameshis 
name  little 
respected  by 


speake  with  us,  we  put  abroad  our  Colours,  and  went 
toward  the  Admirall,  before  wee  came  unto  him,  he 
likewise  strooke  downe  our  Sayle,  and  came  under  his 
lee,  demanding  his  pleasure :  the  other  ship  which  first 
shot  us,  all  our  Sayles  being  downe,  and  shot  our  mayne 
Sayle  in  pieces  lying  on  the  Decke. 

And  forthwith  the  Admirall  came  on  boord  of  us,  with 
two  and  twentie  men  in  their  ships  Boate  with  Rapiers^ 
Swords,  and  halfe-pikes.  We  being  all  in  peace  stood 
readie  to  entertayne  them  in  peace.  But  assoone  as  they 
were  entred  on  boord  of  us,  they  did  most  cruelly  beate 
us  all,  and  wounded  two  of  our  Company  in  the  heads 
with  their  Swords,  not  sparing  our  Captayne  nor  any. 
Also  they  wounded  Assacomoit,  one  of  the  Savages  afore- 
said, most  cruelly  in  severall  places  in  the  bodie,  and 
thrust  quite  through  the  arme,  the  poore  creature  creeping 
under  a  Cabbin  for  feare  of  their  rigour :  and  as  they 
thrust  at  him,  wounding  him,  he  cried  still.  King  James, 
King  James,  King  James  his  ship,  King  James  his  ship. 
Thus  having  beaten  us  all  downe  under  the  Deckes, 
presently  they  beat  us  up  againe,  and  thrust  us  over-boord 
into  their  Boate,  and  so  sent  us  on  boord  of  the  Admirall 
ship.  Neither  would  they  suffer  any  of  us  to  speake  a 
word,  to  shew  the  cause  of  our  passing  the  Seas  in  these 
parts.  Neyther  regarded  they  any  thing,  our  Commission 
which  the  Captayne  held  forth  unto  them  in  his  hand: 
untill  that  the  Admirall  with  the  Company  of  foure  other 
of  the  ships,  had  rifled,  spoyled,  and  delivered  all  the 
Merchandize  and  goods  of  the  ship  among  them :  which 
beeing  done,  they  also  divided  us  beeing  thirtie  persons 
in  all  into  the  said  five  ships,  by  seven,  six,  five,  and 
foure  to  a  ship. 

Three  of  the  former  eight  Sayle  made  Sayle  away,  and 
never  came  neere  us,  neither  were  partakers  of  our  spoyle. 
Then  they  also  repayred  our  Maine  Sayle  which  was 
torne  with  the  shot  aforesaid,  and  put  their  men  into  her. 
And  after  because  they  could  not  make  her  to  sayle  well, 
they  tooke  two  of  pur  men,  and  put  into  her  to  helpe 



them,  the  other  five  ships  and  our  ship  kept  company 
two  or  three  dayes  together.  After  this  they  separated 
themselves  either  from  other,  not  through  any  tempest 
or  storme,  but  through  wilfull  negligence  or  simple 
Ignorance,  by  shaping  contrary  courses  the  one  from  the 
■other.  So  as  not  two  of  them  kept  company  together. 
My  selfe  and  sixe  more  of  our  company  in  the  Vice- 
Admirall  (of  the  burthen  of  one  hundred  and  eightie 
tunnes ;  called  the  Peter  of  Sivill,  the  Captaynes  name 
was  Andreas  Barbear)  beeing  alone,  and  having  lost  the 
company  of  the  Fleet,  continued  our  course  untill  the 
middle  of  December :  at  which  time  being  about  twentie 
leagues  off  from  the  He  of  Santa  Maria,  one  of  the  lies 
of  the  Azores,  the  Vice-Admiral  and  the  whole  company 
disliking  the  great  Ignorance  of  the  Pilot,  because  he  had 
told  them  ten  dayes  before  that  he  was  very  neere  the 
Hands,  and  had  waited  all  this  time,  and  could  find  any 
of  them,  entreated  me  very  earnestly  to  shew  my  skill. 
And  the  Pilot  himselfe  brought  mee  his  Instruments,  and 
besought  mee  most  earnestly  to  assist  him,  and  to  appease 
the  company.  Whereunto  by  there  much  importunitie 
I  yeelded.  And  by  Gods  assistance  on  Christmasse  Eeve, 
after  our  English  account,  I  brought  them  safe  to  the 
Barre  of  Saint  Lucas,  being  the  first  ship  of  the  whole 
Fleet  that  arrived  there. 

One  of  the  ships  of  this  Fleet,  by  the  great  Ignorance 
of  the  Spanish  Masters,  Pilots,  and  Mariners  was  driven 
beyond  all  the  Coast  of  Spaine,  into  Burdeaux  in 
"Gascoyne,  In  which  shippe  the  OflScers  of  the  Admiraltie  French 
of  France,  finding  foure  of  our  Englishmen  prisoners  ">'**'^"'- 
under  the  Deckes  in  hold  ;  to  wit,  Master  Daniell  Tucker, 
who  was  our  Cape  Merchant,  Pierce  Gliddon  and  two 
others,  did  very  friendly  set  them  at  libertie;  and  the 
said  Daniel  Tucker  presently  arrested  the  Spanish  ship 
and  goods  beeing  of  great  value,  which  of  long  time 
remayneth  under  arrest. 

The  good  Duke  of  Medina  hearing  of  the  arrivall  of 
certaine  English  prisoners  taken  here,  the  Coast  of  the 

XIX  289  T 



West  Indies,  sent  command  to  the  Captaynes  of  the 
Spanish  ships,  to  bring  foure  of  the  chiefest  to  be  brought 
before  him.  Whereupon  my  selfe.  Master  Thomas  Saint 
John,  John  Wakond  our  Steward,  and  William  Stone 
our  Carpenter  were  brought  before  him.  The  ship 
wherein  Master  Challons  was,  was  not  yet  come. 

Master  David  Nevill  an  Englishman  dwelling  in  Saint 
Lucas,  was  appointed  our  Interpreter.  And  then  the 
Duke  required  me  upon  my  oath  to  yeeld  a  true  and 
faithfull  answere,  according  to  the  whole  state  and  manner 
of  our  Voyage  and  proceedings,  which  I  did,  according 
to  the  former  Relation  afore  written,  whereupon  his 
[IV.  X.  Excellencie  replyed  unto  the  Spanish  Captaynes  which 

'^35-]  had  brought  us,  saying,  if  this  bee  true  which  this- 
Englishman  affirmeth,  you  have  greatly  wronged  these 
men.  And  so  commanded  them  to  provide  meate,  drinke> 
and  fit  lodging  for  us,  and  to  bring  us  againe  the  next 
day  before  him.  They  sent  us  neverthelesse  to  Sivill, 
where  wee  were  brought  to  a  Dutchmans  house,  called 
Signior  Petro,  where  we  were  reasonably  lodged,  and 
entertayned  that  night. 

The  next  morning  being  New  yeeres  day  we  were 
brought  before  the  President  of  Sivill,  at  the  Contracta- 
tion,  who  hearing  of  our  comming,  and  not  vouchsafing 
to  speake  with  us,  sent  foure  Officers  to  us,  and  cast  us 
Their  into  Prison.     Where  for  the  space  of  five  dayes  wee  had 

imprisonment,  publike  allowance,  but  such  as  poore  men  which  were 
there  Prisoners,  also  did  of  their  mercie  bestow  on  us. 
At  length  after  many  humble  Sutes,  and  earnest  Petitions 
exhibited  to  the  President,  we  had  a  Riall  of  Plate  allowed 
to  each  man  a  day,  which  is  sixe  pence  English,  which 
by  reason  of  the  dearth  of  all  sorts  of  victuall  in  those 
parts,  will  not  goe  so  far  as  three  pence  in  England. 

And  so  at  severall  times,  within  one  moneth  after  eleven 
more  of  our  Company  were  committed  to  Prison,  as  they 
came  home,  whereof  our  Captaine  was  one.  Notwith- 
standing that  the  good  Duke  of  Medina  had  discharged 
both  him  and  all  those  of  his  Company,  which  came  into 




Spaine  with  him,  and  willed  him  to  goe  home  to  the 
Court  of  England,  or  to  the  Court  of  Spaine  where  he 
thought  to  have  best  reliefe  for  his  poore  imprisoned 
Company.  Whereupon  Nicholas  Hine  our  Master,  and 
two  more  of  our  men  wisely  foreseeing  what  was  like  to 
bee  the  Issue,  made  haste  away  out  of  the  Citie,  and  so 
got  passage  and  escaped  into  England. 

Before  the  comming  of  our  Captaine  to  Sivill,  my 
selfe  and  eleven  more  of  my  Company  were  examined 
before  the  President  of  the  Contractation  :  who  finding  no 
just  cause  of  offence  in  us,  did  often  earnestly  examine 
me  of  the  manner  and  situation  of  the  Countrie  of 
Virginia,  together  with  the  Commodities  and  benefit 
thereof.  And  after  the  comming  of  our  Captaine,  they 
likewise  examined  him  to  the  same  purpose.  We 
answered  both  to  one  purpose,  according  to  our  Com- 
mission in  writing,  which  the  Spaniards  at  our  taking 
at  Sea,  had  preserved  and  delivered  up  unto  the  hands 
of  the  President.  Within  few  dayes  after,  they  gave  our 
Captaine  and  Master  Thomas  Saint  John,  libertie  of 
mayne  Prison,  upon  the  securitie  of  two  English 
Merchants,  which  were  Master  William  Rapier,  and 
Master  John  Peckeford,  whereof  the  later  is  dwelling 
and  maried  in  Sivill.  The  rest  of  the  Company  being 
one  and  twentie  in  Prison,  continued  still  in  miserable 
estate.  And  about  two  moneths  after,  Robert  Cooke  of  Hard  hearted 
London  one  of  our  Company  fell  sick  of  a  Fluxe,  whereof  Spaniard. 
he  languished  three  moneths  and  more,  and  by  no  meanes 
that  wee  could  make,  could  get  him  forth  to  bee  cured, 
although  wee  spent  more  then  sixtie  Rials  in  Supplicaves 
and  Sutes  to  get  him  out.  At  length  being  dead,  they 
caused  his  bodie  to  bee  drawne  up  and  downe  the  Prison  Cruell 
by  the  heeles,  naked,  in  most  contemptible  manner,  crying,  '"imanitie. 
Behold  the  Lutheran,  as  five  others  of  our  Company 
beeing  then  in  Prison  beheld :  and  so  laid  him  under 
the  Conduit,  and  powred  water  into  his  dead  bodie.  This 
done,  they  cut  off  his  Eares,  Nose  and  Members,  as  the 
Spaniards  themselves  confessed  unto  us,  and  so  conveyed 




his  bodie  wee  could  never  learne  whether,  although  we 
proffered  them  money  to  have  his  dead  corps  to  burie  it. 
Shortly  after  Nathaniel  Humfrie  our  Boatswaine  was 
stabbed  into  the  belly  with  a  Knife  by  a  Spaniard,  which 
was  a  slave  in  the  Prison,  and  fourteene  dayes  after  dyed, 
who  beeing  dead  I  went  unto  the  Keeper  of  the  Prison, 
desiring  to  buy  his  dead  bodie  to  burie  it,  and  so  for 
twenty  Rials  I  bought  his  bodie,  and  buried  it  in  the  field. 
Then  we  besought  the  President  for  Justice  on  this  slave 
which  had  slaine  our  Boatswaine :  he  demanded  what  we 
would  have  of  the  slave.     And  we  requested,  that  as  he 
had  slaine  an  honest  and  worthy  man  of  ours  causelesse, 
that  hee  might  die  for  it  according  to  the  Law.     The 
President  answered  no,  but  if  we  would  have  him  con- 
demned for  two  or  three  yeares  more  to  the  Gallies  he 
Sfanish  Presi-  should.     For  said  hee,  The  King  of  Spaine  will  not  give 
dents  respect  to   the  life  of  the  worst  Slave  that  he  hath,   for  the  best 
the  Engluh.      Subject  the  King  of  England  hath,  and  so  sent  us  away 
with  this  answere.     Whereupon  being  out  of  all  hope  of 
Honest  Justice  with  the  President,  we  repaired  unto  the  Regent 

pontar  s.  being  an  Ecclesiasticall  man,  one  of  the  chiefest  Judges 
of  the  Citie,  desiring  likewise  Justice  on  the  Murtherer 
aforesaid :  who  in  kind  tearmes  promised  us  Justice,  and 
so  willed  us  to  retaine  counsell  and  Atturnies  to  prosecute 
our  Sute ;  which  wee  did  accordingly,  and  so  after  two 
moneths  Sute,  and  the  cost  of  more  then  two  hundred 
Rials  on  Lawyers,  Scribes  and  other  Officers  at  length 
we  had  him  hanged  by  the  favour  of  the  Regent,  which 
otherwise  we  had  never  obtained. 

And  now  I  may  not  omit  to  shew  how  I  got  the  libertie 
to  have  the  scope  of  the  Citie  for  my  Race  to  come, 
and  go.  Having  beene  three  moneths  in  close  Prison 
with  our  poore  company  as  aforesaid.  At  length  I  got 
the  favour  of  two  Englishmen  inhabiting  in  Sivill  named 
Constantine  Collins,  and  Henry  Roberts  who  did  ingage 
themselves  for  me.  The  Spaniards  were  very  desirous 
to  have  me  to  serve  their  State,  and  proffered  me  great 
wages,    which    I    refused    to    doe,    affirming,    that    this 



imployment  which   I  had   in  hand,   was  not  yet  ended 
untill  which  time  I  would  not  determine  any. 

Then  the  Alcadie  major  of  the  Contractation  House 
and  divers  others  Merchants  perswaded  me  to  make  them 
some  descriptions  and  Maps  of  the  Coast  and  parts  of 
Virginia,  which  I  also  refused  to  doe.  They  being 
discontent  with  me,  sent  mee  againe  to  Prison,  where  I 
continued  two  and  twentie  dayes,  and  then  I  making  [IV.  x. 
meanes  unto  my  good  friends  borrowed  money,  and  so  1836.] 

gave  divers  bribes  unto  the  keepers  of  the  Prison,  where- 
upon they  gave  mee  libertie  to  goe  abroad  againe  into  the 
Citie  at  my  pleasure.  And  wayting  every  day  for  some 
order  from  the  Court  of  Spaine  oroxu:  discharge,  there 
came  none  but  delayes  and  prolonging  of  our  troubles 
and  miseries.  So  as  we  began  almost  to  despaire  of 

At  length  an  honest  Dutch  Merchant  dwelling  in  Sivill, 
named  Hanse  Eloyse,  sent  unto  mee  to  speake  with  me, 
which  when  I  came  unto  him,  signified  unto  me  what  he 
had  learned  of  one  of  the  Judges  of  the  Contractation : 
who  told  him  as  he  reported  unto  me,  that  the  Spaniards 
had  a  great  hate  unto  me  above  all  others,  because  they 
understood  that  I  had  beene  a  former  Discoverer  in 
Virginia,  at  the  bringing  into  England  of  those  Savages ; 
and  that  they  thought  it  was  by  my  instigation  to  perswade 
our  State  to  inhabit  those  parts.  And  because  they  had 
received  so  small  knowledge  of  those  parts  by  my  con- 
fession :  and  that  they  could  not  perswade  mee  to  serve 
that  State,  neither  would  make  them  any  note  draught, 
or  descriptions  of  the  Countrie.  They  resolved  to  bring 
to  the  Racke  and  torment  me,  whereby  to  draw  some 
fiirther  knowledge  by  confession  from  me,  before  any 
discharge  might  come  for  us.  The  which  this  honest 
Merchant  considering,  and  the  Innocencie  of  our  case, 
gave  me  to  understand.  And  wished  mee  rather  to  flic 
and  preserve  my  selfe,  then  to  stand  to  their  mercie  on 
the  Racke,  I  hearing  this  the  next  morning,  being  the 
three  and  twentieth  of  October,  suddenly  fled  from  SiviU, 




and  with  me  Master  Thomas  Saint  John  aforesaid,  and 
one  other  of  our  Company  named  James  Stoneman  my 
Brother,  whom  through  great  cost  and  charges  bestowed 
on  the  Keepers  of  the  Prison  a  little  before  I  had  got 
forth  to  bee  cured  of  a  Callenture.  Thus  wee  fled  from 
Sivill,  leaving  Master  Henry  Challons  our  Captaine  at 
libertie  upon  sureties,  and  sixteene  more  of  our  Company 
in  close  Prison. 

From  thence  on  the  five  and  twentieth  of  October, 
wee  came  to  a  Mount  in  the  Cundado,  where  finding  no 
passage  by  any  shipping  into  England,  France  or  Flanders. 
Wee  travelled  through  Algarvie,  to  the  Port  of  Setunall, 
and  finding  no  passage  there,  wee  travelled  to  Lisbone  in 
Portugall.  Where  wee  arrived  the  one  and  thirtieth  of 
October,  and  there  found  ships  readie  bound  to  goe  to 
England,  but  the  wind  was  contrary  for  fourteene  dayes. 
At  the  time  of  our  abode  at  Lisbone,  wee  understood 
that  three  Carrickes  were  come  from  the  East  Indies : 
whereof  one  was  arrived  safely  at  Lisbone  tenne  dayes 
before  our  comming  thither.  Another  was  driven  to  lee- 
ward, and  put  in  Veego,  as  wee  heard.  The  third 
Carracke  beeing  at  the  lie  of  Tercera,  was  so  leake  that 
they  could  not  bring  her  home  into  Portugall,  but 
unloaded  her  into  three  of  the  King  of  Spaines  great 
Armadoes,  to  bring  the  goods  more  safely  to  Lisbone. 
Which  Ships  at  their  comming  before  the  mouth  of  the 
River  of  Lisbone  in  the  night  within  three  dayes  after 
Three  skifs  my  comming  thither,  were  all  cast  away  on  certaine 
tastaway.  shoaldes  there  called  Oscachopos,  or  as  wee  commonly 
call  them  the  Catchops,  where  of  nine  hundred  men,  as 
the  Portugalls  reported,  but  only  thirtie  seven  were  saved, 
and  of  the  goods  very  little  at  all :  because  the  said  ships 
being  cast  away  on  the  ebbe,  the  goods  were  driven  off 
into  the  Sea,  the  dead  bodies  of  many  that  were  drowned, 
I  my  selfe  saw  cast  on  the  shore  with  the  sundry  wrackes 
of  the  parts  of  the  Ships  Masts  and  Yards,  with  other 
wracke  of  Caske,  Chists,  and  such  like  in  great 




The  fourteenth  day  of  November  the  winde  being  faire, 
•wee  tooke  passage  from  Lisbone  in  a  small  Barke 
belonging  to  Bidiford,  called  the  Marget,  and  on  the 
foure  and  twentieth  of  the  same  we  were  landed  at  Saint 
Ives  in  Cornwall,  and  from  thence  I  hasted  to  Plimmouth, 
where  I  shewed  unto  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges  and  divers 
others  the  Adventiorers,  the  whole  Discourse  of  our 
unhappie  Voyage  together  with  the  miseries  that  wee  had, 
and  did  indure  under  the  Spaniards  hands.  And  then 
hasted  with  all  the  speed  I  could  toward  the  Court  of 
England,  where  I  was  assured  to  my  great  comfort ;  that 
they  either  were  alreadie,  or  very  shortly  should  bee 

Before    my    departure    from    Sivill,    I    should    have 
remembred,    that    about    Whitsontide    last    there    were 
brought  into  the  Prison  of  the  Contractation  there,  two 
young  men  brought  out  of  the  West  Indies,  in  one  of 
the  Kings  Gallions,  which  were  of  Captaine  John  Legats  Cap.  John 
company  of  Plimmouth,  which  departed  out  of  England,  ^'S"*  of 
about  the  latter  end  of  July  1606.  bound  for  the  River  ^^»'»««""^- 
of  Amazons,  as  hee  told  me  before  his  going  forth,  where 
hee  had  beene  two  yeeres  before.     And  comming  on  the 
Coast  of  Brasill  as  those  young  men  (the  name  of  one 
of  them  is  William  Adams  borne  in  Plumpton   neere  Mutine. 
Plimmouth)  reported  unto  mee  whether  falling   to   the  Cap.  Legat 
leeward  of  the  River  of  Amazons,  or  deceived  by  his  ^t'^ine  by  Us 
Master  they  knew  not.     And  not  being  able  to  recover  "'"f-"^'^"^"'' 
the  said  River,  were  constrayned  to  refresh  in  the  West  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^^ 
Indies,  in  which  time  there  fell  a  great  disorder  betweene  had  dene  to 
the  said  Captaine  Legat  and  his  company,  so  as  one  of  bring  home 
his  company,  in  a  broyle  within  themselves  aboard  there  their  ship,  and 
«hip,  slue  the  said  Captaine  Legat,  whether  in  his  owne  '^yA^,^^  '  "^ 
private  quarrell  or  with  the  consent  of  the  rest  of  the  justicers.  I 
Company,  they  could  not  tell  mee.     But  this  is  the  more  have  heard 
to  bee  suspected  for  that  he  alwayes  in  former  Voyages  *""  """^ 
dealt  very  straitly  with  his  company.     After  his  death  ""fS'" 
his  company  comming  to  the  lie  of  Pinos,  on  the  South-  expert  Sea- 
side of  Cuba,    to   refresh   themselves,   being   eighteene  man. 




persons    were    circumvented    by    the    trecherie    of    the 
Spaniards,  and  were  there  betrayed,  and  taken  Prisoners : 
[IV.  X.  a,nd    within    foure    dayes    after,    of    eighteene    persons,. 

37-J  fourteene  were  hanged  the  other  foure  being  youths  were 
saved  to  serve  the  Spaniards,  whereof,  two  of  them, 
refusing  to  serve  longer  in  there  ships,  were  put  into 
the  Prison  at  Sivill,  the  other  two  remayne  still  as  slaves 
to  the  Spaniards. 

This  I  had  the  rather  noted  to  the  end  that  it  may  be 
the  better  considered  what  numbers  of  ships  and  men 
have  gone  out  of  England,  since  the  conclusion  of  peace 
betweene  England  and  Spaine,  in  the  way  of  honest 
Trade  and  Traffique,  and  how  many  of  them  have 
miserably  miscarried.  Having  beene  slaine,  drowned, 
hanged  or  pittifuUy  captived,  and  thrust  out  of  their 
ships  and  all  their  goods. 

REader,  I  had  by  me  the  Voyage  of  Captaine  Thomas 
Hanham,  (written  by  himselfe)  unto  Sagadahoc :  also 
the  written  Journals  of  Master  Raleigh  Gilbert  which 
stayed  and  fortified  there  in  that  unseasonable  Winter 
(fit  to  freeze  the  heart  of  a  Plantation)  of  James  Davies, 
John  Eliot,  &c.  but  our  voluminousnesse  makes  me  afraid 
of  offending  nicer  and  queasier  stomackes :  for  which 
cause  I  have  omitted  them,  even  after  I  had  with  great 
labour  fitted  them  to  the  Presse :  as  I  have  also  done  a. 
written  large  Tractate  of  Mawaushen,  and  the  Voyage 
of  Master  Edward  Harlie  (one  of  the  first  Planters  witk 
Cap.  Popham)  and  Nicholas  Hobson  to  those  parts  1 6 1 1 . 
with  divers  Letters  from  Cap.  Popham  and  others.  You 
must  observe,  that  it  was  in  those  times  called  by  the 
name  of  Virginia,  and  the  Northerne  Plantation  or 
Colonic.  But  Captaine  Smith  (a  man  which  hath  so 
many  Irons  in  our  fire)  presented  a  Booke  of  the  Countrie 
to  Prince  Charles  his  Highnesse,  with  a  Map  of  the 
Countrey,  who  stiled  it  (as  our  hopes  are,  he  will  one 
day  make  it)  New  England,  and  altered  the  Savage  names 
of  places  to  English.     Hee  made  one  Voyage  thither,, 



Anno  1 6 14.  and  the  next  yeere  beganne  another,  which 
taken  by  Frenchmen,  he  was  not  able  to  make  up :  but 
in  testimonie  of  his  love  to  his  Countrey  here,  and  of  his 
hopes  there  hath  written  divers  Bookes,  One  called  A 
Description  of  New  England  (in  which  his  said  Voyages 
are  described,  with  the  description  of  the  Countrey  and 
many  Arguments  to  incite  men  to  that  undertaking ; 
which  I  had  also  prepared  for  the  Presse,  but  for  the 
former  feares  have  omitted)  the  other  called  New 
Englands  Trials  twice  or  thrice  printed,  out  of  which  I 
have  added  thus  much,  that  the  World  may  see  the 
benefit  to  bee  made  by  fishing,  and  may  also  be  better 
acquainted  with  the  successe  and  succession  of  New 
Englands  Affaires. 

Chap.   III. 

Extracts  of  a  Booke  of  Captaine  John  Smith, 
printed  1622.  called  New  Englands  tryalls,  and 
continuing  the  Storie  thereof,  with  Motives  to 
the  businesse  of  fishing  there. 

The  benefit  of  fishing,  as  Master  Dee  reporteth  in 
his  Brittish  Monarchic. 

E  saith  that  it  is  more  then  foure  and 
fortie  yeeres  agoe,  and  it  is  more  then 
fortie  yeeres  since  he  writ  it,  that  the 
Herring  Busses  out  of  the  Low-countries, 
under  the  King  of  Spaine,  were  five 
hundred,  besides  one  hundred  French- 
men, and  three  or  foure  hundred  Sayle 
of  Flemmings. 

The  Coasts  of  Wales  and  Lancashire  was  used  by  three 
hundred  Sayle  of  strangers. 

Ireland  and  Baltemore  fraugted  yeerly  three  hundred 
Sayle  of  Spaniards,  where  King  Edward  the  Sixt  intended 
to  have  made  a  strong  Castle,  because  of  the  Strait,  ,to 
have  Tribute  for  fishing. 

?97  J^- 




Blacke  Rocke  was  yeerely  fished  by  three  or  foure 
hundred  Sayle  of  Spaniards,  Portugals,  and  Biskiners. 

Master  Gentleman,  and  many  Fisher-men  and  Fish- 
mongers, with  whom  I  have  conferred,  report.  The 
Hollanders  raise  yeerely  by  Herring,  Cod,  and  Ling, 
3000000.  pounds. 

English  and  French  by  Salt-fish,  Poore  John,  Salmons, 
and  Pilchards,  300000.  pounds. 

Hamborough  and  the  Sound,  for  Sturgion,  Lobsters 
and  Eeles,  1 00000.  pounds. 

Cape  Blanke  for  Tunny  and  MuUit,  by  the  Biskiners 
and  Spaniards,  30000.  pounds. 

But  divers  other  learned  experienced  Observers  say, 
though  it  may  seeme  incredible,  That  the  Duke  of  Medina 
receiveth  yeerely  tribute  of  the  Fishers  for  Tunny,  Mullit 
and  Purgos,  more  then  loooo.  pounds. 

Lubeck  hath  seven  hundred  Ships :  Hamborough  six 
hundred :  Embden  lately  a  Fisher  Towne,  one  thousand 
foure  hundred,  whose  Customes  by  the  profit  of  fishing 
hath  made  them  so  powerfuU  as  they  bee. 

Holland  and  Zealand,  not  much  greater  then  Yorke- 
[IV.  X.  shire,  hath  thirtie  walled  Townes,  foure  hundred  Villages, 

1838.]  20000.  saile  of  Ships  and  Hoyes ;  thirtie  sixe  thousand 
are  Fisher-men,  whereof  one  hundred  are  Doggers,  seven 
hundred  Pinkes  and  Wel-boates,  seven  hundred  Frand 
Boates,  Britters  and  Tode-boats,  with  one  thousand  three 
hundred  Busses,  besides  three  hundred  that  yeerely  fish 
about  Yarmouth,  where  they  sell  their  Fish  for  Gold ; 
and  fifteene  yeeres  ago  they  had  more  then  11 6000.  Sea- 
faring men. 

The  fishing  shippes  doe  take  yeerely  two  hundred 
thousand  Last  of  fish,  twelve  barrels  to  a  Last,  which 
amounted  to  3000000.  pounds  by  the  Fishermens  price, 
that  fourteene  yeeres  agoe  did  pay  for  their  Tenths 
300000.  pound ;  which  venting  in  Pumerland,  Sprussia, 
Denmarke,  Lefland,  Russia,  Swethland,  Germany,  Nether- 
lands, England,  or  else-where  &c.  make  their  returnes  in 
a  yeere  about  7000000.  pounds ;  and  yet  in  Holland  they 




have  neither  matter  to  build  ships,  nor  Merchandize  to 
set  them  forth ;  yet  by  their  industrie  they  as  much 
increase,  as  other  Nations  decay.  But  leaving  these 
uncertainties  as  they  are,  of  this  I  am  certaine : 

That  the  Coast  of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland,  the 
North  Sea,  with  Ireland  and  the  Sound,  New-found-land, 
and  Cape  Blanke,  doe  serve  all  Europe,  as  well  the  Land 
Townes  as  Ports,  and  all  the  Christian  shipping,  with 
these  sorts  of  Staple  fish  which  is  transported,  from  whence 
it  is  taken,  many  a  thousand  mile,  viz.  Herring,  Salt-fish, 
Poore  John,  Sturgion,  Mullit,  Tunny,  Porgos,  Caviare, 

Now  seeing  all  these  sorts  of  fish,  or  the  most  part  of 
them,  may  be  had  in  a  Land  more  fertile,  temperate,  and 
plentifuU  of  all  necessaries  for  the  building  of  ships, 
Boates,  and  houses,  and  the  nourishment  of  man ;  the 
Seasons  are  so  proper,  and  the  fishings  so  neere  the 
habitations,  we  may  there  make,  that  New  England  hath 
much  advantage  of  the  most  of  those  parts,  to  serve  all 
Europe  far  cheaper  then  they  can,  who  at  home  have 
neither  Wood,  Salt,  nor  Food,  but  at  great  rates ;  at  Sea 
nothing  but  what  they  carrie  in  their  ships,  an  hundred 
or  two  hundred  leagues  from  their  habitation. 

But  New  Englands  fishings  is  neere  land,  where  is  . 
helpe  of  Wood,  Water,  Fruites,  Fowles,  Corne,  or 
other  refreshings  needfuU ;  and  the  Terceras,  Mederas, 
Canaries,  Spaine,  Portugall,  Provance,  Savoy,  Sicilia,  and 
all  Italy,  as  convenient  Markets  for  our  dry  fish,  greene 
iish,  Sturgion,  Mullit,  Caviare,  and  Buttargo,  as  Norway, 
Swethland,  Littuania,  or  Germany,  for  their  Herring, 
"which  is  here  also  in  abundance  for  taking,  they  returning 
but  Wood,  Pitch,  Tarre,  Sope-ashes,  Cordage,  Flaxe, 
Waxe,  and  such  like  Commodities :  we,  Wines,  Oyles, 
Sugars,  Silkes,  and  such  Merchandize  as  the  Straits 
afFoord,  whereby  our  profit  may  equalize  theirs ;  besides 
the  increase  of  shipping  and  Mariners.     And  for  proofe 

hereof:  Pmfe  i. 

With  two  ships  sent  out  at  the  charge  of  Captaine   1614. 




Marmadulce  Roydon,  Captaine  George  Langam,  Master 
John  Buley  and  W.  Skelton,  I  went  from  the  Downes  the 
third  of  March,  and  arrived  in  New  England  the  last  of 
April,  where  I  was  to  have  stayed  but  with  ten  men  to 
keepe  possession  of  those  large  Territories.  Had  the 
Whales  proved,  as  curious  information  had  assured  mee 
and  my  Adventures,  (but  those  things  failed.)  So  having 
but  fortie  five  men  and  boyes,  we  built  seven  Boates,  thirtie 
seven  did  fish :  my  selfe  with  eight  others  ranging  the 
Coast,  I  tooke  a  plot  of  what  I  could  see,  got  acquaintance 
of  the  Inhabitants ;  1 1  oo.  Bever  skinnes,  a  hundred 
Martines,  and  as  many  Otters.  Fortie  thousand  of  dry 
fish  wee  sent  for  Spaine,  with  the  Salt-fish,  traine  Oyle 
and  Furres,  I  returned  for  England  the  eighteenth  of 
July,  and  arrived  safe  with  my  Company  the  latter  end 
of  August.  Thus  in  sixe  moneths  I  made  my  Voyage 
out  and  home ;  and  by  the  labour  of  five  and  fortie,  got 
neere  the  value  of  fifteene  hundred  pounds  in  tTiose 
grosse  Commodities.  This  yeere  also  one  went  from 
Plimmouth,  set  out  by  divers  of  the  He  of  Wight,  and 
the  West  Countrie,  by  the  directions  and  instructions 
of  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorge,  spent  their  victuals,  and 
returned  with  nothing. 
Proofe  2.  The  Virginia  Company  upon  this  sent  foure  good  ships  j 
i^'S-  and  because  I  would  not  undertake  it  for  them,  having 
ingaged  my  selfe  to  them  of  the  West,  the  Londoners 
entertained  the  men  that  came  home  with  me.  They 
set  sayle  in  January,  and  arrived  there  in  March ;  they 
found  fish  enough  untill  halfe  June,  fraughted  a  ship  of 
three  hundred  tunnes,  went  for  Spaine,  which  was  taken 
by  the  Turkes ;  one  went  to  Virginia  to  relieve  that 
Colonie,  and  two  came  for  England  with  the  greene  fish,, 
traine  Oyle  and  Furres  within  six  moneths. 
Proofe  3.  In  January  with  two  hundred  pounds  in  cash  for 
161 5.  adventure,  and  six  Gentlemen  well  furnished,  I  went  from 
London  to  the  foure  Ships  was  promised,  prepared  for 
mee  in  the  West  Countrey,  but  I  found  no  such  matter  \ 
notwithstanding  at  the  last,  with  a  labyrinth  of  trouble  I 



-went  from  Plimoth,  with  a  Ship  of  two  hundred  Tunnes, 
and  one  of  fiftie:  when  the  fishing  was  done  onely  with 
fifteene  I  was  to  stay  in  the  Countrey ;  but  ill  weather 
breaking  all  my  Masts,  I  was  forced  to  returne  to  Plimoth, 
where  rather  then  lose  all,  reimbarking  my  selfe  in  a 
Barke  of  sixtie  Tuns,  how  I  escaped  the  English  Pyrats 
and  the  French,  and  was  betrayed  by  foure  Frenchmen  of 
War,  I  refer  you  to  the  description  of  New  England : 
but  my  Vice-Admirall,  notwithstanding  the  latenesse  of 
the  yeere,  setting  forth  with  me  in  March,  the  Londoners 
in  January,  shee  arrived  in  May,  they  in  March,  yet 
came  home  well  fraught  in  August,  and  all  her  men  well, 
within  five  moneths,  odde  dayes.  ^^.^^ 

The  Londoners  ere   I  returned  from   France,   for  all  161 6. 
their  losse  by  the  Turkes,  which  was  valued  about  foure  [IV.  x. 
thousand  pounds  sent  two  more  in  July  ;  but  such  courses  '839.] 

they  tooke  by  the  Canaries  to  the  West  Indies,  it  was 
ten  moneths  ere  they  arrived  in  New  England,  wasting 
in  that  time  their  seasons,  victuall,  and  health,  yet  there 
they  found  meanes  to  refresh  themselves,  and  the  one 
returned,  neere  fraught  with  Fish  and  Traine,  within  two 
moneths  after. 

From  Plimoth  went  foure  Ships,  onely  to  Fish  and  Proofe  5. 
Trade,  some  in  February,  some  in  March,  one  of  two   '^■°- 
hundred  Tuns  got  thither  in  a  moneth,  and  went  full 
fraught   for   Spaine,   the  rest  returned   to   Plimoth  well 
firaught,  and  their  men  well,  within  five  moneths,  odde 

From  London  went  two  more,  one  of  two  hundred  Proofe  6. 
Tuns,  got  thither  in  sixe  weekes,  and  within  sixe  weekes  •6i6. 
after,  with  fortie  foure  men  and  boyes  was  full  fi-aught, 
and  returned  againe  into  England  within  five  moneths 
and  a  few  dayes ;  the  other  went  to  the  Canaries  with 
dry  fish,  which  they  sold  at  a  great  rate,  for  Rials  of 
eight,  and  as  I  heard  turned  Pyrats. 

I  being  at  Plimoth  provided  with  three  good  Ships,  Proofe  7. 
yet  but  fifteene  men  to  stay  with  me  in  the  Countrey,   '^i7- 
Tvas  Wind-bound  three  moneths,  as  was  many  a  hundred 




saile  more,  so  that  the  season  being  past,  the  Ships  went 
for  New-found-land,  whereby  my  designe  was  frustrate,, 
which  was  to  me  and  my  friends  no  small  losse,  in  regard 
whereof  here  the  Westerne  Commissioners,  in  the  behalfe 
of  themselves  and  the  rest  of  the  Company,  contracted, 
with  me  by  Articles  indented  under  our  hands,  to  be 
Admirall  of  that  Country  during  my  life,  and  in  the 
renewing  of  their  Letters  Patents  so  to  be  nominated, 
halfe  the  fruites  of  our  endevours  theirs,  the  rest  our 
owne ;  being  thus  ingaged ;  now  the  businesse  doth 
prosper,  some  of  them  would  willingly  forget  mee ;  but 
I  am  not  the  first  they  have  deceived. 

Proofe  8.       There  was  foure  good  Ships  prepared  at  Plimoth,  but 

i6i8.  ijy  reason  of  their  disagreement,  the  season  so  wasted,  as. 
onely  two  went  forward,  the  one  being  of  two  hundred 
Tunnes,  returned  well  fraught  for  Plimoth,  and  her  men 
in  health,  within  five  moneths ;  the  other  of  eightie  Tuns, 
went  for  Bilbow  with  dry  fish,  and  made  a  good  returne. 
In  this  voyage  Edward  Rowcroft,  alias  Stallings,  a  valiant 
Souldier,  that  had  beene  with  mee  in  Virginia,  and  seven 
yeeres  after  went  with  mee  from  Plimoth  towardes  New 
England,  with  Thomas  Darmer,  an  understanding  and 
an  industrious  Gentleman  to  inhabite  it ;  all  whose 
names,  with  our  proceedings,  you  may  read  at  large  in 
my  description  of  New  England,  upon  triall  before  the 
Judge  of  the  Admiraltie,  how  when  wee  had  past  the 
worst,  for  pure  cowardise  the  Master  and  Sailer  ran  away 
with  the  Ship  and  all  I  had,  and  left  mee  alone  among 
eight  or  nine  Frenchmen  of  War,  in  the  yeere  161 5. 
This  Stallings  went  now  againe  in  those  Ships,  and  having 
some  wrong  off^ered  him  in  New  England  by  a  French- 
man, he  tooke  him,  and  as  he  writ  to  mee,  he  went  with 
her  to  Virginia  with  fish,  to  trade  with  them  for  such 
commodities  as  they  might  spare ;  hee  knew  both  these 
Countries  well,  yet  hee  promised  mee  the  next  Spring 
to  meete  mee  in  New  England ;    but  the  Ship  and  he 

Pmfe  9.  perished  in  Virginia. 

1 61 9.  This  yeere  againe,  divers  Ships  intending  to  goe  from 




Plimoth,  so  disagreed,  as  there  went  but  one  of  two 
hundred  Tunnes,  who  stayed  in  the  Countrey  about  six 
weekes,  with  thirtie  eight  men  and  boyes,  had  her  fraught, 
which  shee  sold  at  the  first  peny,  for  two  thousand  one 
hundred  pounds,  besides  the  Furs :  so  that  every  poore 
Sayler,  that  had  but  a  single  share,  had  his  charges,  and 
sixteene  pound  ten  shillings,  for  his  seven  moneths  worke. 
M.  Thomas  Darmer,  having  lived  about  a  yeere  in  New- 
found-land, returning  to  Plimoth,  went  for  New  England 
in  this  Ship,  and  not  onely  confirmes  what  I  have  writ, 
but  so  much  more  approved  of  it,  that  he  stayed  there 
with  five  or  six  men  in  a  little  Boat ;  finding  two  or 
three  Frenchmen  among  the  Savages,  who  had  lost  their 
Ship,  augmented  his  company,  with  whom  hee  ranged 
the  Coast  to  Virginia,  where  he  was  kindly  welcommed 
and  well  refreshed ;  thence  returned  to  New  England 
againe,  where  having  beene  a  yeere,  in  his  backe  returne 
to  Virginia,  he  was  so  wounded  by  the  Savages,  hee  dyed 
upon  it,  them  escaped  were  relieved  at  Virginia.  Let 
not  men  attribute  their  great  adventures  and  untimely 
deaths  to  unfortunatenesse,  but  rather  wonder  how  God 
did  so  long  preserve  them,  with  so  small  meanes  to  doe 
so  much,  leaving  the  fruites  of  their  labours,  to  bee  an 
encouragement  to  those  our  poore  undertakings ;  and 
this  for  advantage  as  they  writ  unto  mee,  that  God  had 
laid  this  Countrey  open  for  us,  and  slaine  the  most  part 
of  the  Inhabitants  by  crueU  Wars  and  a  mortall  disease ; 
for  where  I  had  seene  one  hundred  or  two  hundred  people, 
there  is  scarce  ten  to  bee  found.  From  Pembrocks  Bay, 
to  Harrintons  Bay,  there  is  not  twentie ;  from  thence  to 
Cape  Anne,  some  thirtie ;  from  Taulbuts  Bay  to  the 
River  Charles,  about  fortie,  and  not  any  of  them  touched 
with  any  sicknesse,  but  one  poore  Frenchman  that  dyed. 

For  to  make  triall  this  yeere,  there  is  gone  sixe  or  Proofe  10. 
seven  sayle  from  the  West  Countrey,  onely  to  fish,  three  '^^o. 
of  whom  are  returned,  and  as  I  was  certainly  informed, 
made  so  good  a  voyage,  that  every  Sayler  for  a  single  share 
had  twentie  pounds  for  his  seven  moneths  worke,  which 




is  more  then  in  twentie  months  hee  should  have  gotten, 
had  he  gone  for  wages  any  where.  Now,  though  all  the 
former  Ships  have  not  made  such  good  voyages,  as  they 
expected,  by  sending  opinionated  unskilfuU  men,  that 
had  not  experienced  diligence  to  save  that  they  tooke, 
nor  take  that  there  was ;  which  now  patience  and  practise 
hath  brought  to  a  reasonable  kinde  of  perfection :  in 
despite  of  all  detractors  and  calumniations,  the  Country 
yet  hath  satisfied  all,  the  defect  hath  bin  in  their  using 
or  abusing  it,  not  in  it  selfe  nor  mee. 

[IV.  X.  T  TPon    these   inducements,    some    few    well    disposed 

^Hp-]    KJ  Gentlemen  and   Merchants  of  London   and   other 

in  New " ""'    P^^'^^^  provided  two  Ships,  the  one  of  one  hundred  and 

England.  sixtie  Tuns,  the  other  of  seventie ;    they  left  the  Coast 

Proofe  II.       of  England  the  three  and  twentieth  of  August,  with 

1620.  about  one  hundred  and  twentie  persons,  but  the  next  day 

the  lesser  Ship  sprung  a  leake,  that  forced  their  returne 

to  Plimouth,  where  discharging  her  and  twentie  Passengers, 

with    the  great   Ship,    and   a    hundred    persons    besides 

Sailers,  they  set  saile  againe  the  sixth  of  September,  and 

the  ninth  of  November  fell  with  Cape  James ;  but  being 

pestred  nine  weekes  in  this  leaking  unwholsome  Ship, 

lying  wet  in   their  Cabbins,  most  of  them  grew  very 

weake  and  weary  of  the  Sea,  then  for  want  of  experience 

ranging  to  and  againe  sixe  weekes  before  they  found  a 

place  they  liked  to  dwell  on,  forced  to  lie  on  the  bare 

ground  without  coverture  in  the  extremitie  of  Winter, 

fortie  of  them  dyed,  and  sixtie  were  left  in  very  weake 

estate  at  the  Ships  comming  away,  about  the  fifth  of  April 

following,  and  arrived  in  England  the  sixth  of  May. 

Proofe  12.  Immediately  after  her  arrivall  from  London,  they  sent 

1620.  another  of  fiftie  five  Tuns  to  supply  them,  with  thirtie 

seven  persons,  they  set  saile  in  the  beginning  of  July,  but 

being  crossed  by  Westerly  winds,   it  was   the  end  of 

August  ere  they  could  passe  Plimouth,  and  arrived  at 

New    Plimouth    in    New    England    the    eleventh    of 

November,  where  they  found  all  the  people   they  left 



In  April,  as  is  said,  lusty  and  in  good  health,  except  six 
that  dyed.  Within  a  moneth  they  returned  here  for 
England,  laded  with  Clapboord,  Wainscot,  and  Walnut, 
with  about  three  Hogsheads  of  Beaver  skins,  and  some 
Saxefras,  the  thirteenth  of  December,  and  drawing  neere 
our  Coast,  was  taken  by  a  Frenchman,  set  out  by  the 
Marquis  of  Cera  Governour  of  He  Deu,  on  the  Coast  of 
Poytou,  where  they  kept  the  Ship,  imprisoned  the  Master 
and  Companie,  tooke  from  them  to  the  value  of  about 
five  hundred  pounds  ;  and  after  fourteene  dayes  sent  them 
home  with  a  poore  supply  of  Victuall,  their  owne  being 
devoured  by  the  Marquis  and  his  hungry  servants ;  they 
arrived  at  London  the  fourteenth  of  Februarie,  leaving 
all  them  they  found  and  carried  to  New  England,  well 
and  in  health,  with  victuall  and  Corne  sufficient  till  the 
next  Harvest. 

The  Copie  of  a  Letter  sent  by  this  Ship. 

LOving  Cousin,  at  our  arrivall  at  New  Plimoth  in  a  Letter  from 
New  England,  wee  found  all  our  Friends  and  Planters  i^ew  Plimoth. 
in  good  health,  though  they  were  left  sicke  and  weake 
with  very  small  meanes,  the  Indians  round  about  us 
peaceable  and  friendly,  the  Countrey  very  pleasant  and 
temperate,  yeelding  naturally  of  it  selfe  great  store  of 
fruits,  as  Vines  of  divers  sorts  in  great  abundance ;  there 
is  likewise  Walnuts,  Chesnuts,  Small-nuts  and  Plums, 
with  much  varietie  of  Flowers,  Roots,  and  Hearbs,  no 
lesse  pleasant  then  wholsome  and  profitable :  no  place 
hath  more  Goose-berries,  and  Straw-berries,  nor  better ; 
Timber  of  all  sorts  you  have  in  England,  doth  cover  the 
Land,  that  affords  Beasts  of  divers  sorts,  and  great 
flockes  of  Turkies,  Quailes,  Pigeons  and  Partridges : 
Many  great  Lakes  abounding  with  Fish,  Fowle,  Beavers, 
and  Otters.  The  Sea  affoords  us  as  great  plentie  of  all 
excellent  sorts  of  Sea-fish,  as  the  Rivers  and  lies  doth 
varietie  of  wild  Fowle  of  most  usefull  sorts.  Mynes  we 
find  to  our  thinking,  but  neither  the  goodnesse  nor 
qualitie  wee  know.  Better  Graine  cannot  be  then  the 
xi3^  3°5  u 



Indian  Corne,  if  we  will  plant  it  upon  as  good  ground 
as  a  man  need  desire.  Wee  are  all  Free-holders,  the  rent 
day  doth  not  trouble  us,  and  all  those  good  blessings  we 
have,  of  which  and  what  wee  list  in  their  seasons  for 
taking.  Our  company  are  for  most  part  very  religious 
honest  people ;  the  Word  of  God  sincerely  taught  us 
every  Sabbath :  so  that  I  know  not  any  thing  a  contented 
mind  can  here  want.  I  desire  your  friendly  care  to  send 
my  Wife  and  Children  to  mee,  where  I  wish  all  the 
Friends  I  have  in  England,  and  so  I  rest 

Your  loving  Kinsman  William  Hilton, 
Pnqfe  13.  From  the  West  Countrey  went  ten  or  twelve  Ships  to 

1022.  Fish,  which  were  all  well  fraughted ;   those  that  came  first 

at  Bilbow,  made  seventeene  pounds  a  single  share,  besides 
Beaver,  Otters,  and  Martins  skins ;  but  some  of  the  rest 
that  came  to  the  same  Ports,  that  were  already  furnished, 
so  glutted  the  Market,  their  price  was  abated,  yet  all 
returned  so  well  contented,  they  are  a  preparing  to  goe 
For  this  yeere  There  is  gone  from  the  West  of  England  onely  to  fish, 
•  thirtie  five  Ships,  and  about  the  last  of  April  two  more 

from  London,  the  one  of  one  hundred  Tuns,  the  other  of 
thirtie,  with  some  sixtie  Passengers  to  supply  the  Planta- 
tion with  all  necessary  provisions.  Now  though  the 
Turke  and  French  hath  beene  somewhat  too  busie,  would 
all  the  Christian  Princes  but  bee  truly  at  unitie,  as  his 
Royall  Majesty  our  Soveraigne  Lord  and  King  desireth, 
seventie  saile  of  good  Ships  were  sufficient  to  fire  the 
most  of  his  Coasts  in  the  Levant,  and  make  such  a  guard 
in  the  straits  of  Hellespont,  as  would  make  the  Great 
Turke  himselfe  more  afraid  in  Constantinople,  then  the 
smallest  Red  Crosse  crosses  the  Seas  would  be,  either 
of  any  French,  Piccaroun,  or  the  Pyrates  of  Argere. 

An  Abstract  of  Letters  sent  from  the  Colony  in 
New  England,  July  sixteene,  1622. 
riV.  X.  Since  the  newes  of  the  Massacre  in  Virginia,  though  the 

1 841.]  Indians  continue  their  wonted  friendship,  yet  are  wee 



more  wary  of  them  then  before;    for  their  hands  have 
beene  embrued  in  much  English  bloud,  onely  by  too  much 
confidence,  but  not  by  force. 

Here  I  must  intreat  a  little  your  favours  to  digresse. 
They  did  not  kill  the  English,  because  they  were 
Christians,  but  for  their  weapons  and  commodities,  that 
were  rare  novelties;  but  now  they  feare  we  may  beat 
them  out  of  their  Dens,  which  Lions  and  Tygers  would 
not  admit  but  by  force.  But  must  this  be  an  argument 
for  an  Englishman,  or  discourage  any  either  in  Virginia 
or  New  England  ?  No :  for  I  have  tried  them  both. 
For  Virginia,  I  kept  that  Countrey,  with  thirtie  eight, 
and  had  not  to  eate  but  what  we  had  from  the  Savages. 
When  I  had  ten  men  able  to  go  abroad,  our  Common- 
wealth was  very  strong:  with  such  a  number  I  ranged 
that  unknowne  Countrey  fourteene  weekes;  I  had  but 
eighteen  to  subdue  them  all,  with  which  great  Army  I 
stayed  sixe  weeks  before  their  greatest  Kings  habitations, 
till  they  had  gathered  together  all  the  power  they  could ; 
and  yet  the  Dutchmen  sent  at  a  needlesse  excessive  charge 
did  helpe  Powhatan  how  to  betray  mee. 

Of  their  numbers  wee  were  uncertaine ;  but  those  two 
honourable  Gentlemen,    Captaine    George    Percie,    and 
Captaine  Francis  West,  two  of  the  Phittiplaces,  and  some 
other  such  noble  Gentlemen  and  resolute  spirits  bore  their 
shares  with  me,  and  now  living  in  England,  did  see  me 
take  this  murdering  Opechankanough,  now  their  Great  Opechama- 
King  by  the  long  lock  on  his  head,  with  my  Pistoll  at  his  ^"^gh  taken  in 
breast,  I  led  him  among  his  greatest  forces,  and  before  /j's'^rmie  as 
wee  parted,  made  him  fill  our  Barke  of  twentie  Tuns  jtabalipawas 
with  Corne.     When  their  owne  wants  was  such,  I  have  by  Pifarra. 
given  them  part  again  in  pitty,  &  others  have  bought  it 
again  to  plant  their  fields.     For  wronging  a  Souldier  but 
the  value  of  a  peny,  I  have  caused  Powhatan  send  his 
own  men  to  James  Town  to  receive  their  punishment,  at 
my  discretion.     It  is  true  in  our  greatest  extremity  they 
shot  me,  slue  three  of  my  men,  and  by  the  folly  of  them 
that  fled  tooke  me  prisoner;    yet  God  made  Pocahontas 




the  Kings  Daughter  tihe  meanes  to  deliver  me :  and 
thereby  taught  mee  to  know  their  treacheries  to  preserve 
the  rest.  It  was  also  my  chance  in  single  combate  to 
take  the  King  of  Paspahegh  prisoner,  and  by  keeping 
him,  forced  his  subjects  to  worke  in  Chaines,  till  I  made 
all  the  Countrey  pay  contribution,  having  little  else 
whereon  to  live. 

Twice  in  this  time  I  was  their  President,  &  none  can 
say  in  all  that  time  I  had  a  man  slain :  but  for  keeping 
them  in  that  feare  I  was  much  blamed  both  there  and 
heere :  yet  I  left  five  hundred  behind  mee  that  through 
their  confidence  in  sixe  monethes  came  most  to  confusion, 
as  you  may  reade  at  large  in  the  description  of  Virginia, 
when  I  went  first  to  those  desperate  designes,  it  cost  me 
many  a  forgotten  pound  to  hire  men  to  goe ;  and 
procrastination  caused  more  runne  away  then  went.  But 
after  the  Ice  was  broken,  came  many  brave  Voluntaries : 
notwithstanding  since  I  came  from  thence,  the  Honorable 
Company  have  beene  humble  Suters  to  his  Majestic  to 
get  Vagabonds  and  condemned  men  to  goe  thither;  nay, 
so  much  scorned  was  the  name  of  Virginia,  some  did 
chuse  to  be  hanged  ere  they  would  goe  thither,  and  were : 
yet  for  all  the  worst  of  spite,  detraction  and  discourage- 
ment, and  this  lamentable  Massacre,  there  are  more  honest 
men  now  suters  to  goe,  then  ever  have  been  constrained 
knaves ;  and  it  is  not  unknowne  to  most  men  of  under- 
standing, how  happy  many  of  those  Callumners  doe 
thinke  themselves,  that  they  might  bee  admitted,  and 
yet  pay  for  their  passage  to  goe  now  to  Virginia :  and 
had  I  but  meanes  to  transport  as  many  as  would  goe,  I 
might  have  choice  of  ten  thousand  that  would  gladly  bee 
in  any  of  those  new  places,  which  were  so  basely  con- 
temned by  ungratefuU  base  minds. 

To  range  this  Countrie  of  New  England,  in  like 
manner  I  had  but  eight,  as  is  said,  and  amongst  their 
bruite  conditions  I  met  many  of  their  silly  incounters,  and 
without  any  hurt,  God  be  thanked :  when  your  West 
Countrie  men  were  many  of  them  wounded,  and  much 



tormented  with  the  Savages  that  assaulted  their  Ship,  as 
they  did  say  themselves,  in  the  first  yeare  I  was  there 
1 6 14.  and  though  Master  Hunt  then  Master  with  me, 
did  most  basely  in  stealing  some  Savages  from  that  coast 
to  sell,  when  he  was  directed  to  have  gone  for  Spaine, 
yet  that  place  was  so  remote  from  Capawuck,  where 
Epenew  should  have  fraughted  them  with  Gold  Ore, 
that  his  fault  could  be  no  cause  of  their  bad  successe, 
however  it  is  alledged  for  an  excuse.  I  speake  not  this 
out  of  vain  glory,  as  it  may  be  some  gleaners,  or  some  was 
never  there,  may  censure  mee:  but  to  let  all  men  be 
assured  by  those  examples,  what  those  Savages  are  that 
thus  strangely  doe  murder  and  betray  our  Countrie  men. 
But  to  the  purpose. 

What  is  already  writ  of  the  healthfulnesse  of  the  ayre, 
the  richnesse  of  the  soyle,  the  goodnesse  of  the  Woods, 
the  abundance  of  Fruits,  Fish,  and  Fowle  in  their  season, 
they  still  affirme  that  have  beene  there  now  neer  two 
yeeres,  and  at  one  draught  they  have  taken  one  thousand 
Basses,  and  in  one  night  twelve  hogsheads  of  Herring. 
They  are  building  a  strong  Fort,  they  hope  shortly  to 
finish,  in  the  interim  they  are  well  provided :  their  number 
is  about  a  hundred  persons,  all  in  health,  and  well  neere 
sixtie  Acres  of  ground  well  planted  with  Corne,  besides 
their  Gardens  well  replenished  with  usefull  fruits ;  and 
if  their  Adventurers  would  but  furnish  them  with  neces- 
saries for  fishing,  their  wants  would  quickly  bee  supplied. 
To  supply  them  this  sixteenth  of  October,  is  going  the 
Paragon,  with  sixtie  seven  persons,  and  all  this  is  done 
by  private  mens  purses.  And  to  conclude  in  their  owne 
words,  should  they  write  of  all  plenties  they  have  found, 
they  thinke  they  should  not  be  beleeved. 

For  the  twentie  sixe  sayle  of  Ships,  the  most  I  can 
yet  understand  is.      M.  Ambrose  Jennens  of  London, 
and  Master  Abraham  Jennens  of  Plimmoth  sent  (their  [IV.  x. 
Abraham)  a  Ship  of  two  hundred  and  twentie  Tuns,  and  1842.] 

the  Nightingale  of  Porchmouth  of  a  hundred :     whose 
Fish  at  the  first  penie  came  to  3 1 50  pounds :    in  all  they 




were  five  and  thirty  saile :  and  wherein  New  found  Land 
they  shared  sixe  or  seven  pounds  for  a  common  man,  in 
New  England  they  shared  fourteene  pounds ;  besides  six 
Dutch  and  French  Ships  made  wonderfull  returnes  in 
1622.  Furres. 

Thus  you  may  see  plainely  the  yearely  successe  from 
New  England  (by  Virginia)  which  hath  bin  so  costly  to 
this  Kingdome,  and  so  deare  to  me,  which  either  to  see 
perish  or  but  bleede,  pardon  me  though  it  passionate  me 
beyond  the  bounds  of  modesty,  to  have  bin  sufficiently 
able  to  foresee  it,  and  had  neither  power  nor  meanes  how 
to  prevent  it.  By  that  acquaintance  I  have  with  them, 
I  may  call  them  my  children,  for  they  have  bin  my  Wife, 
my  Hawkes,  my  Hounds,  my  Cards,  my  Dice,  and  in 
totall  my  best  content,  as  indifferent  to  my  heart  as  my 
left  hand  to  my  right:  and  notwithstanding  all  those 
miracles  of  disasters  have  crossed  both  them  and  me,  yet 
were  there  not  one  Englishman  remaining  (as  God  be 
thanked  there  is  some  thousands)  I  would  yet  begin  againe 
with  as  small  meanes  as  I  did  at  the  first ;  not  for  that 
I  have  any  secret  encouragement  from  any  I  protest,  more 
then  lamentable  experiences:  for  all  their  Discoveries  I 
can  yet  heare  of,  are  but  Pigs  of  my  owne  Sowe ;  nor 
more  strange  to  me  then  to  heare  one  tell  mee  he  hath 
gone  from  Billings  gate  and  discovered  Greenwich, 
Gravesend,  Tilberry,  Quinborow,  Lee  and  Margit,  which 
to  those  did  never  heare  of  them,  though  they  dwell  in 
England,  might  be  made  seeme  some  rare  secrets  and 
great  Countries  unknowne,  except  the  Relation  of  Master 
Dirmer.  But  to  returne:  It  is  certaine,  from  Cannada 
and  New  England  within  these  sixe  yeares,  hath  come 
neere  20000.  Bever  Skins.  Now  had  each  of  those  Ships 
transported  but  some  small  quantitie  of  the  most 
increasing  Beasts,  Fowles,  Fruites,  Plants  and  Seedes, 
as  I  projected,  by  this  time  their  increase  might  have 
bin  sufficient  for  a  thousand  men.  But  the  desire  of 
present  gaine  (in  many)  is  so  violent,  and  the  endevours 
of  many  undertakers  so  negligent,  every  one  so  regarding 



their  private  gaine,  that  it  is  hard  to  effect  any  publicke 
good,  and  impossible  to  bring  them  into  a  body,  rule, 
or  order,  unlesse  both  authority  and  money  assist 
experiences.  It  is  not  a  worke  for  every  one  to  plant  a 
Colony ;  but  when  a  House  is  built,  it  is  no  hard  matter 
to  dwell  in  it.  This  requireth  all  the  best  parts  of  art, 
judgement,  courage,  honesty,  constancy,  diligence  and 
experience  to  doe  but  neere  well:  your  home-bred 
ingrossing  projectors  shall  finde  there  a  great  difference 
betwixt  saying  and  doing.  But  to  conclude,  the  Fishing 
will  goe  forward  if  you  plant  it  or  no  ;  whereby  a  Colonie 
may  be  transported  with  no  great  charge,  that  in  a  short 
time  might  provide  such  fraughts  to  buy  of  us  there 
dwelling,  as  I  would  hope  no  Ship  should  goe  or  come 
empty  from  New  England. 

The  charge  of  this  is  onely  Salt,  Nets,  Hookes,  Lines, 
Knives,  Irish  Rugs,  course  Cloath,  Beades,  Glasse,  and 
such  like  trash,  onely  for  fishing  and  trade  with  the 
Savages,  beside  our  owne  necessary  provisions,  whose 
endevours  will  quickly  defray  all  this  charge :  and  the 
Savages  have  intreated  me  to  inhabite  where  I  will.  Now 
all  these  Ships,  till  this  last  yeare,  have  bin  fished  within 
a  square  of  two  or  three  leagues,  and  not  one  of  them 
all  would  adventure  any  further,  where  questionlesse  five 
hundred  saile  may  have  their  fraught  better  then  in  Island, 
New  found  Land,  or  elsewhere,  and  be  in  their  markets 
before  the  other  can  have  their  fish  in  their  Ships,  because 
New  Englands  fishing  begins  with  February,  the  other 
not  till  mid  May :  the  progression  hereof  tends  much 
to  the  advancement  of  Virginia  and  the  Bermudas,  whose 
emptie  Ships  may  take  in  their  fraught  there,  and  would 
be  a  good  friend  in  time  of  neede  to  the  Inhabitants  of 
New  found  Land,  &c. 




No.  9.  Cafe 

Chap.  nil. 
A  Relation  or  Journall  of  a  Plantation  setled  at 
Plimoth    in    New    England,    and    proceedings 
thereof;  Printed  1622.  and  here  abbreviated. 

Sept.e.iSzo.   Ilc^  ifarcT'/^^Ednesday    the    sixt    of    September,    the 

Winde  comming  East  North-east,  a  fine 
small  gale,  we  loosed  from  Plimoth, 
having  bin  kindely  entertained  and 
curteously  used  by  divers  friends  there 
dwelling,  and  after  many  difficulties  in 
boisterous  stormes,  at  length  by  Gods 
providence  upon  the  ninth  of  November  following,  by 
breake  of  the  day  we  espied  Land,  which  we  deemed  to 
be  Cape  Cod,  and  so  afterward  it  proved.  Upon  the 
eleventh  of  November,  we  came  to  an  anchor  in  the  Bay, 
which  is  a  good  harbour  and  pleasant  Bay,  circled  round, 
except  in  the  entrance,  which  is  about  foure  miles  over 
from  land  to  land,  compassed  about  to  the  verie  Sea  with 
Oakes,  Pines,  Juniper,  Sassafras,  and  other  sweete  Wood : 
it  is  a  harbour  wherein  1000.  saile  of  Ships  may  safely 
ride,  there  wee  relieved  our  selves  with  Wood  and  Water, 
and  refreshed  our  people,  while  our  Shallop  was  fitted  to 
coast  the  Bay,  to  search  for  an  habitation :  there  was  the 
greatest  store  of  Fowle  that  ever  we  saw. 
[IV.  X.  And  everie  day  we  saw  Whales  playing  hard  by  us,  of 

1843-]  which  in  that  place,  if  wee  had  instruments  and  meanes 
to  take  them,  we  might  have  made  a  verie  rich  returne, 
which  to  our  great  griefe  we  wanted.  Our  Master  and 
his  Mate,  and  others  experienced  in  fishing,  professed, 
wee  might  have  made  three  or  foure  thousand  pounds 
worth  of  Oyle ;  they  preferred  it  before  Greenland 
Whale-fishing,  and  purpose  the  next  winter  to  fish  for 
Whale  here :  for  Cod  we  assaied,  but  found  none,  there 
is  good  store  no  doubt  in  their  season.  Neither  got  we 
anie  fish  all  the  time  we  lay  there,  but  some  few  little 
ones  on  the  shoare.     We  found  great  Mussles,  and  verie 



fat  and  full  of  Sea  Pearle,  but  we  could  not  eate  them, 
for  they  made  us  all  sicke  that  did  eate,  as  well  sailers 
as  passengers ;  they  caused  to  cast  and  scoure,  but  they 
were  soone  well  againe.  The  Bale  is  so  round  and 
circling,  that  before  we  could  come  to  anchor,  we  went 
round  all  the  points  of  the  Compasse.  We  could  not 
come  neere  the  shoare  by  three  quarters  of  an  English 
mile,  because  of  shallow  water,  which  was  a  great  prejudice  ///  Landing. 
to  us,  for  our  people  going  on  shoare  were  forced  to  wade 
a  Bow  shoote  or  two  in  going  aland,  which  caused  manie 
to  get  colds  and  coughs,  for  it  was  manie  times  freezing 
cold  weather. 

This  day  before  we  came  to  harbour,  observing  some 
not  well  affected  to  unitie  and  concord,  but  gave  some 
appearance  of  faction,  it  was  thought  good  there  should 
be  an  association  and  agreement,  that  we  should  combine 
together  in  one  bodie,  and  to  submit  to  such  government 
and  Governours,  as  we  should  by  common  consent  agree 
to  make  and  choose,  and  set  our  hands  to  this  that  followes 
word  for  word. 

IN  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  We  whose  names 
are  underwritten,  the  loyall  Subjects  of  our  dread 
Soveraigne  Lord  King  James,  by  the  grace  of  God  of 
Great  Britaine,  France,  and  Ireland  King,  Defender  of 
the  Faith,  &c.  Having  undertaken  for  the  glorie  of  God, 
and  advancement  of  the  Christian  faith,  and  honor  of 
our  King  and  Countrie,  a  Voiage  to  plant  the  first  Colonie 
in  the  Northerne  parts  of  Virginia,  doe  by  these  presents 
solemnely  and  mutually  in  the  presence  of  God  and 
one  of  another,  covenant  and  combine  our  selves  together 
in  a  civiU  bodie  politike,  for  our  better  ordering  and 
preservation,  and  furtherance  of  the  ends  aforesaid ;  and 
by  vertue  hereof  to  enact,  constitute,  and  frame  such 
just  and  equall  Lawes,  Ordinances,  acts,  constitutions, 
offices  from  time  to  time,  as  shall  be  thought  most  meete 
and  convenient  for  the  generall  good  of  the  Colonie : 
unto  which  wee  promise  all  due  submission  and  obedience. 




In  witnesse  whereof  we  have  here  under  suscribed  our 
names.  Cape  Cod  eleventh  of  November,  in  the  yeare 
of  the  raigne  of  our  Soveraigne  Lord  King  James,  of 
England,  France  and  Ireland,  i8.  and  of  Scotland  54. 
Anno  Domino  1620. 

The  same  day  so  soone  as  we  could  we  set  ashoare 
fifteene  or  sixteene  men,  well  armed,  with  some  to  fetch 
Wood,  for  we  had  none  left ;  as  also  to  see  what  the 
Land  was,  and  what  Inhabitants  they  could  meete  with, 
they  found  it  to  be  a  small  necke  of  Land :  on  this  side 
where  we  lay  is  the  Bay,  and  the  furthest  side  the  Sea: 
the  ground  or  earth,  sand  hils,  much  like  the  Downes 
in  Holland,  but  much  better:  the  crust  of  the  earth  a 
Spits  depth,  excellent  blacke  earth:  all  woodded  with 
Oakes,  Pines,  Sassafras,  Juniper,  Birch,  Holly,  Vines, 
some  Ash,  Walnut ;  the  Wood  for  the  most  part  open 
and  without  under-wood,  fit  either  to  goe  or  ride  in :  at 
night  our  people  returned,  but  found  not  anie  person, 
nor  habitation,  and  laded  their  Boate  with  Juniper,  which 
smelled  verie  sweete  and  strong,  and  of  which  wee  burnt 
the  most  part  of  the  time  we  &y  there. 

Munday  the  thirteenth  of  November,  we  unshipped 
our  Shallop,  and  drew  her  on  land,  to  mend  and  repaire 
her,  having  bin  forced  to  cut  her  downe  in  bestowing 
her  betwixt  the  decks,  and  she  was  much  opened  with 
the  peoples  lying  in  her,  which  kept  us  long  there,  for 
it  was  sixteene  or  seventeene  dales  before  the  Carpenter 
had  finished  her:  our  people  went  on  shoare  to  refresh 
themselves,  and  our  women  to  wash,  as  they  had  great 
neede :  but  whilest  wee  lay  thus  still,  hoping  our  Shallop 
would  be  readie  in  five  or  six  dales  at  the  fiarthest,  but 
our  Carpenter  made  slow  worke  of  it,  so  that  some  of 
our  people  impatient  of  delay,  desired  for  our  better 
furtherance  to  travaile  by  Land  into  the  Countrie,  which 
was  not  without  appearance  of  danger,  not  having  the 
Shallop  with  them,  nor  meanes  to  carrie  provision,  but 
on  their  backes,  to  see  whether  it  might  be  fit  for  us  to 
seate  in  or  no,  and  the  rather  because  as  we  sailed  into 



the  Harbour,  there  seemed  to  be  a  River  opening  it  selfe 
into  the  maine  Land ;  the  willingnesse  of  the  persons 
was  liked,  but  the  thing  it  selfe,  in  regard  of  the  danger 
was  rather  permitted  then  approved,  and  so  with  cautions, 
directions,  and  instructions,  sixteene  men  were  set  out 
with  every  man  his  Musket,  Sword,  and  Corslet,  under 
the  conduct  of  Captaine  Miles  Standish,  unto  whom  was 
adjoyned  for  counsell  and  advise,  William  Bradford, 
Stephen  Hopkins,  and  Edward  Tilley. 

Wednesday  the  fifteenth  of  November,  they  were  set 
a  shoare,  and  when  they  had  ordered  themselves  in  order 
of  a  single  File,  and  marched  about  the  space  of  a  mile, 
by  the  Sea  they  espied  five  or  six  people,  with  a  Dogge,  SigAi  of 
comraing  towards  them,  who  were  Savages,  who  when  Savages. 
they  saw  them,  ran  into  the  Woods  and  whistled  the 
Dogge  after  them,  &c.     First,  they  supposed  them  to  be 
Master  Jones,  the  Master  and  some  of  his  men,  for  they 
were  a  shoare,  and  knew  of  their  comming :    but  after 
they  knew  them  to  be  Indians  they  marched  after  them 
into  the  Woods,  least  other  of  the  Indians  shovdd  lye  [iv.  x. 
in  Ambush :    but  when  the  Indians  saw  our  men  following  ' 844] 

them,  they  ran  away  with  might  and  maine ;  and  our 
men  turned  out  of  the  Wood  after  them,  for  it  was  the 
way  they  intended  to  goe,  but  they  could  not  come  neere 
them.  They  followed  them  that  night  about  ten  miles 
by  the  trace  of  their  footings,  &  saw  how  they  had  come 
the  same  way  they  went,  and  at  a  turning  perceived  how 
they  ranne  up  an  hill,  to  see  whether  they  followed  them. 
At  length  night  came  upon  them,  and  they  were  con- 
strained to  take  up  their  lodging^  so  they  set  forth  three 
Sentinels,  and  the  rest,  some  kindled  a  fire,  and  others 
fetched  Woods  &  there  held  our  Randevous  that  night. 
In  the  morning  so  soone  as  we  could  see  the  trace,  we 
proceeded  on  our  journie,  and  had  the  tracke  untill  wee 
had  compassed  the  head  of  a  long  creake,  and  there  they 
tooke  into  another  Wood,  and  we  after  them,  supposing 
to  finde  some  of  their  dwellings,  but  we  marched  thorow 
Boughes  and  Bushes,  and  under  Hils  and  Vallies,  which 




tore  our  verie  Armour  in  peeces,  and  yet  could  meete 
with  none  of  them,  nor  their  houses,  nor  finde  any  fresh 
water,  which  we  greatly  desired,  and  stood  in  neede  off, 
for  we  brought  neither  Beere  nor  Water  with  us,  and 
our  victuals  was  onely  Bisket  and  Holland-Cheese,  and 
a  little  Bottell  of  Aquavite,  so  as  we  were  sore  a  thirst. 
About  ten  a  clocke  we  came  into  a  deepe  Valley,  full  of 
brush,  wood-gaile,  and  long  grasse,  through  which  wee 
A  Deere  end  found  little  paths  or  tracts,  and  there  we  saw  a  Deere, 
"""^'■-  and  found  Springs  of  fresh  Water,  of  which  we  were 

hartily  glad,  and  sat  us  downe  and  drunke  our  first  New 
England  Water,  with  as  much  delight  as  ever  we  drunke 
drinke  in  all  our  lives. 

When  we  had  refreshed  our  selves,  we  directed  our 
course  full  South,  that  wee  might  come  to  the  shoare, 
which  within  a  short  while  after  we  did,  and  there  made 
a  fire,  that  they  in  the  Ship  might  see  where  we  were 
(as  wee  had  direction)  and  so  marched  on  towards  this 
supposed  River :  and  as  we  went  in  another  Valley,  we 
found  a  fine  cleere  Pond  of  fresh  water,  being  about  a 
Musket  shot  broad,  and  twise  as  long :  there  grew  also 
many  small  Vines,  and  Fowle  and  Deere  haunted  there ; 
there  grew  much  Sasafras :  from  thence  we  went  on  and 
found  much  plain  ground  about  fiftie  Acres,  fit  for  the 
Plow,  and  some  signes  where  the  Indians  had  formerly 
planted,  their  Corne:  after  this,  some  thought  it  best 
for  nearenesse  of  the  River  to  goe  downe  and  travaile 
on  the  Sea  sands,  by  which  meanes  some  of  our  men 
were  tired,  and  lagged  behinde,  so  we  stayed  and  gathered 
them  up,  and  strucke  into  the  Land  againe ;  where  we 
found  a  little  path  to  certaine  heapes  of  Sand,  one  whereof 
was  covered  with  old  Mats,  and  had  a  woodden  thing 
like  a  Morter  whelmed  on  the  top  of  it,  and  an  earthen 
pot  laid  in  a  little  hole  at  the  end  thereof ;  we  musing 
what  it  might  be,  digged  and  found  a  Bowe,  and  as  we 
thought,  Arrowes,  but  they  were  rotten;  We  supposed 
there  were  many  other  things,  but  because  we  deemed 
Sepulciers.       them  graves,  we  put  in  the  Bow  againe  and  made  it  up 



as  it  was,  and  left  the  rest  untouched,  because  we  thought 
it  would  be  odious  unto  them  to  ransacke  their  Sepulchers. 
We  went  on  further  and  found  new  stubble  of  which 
they  had  gotten  Corne  this  yeare,  and  many  Walnut  trees 
full  of  Nuts,  and  great  store  of  Strawberries,  and  some 
Vines ;  passing  thus  a  field  or  two,  which  were  not  great, 
we  came  to  another,  which  had  also  bin  new  gotten,  and 
there  wee  found  where  an  house  had  beene,  and  foure 
or  five  old  Plankes  laied  together ;  also  we  found  a  great 
Kettle,  which  had  beene  some  Ships  kettle  and  brought  Kettle  and 
out  of  Europe;  there  was  also  an  heape  of  sand,  made  Cone  found. 
like  the  former,  but  it  was  newly  done,  wee  might  see 
how  they  had  padled  it  with  their  hands,  which  we  digged 
up,  and  in  it  we  found  a  little  old  Basket  full  of  faire 
Indian  Corne,  and  digged  further,  and  found  a  fine  great 
new  Basket  full  of  very  faire  Corne  of  this  yeare,  with 
some  sixe  and  thirty  goodly  eares  of  Corne,  some  yellow, 
and  some  red,  and  others  mixt  with  blew,  which  was  a 
very  goodly  sight :  the  Basket  was  round,  and  narrow 
at  the  top,  it  held  about  three  or  foure  bushels,  which 
was  as  much  as  two  of  us  could  lift  up  from  the  ground, 
and  was  very  handsomely  and  cunningly  made :  But 
whilst  we  were  busie  about  these  things,  we  set  our  men 
Sentinell  in  a  round  ring,  all  but  two  or  three  which  digged 
up  the  Corne.  Wee  were  in  suspence,  what  to  doe  with 
it,  and  the  Kettle,  and  at  length  after  much  consultation, 
we  concluded  to  take  the  Kettle,  and  as  much  of  the 
Corne  as  wee  could  carry  away  with  us :  and  when  our 
Shallop  came  if  we  could  finde  any  of  the  people,  and 
came  to  parley  with  them,  wee  would  give  them  the  Kettle 
againe,  and  satisfie  them  for  their  Corne. 

So  we  tooke  all  the  Eares,  and  put  a  good  deale  of 
the  loose  Corne  in  the  Kettle,  for  two  men  to  bring  away 
one  Staffe ;  besides,  they  that  could  put  away  into  their 
Pockets  filled  the  same ;  the  rest  wee  buried  againe,  for 
we  were  so  laden  with  Armour  that  we  could  carry  no 
more.  Not  farre  fi-om  this  place  we  found  the  remainder 
of  an  old  Fort,  or  Palizado,  which  as  we  conceived  had  Palizado. 




beene  made  by  some  Christians,  this  was  also  hard  by 
that  place  which  we  thought  had  been  a  River,  unto  which 
we  went  and  found  it  so  to  be,  dividing  it  selfe  into  two 
armes  by  an  high  banke,  standing  right  by  the  Cut  or 
Mouth  which  came  from  the  Sea,  that  which  was  next 
unto  us  was  the  lesse,  the  other  arme  was  more  then 
twice  as  big,  and  not  unlike  to  bee  an  Harbour  for 
Ships;  but  whether  it  be  a  fresh  River,  or  onely  an 
indraught  of  the  Sea,  wee  had  no  time  to  discover,  for 
we  had  commandement  to  be  out  but  two  dayes.  Here 
also  we  saw  two  Canoas,  the  one  on  the  one  side,  the 
other  on  the  other  side,  we  could  not  beleeve  it  was  a 

The-j  returne.  Canoa,  till  we  came  neere  it,  so  we  returned,  leaving  the 
further  discovery  hereof  to  our  Shallop,  and  came  that 

[IV.  X.  night  backe  againe  to  the  fresh  water  pond,  and  there 

'  +5 -J  -^ye  made  our  randevous  that  night,  making  a  great  fire, 
and  a  Baricado  to  windward  of  us,  and  kept  good  watch 
with  three  Sentinels  all  night,  every  one  standing  when 
his  turne  came,  while  five  or  sixe  inches  of  Match  was 
burning.  It  proved  a  very  rainie  night.  In  the  morning 
we  tooke  our  Kettle  and  sunke  it  in  the  Pond,  and 
trimmed  our  Muskets,  for  few  of  them  would  goe  off 
because  of  the  wet,  and  so  coasted  the  Wood  againe  to 
come  home,  in  which  we  were  shrewdly  pusled,  and  lost 
our  way ;  as  we  wandred  we  came  to  a  tree,  where  a 
yong  Spirit  was  bowed  downe  over  a  Bowe,  and  some 
Acornes  strewed  underneath ;    Stephen  Hopkins  said,  it 

Devise  to  ^^d  beene  to  catch  some  Deere,  so,  as  we  were  looking 
at  it,  William  Bradford  being  in  the  Reare,  when  he  came 
looking  also  upon  it,  and  as  he  went  about,  it  gave  a 
sodaine  jerke  up,  and  he  was  immediately  caught  by  the 
legge :  It  was  a  very  pretty  devise,  made  with  a  Roape 
of  their  owne  making,  and  having  a  noose  as  artificially 
made,  as  any  Roper  in  England  can  make,  and  as  like 
ours  as  can  be,  which  wee  brought  away  with  us.  In 
the  end  wee  got  out  of  the  Wood,  and  were  fallen  about 
a  mile  too  high  above  the  creake,  where  we  saw  three 
Buckes,  but  we  had  rather  have  had  one  of  jthem.     W.e 


catch  Deere. 


also  did  spring  three  couple  of  Partridges ;  and  as  we 
came  along  by  the  creake,  we  saw  great  flockes  of  wilde 
Geese  and  Duckes,  but  they  were  very  fearefiall  of  us. 
So  we  marched  some  while  in  the  Woods,  some  while 
on  the  Sands,  and  other  while  in  the  Water  up  to  the 
knees,  till  at  length  we  came  neere  the  Ship,  and  then 
we  shot  off  our  Peeces,  and  the  long  Boate  came  to  fetch 
us :  Master  Jones  and  Master  Carver  being  on  the  shoare, 
with  many  of  our  people,  came  to  meete  us.  And  thus 
wee  came  both  weary  and  welcome  home,  and  delivered 
in  our  Corne  into  the  store,  to  be  kept  for  seede,  for 
we  knew  not  how  to  come  by  any,  and  therefore  was 
very  glad,  purposing  so  soone  as  we  could  meete  with 
any  of  the  Inhabitants  of  that  place,  to  make  them  large 

When  our  Shallop  was  fit  indeede,  before  she  was  fully 
fitted,  for  there  was  two  dales  worke  after  bestowed  on 
her,  there  was  appointed  some  foure  and  twenty  men  of 
our  owne,  and  armed,  then  to  goe  and  make  a  more  fiall 
discovery  of  the  Rivers  before  mentioned.  Master  Jones 
was  desirous  to  goe  with  us,  and  tooke  such  of  his  Saylers 
as  he  thought  usefull  for  us,  so  as  we  were  in  all  about 
foure  and  thirty  men :  we  made  Master  Jones  our 
Leader,  for  we  thought  it  best  herein  to  gratifie  his 
kindnesse  and  forwardnesse.  When  we  were  set  forth, 
it  proved  rough  weather  and  crosse  windes,  so  as  we 
were  constrained,  some  in  the  Shallop,  and  others  in  the 
long  Boate,  to  row  to  the  neerest  shoare  the  winde  would 
suffer  them  to  goe  unto,  and  then  to  wade  out  above 
the  knees ;  the  winde  was  so  strong  as  the  Shallop  could 
not  keepe  the  water,  but  was  forced  to  harbour  there  that 
night,  but  we  marched  six  or  seven  miles  further,  and 
appointed  the  Shallop  to  come  to  us  as  soone  as  they 
could.  It  blowed  and  did  snow  all  that  day  and  night, 
and  frose  withall ;  some  of  our  people  that  are  dead  tooke 
the  originall  of  their  death  here.  The  next  day  about 
eleven  a  clocke  our  Shallop  came  to  us,  and  we  shipped 
J3ur  selves,  and  the  winde  being  good,  we  sailed  to  the 




ColdHarbour.  River  we  formerly  discovered,  which  we  named  Cold 
Harbour,  to  which  when  we  came  we  found  it  not 
Navigable  for  Ships,  yet  we  thought  it  might  be  a  good 
harbour  for  Boates,  for  it  flowes  there  twelve  foot  at 
high  water.  We  landed  our  men  betweene  the  two 
creekes,  and  marched  some  foure  or  five  miles  by  the 
greater  of  them,  and  the  Shallop  followed  us :  at  length 
night  grew  on,  and  our  men  were  tired  with  marching 
up  and  downe  the  steepe  Hils,  and  deepe  Vallies,  whicn 
lay  halfe  a  foote  thicke  with  Snow :  Master  Jones  wearied 
with  marching,  was  desirous  we  should  take  up  our 
lodging,  though  some  of  us  would  have  marched  fiarther, 
so  we  made  there  our  Randevous  for  that  night,  under 
a  few  Pine  trees,  and  as  it  fell  out  we  got  three  Geese, 
and  six  Duckes  to  our  Supper,  which  we  eate  with. 
Soldiers  stomacks,  for  we  had  eaten  little  all  that  day. 
We  marched  to  the  place  where  we  had  the  Corne 
formerly,  which  place  we  called  Corne-hill ;  &  digged 
&  found  the  rest,  of  which  we  were  very  glad :  we  also 
digged  in  a  place  a  little  farther  off,  &  round  a  bottle 
of  Oyle,  we  went  to  another  place  which  we  had  seen 
before  &  digged  and  found  more  Corn,  viz.  two  or  three 

Note.  Baskets  full  of  Indian  wheat,  and  a  bag  of  Beans,  with 

a  good  many  of  faire  wheat-eares;  whilst  some  of  us 
were  digging  up  this,  some  others  found  another  heape 
of  Corn,  which  they  digged  up  also,  so  as  we  had  in  all 
about  ten  Bushels,  which  will  serve  us  sufficiently  for 
Seede.  And  sure  it  was  Gods  good  providence  that  we 
found  this  corn,  for  else  we  knew  not  how  we  should 
have  done,  for  we  knew  not  how  we  should  finde,  or 
meete  with  any  of  the  Indians,  except  it  be  to  doe  us  a 
mischiefe.  Also  we  had  never  in  all  likelihood  seene  a 
graine  of  it,  if  we  had  not  made  our  first  Journey ;    for 

Frost  and        the  ground  was  now  covered  with  Snow,  and  so  hard 

■Snow.  frosen,  that  we  were  faine  with  our  Curtlaxes  and  short 

Swords,  to  hew  and  carve  the  ground  a  foote  deepe,  and 
then  wrest  it  up  with  leavers,  for  we  had  forgot  to  bring 
other  Tooles :    whilst  we  were  in  this  imploiment,  foule 



-weather  being  towards,  M.  Jones  was  earnest  to  goe 
aboord,  but  sundry  of  us  desired  to  make  further  dis- 
covery, and  to  finde  out  the  Indians  habitations,  so  we 
«ent  home  with  him  our  weakest  people,  and  some  that 
were  sicke,  and  all  the  Corne,  and  eighteene  of  us  staied 
still,  and  lodged  there  that  night,  &  desired  that  the 
Shallop  might  returne  to  us  next  day,  and  bring  us  some 
Mattockes  and  Spades  with  them. 

When  wee  had  marched  five  or  six  miles  into  the 
Woods,  and  could  find  no  signes  of  any  people,  wee 
returned  againe  another  way,  and  as  we  came  into  the 
plaine  ground,  wee  found  a  place  like  a  grave,  but  it 
was  much  bigger  and  longer  then  any  wee  had  yet  seene. 
It  was  also  covered  with  boords,  so  as  wee  mused  whaJ: 
it  should  be,  and  resolved  to  dig  it  up ;  where  we  found, 
first  a  Mat,  and  under  that  a  faire  Bow,  and  there  another  [IV.  x. 
Mat,  and  under  that  a  Boord  about  three  quarters  long,  1846.] 

finely  carved  and  painted,  with  three  Tynes,  or  broches 
on  the  top,  like  a  Crown ;  also  betweene  the  Mats  we 
found  Bowles,  Trayes,  Dishes,  and  such  like  Trinkets ; 
at  length  wee  came  to  a  faire  new  Mat,  and  under  that 
two  Bundles,  the  one  bigger,  the  other  lesse,  we  opened 
the  greater  and  found  in  it  a  great  quantitie  of  fine  and 
perfect  Red  Powder,  and  in  it  the  bones  and  skull  of  a 
man.  The  skull  had  fine  yellow  haire  still  on  it,  and 
some  of  the  flesh  unconsumed ;  there  was  bound  up  with 
a  Knife,  a  Packneedle,  and  two  or  three  old  Iron  things. 
It  was  bound  up  in  a  Saylers  Canvas  Casacke,  and  a 
payre  of  Cloth  Breeches ;  the  Red  Powder  was  a  kind 
of  Embaulment,  and  yeelded  a  strong,  but  no  offensive 
smell ;  It  was  as  fine  as  any  Flower.  We  opened  the 
lesse  bundle  like  wise,  and  found  of  the  same  Powder 
in  it,  and  the  bones  and  head  of  a  little  childe,  about  the 
legges,  and  other  parts  of  it  was  Bound  strings,  and 
Bracelets  of  fine  white  Beads ;  there  was  also  by  it  a 
little  Bow,  about  three  quarters  long,  and  some  other 
odde  knackes :  we  brought  sundry  of  the  pretiest  things 
away  with  us,  and  covered  the  Corps  up  againe.  After 
XIX  321  X 



this,  we  digged  in  sundry  like  places,  but  found  no  more 
Corne,  nor  any  things  else  but  graves :  Whilest  we  were 
thus  ranging  and  searching,  two  of  the  Saylers,  which 
Two  houses,  were  newly  come  on  the  shoare,  by  chance  espied  two 
houses,  which  had  beene  lately  dwelt  in,  but  the  people 
were  gone.  They  having  their  Peeces,  and  hearing  no 
body,  entred  the  houses,  and  tooke  out  some  thing,  and 
durst  not  stay  but  came  again  &  told  us ;  so  some  seven 
or  eight  of  us  went  with  them,  and  found  how  wee  had 
gone  within  a  flight  shot  of  them  before.  The  houses 
were  made  with  long  young  Sapling  Trees  bended,  and 
both  ends  stucke  into  the  ground ;  they  were  made  round, 
like  unto  an  Arbour,  and  covered  downe  to  the  ground 
with  thicke  and  well  wrought  Mats,  and  the  doore  was 
not  over  a  yard  high,  made  of  a  Mat  to  open :  the 
Chimney  was  a  wide  open  hole  in  the  top,  for  which 
they  had  a  Mat  to  cover  it  close  when  they  pleased,  one 
might  stand  and  goe  upright  in  them ;  in  the  midst  of 
them  were  foure  little  Trunches  knockt  into  the  ground, 
and  small  stickes  laid  over,  on  which  they  hung  their 
Pots,  and  what  they  had  to  seeth :  round  about  the  fire 
they  lay  on  Mats,  which  are  their  Beds.  The  Houses 
were  double  matted,  for  as  they  were  matted  without,  so 
were  they  within,  with  newer  and  fairer  Mats.  In  the 
Houshold  Houses  wee  found  Woodden  Bowles,  Trayes  and  Dishes, 
stuffe.  Earthen  Pots,  Hand-baskets  made  of  Crab-shells,  wrought 

together :  also  an  English  Payle  or  Bucket,  it  wanted  a 
Baile,  but  it  had  two  Iron  Eares :  there  was  also  Baskets 
of  sundry  sorts,  bigger,  and  some  lesser,  finer,  and  some 
courser :  some  were  curiously  wrought  with  Blacke  and 
White  in  prettie  workes,  and  sundry  other  of  their 
houshold  stufi^e :  wee  found  also  two  or  three  Deeres 
Heads,  one  whereof  had  been  newly  killed,  for  it  was 
still  fresh :  there  was  also  a  company  of  Deeres  Feete, 
stucke  up  in  the  Houses,  Harts  Homes,  and  Eagles 
Clawes,  and  sundry  such  like  things  there  was :  also  two 
or  three  Baskets  full  of  parched  Acornes,  pieces  of  Fish, 
and  a  piece  of  a  broyled  Herring.     We  found  also  a 




little  Silke  Grasse,  and  a  little  Tobacco  Seed,  with  some 
other  Seeds  which  wee  knew  not :  without  was  sundry- 
bundles  of  Flags,  and  Sedge,  Bull-rushes,  and  other  stufFe 
to  make  Mats ;  there  was  thrust  into  an  hollow  Tree, 
two  or  three  pieces  of  Venison,  but  wee  thought  it  fitter 
for  the  Dogges  then  for  us :  some  of  the  best  things 
wee  tooke  away  with  us,  and  left  the  houses  standing 
still  as  they  were :  Much  disputation  fell  out  about  the 
place  where  wee  should  abide;  and  a  Company  was 
chosen  to  goe  out  upon  a  third  Discovery  (whilest  some 
were  imployed  in  this  Discovery,  it  pleased  God  that 
Mistris  White  was  brought  a  bed  of  a  Sonne,  which  was 
called  Peregrine.) 

Wednesday  the  sixt  of  December  we  set  out,  being  Third 
very  cold  and  hard  weather,  we  were  a  long  while  after  discoverie. 
wee  lanched  from  the  Ship,  before  wee  could  get  cleere 
of  a  Sandy  Point,  which  lay  within  lesse  then  a  furlong 
of  the  same.  In  which  time,  two  were  very  sicke,  and 
Edward  Tilley  had  like  to  have  founded  with  cold ;  the  Extreme  cold. 
Gunner  was  also  sicke  unto  Death  (but  hope  of  trucking 
made  him  to  goe)  and  so  remained  all  that  day,  and  the 
next  night :  at  length  wee  got  cleare  of  the  Sandy  Point, 
and  got  up  our  Sayles,  and  within  an  houre  or  two  wee 
got  under  the  weather  shoare,  and  then  had  smoother 
water  and  better  sayling,  but  it  was  very  cold,  for  the 
water  froze  on  our  clothes,  and  made  them  many  times 
like  coats  of  Iron :  wee  sayled  sixe  or  seven  leagues  by 
the  shoare,  but  saw  neither  River  nor  Creeke,  at  length 
wee  met  with  a  tongue  of  Land,  being  flat  off  from  the 
shoare,  with  a  Sandy  point,  wee  bore  up  to  gaine  the 
Point,  and  found  there  a  faire  Income  or  Rode,  of  a  Bay, 
being  a  league  over  at  the  narrowest,  and  some  two  or 
three  in  length,  but  wee  made  right  over  to  the  Land 
before  us,  and  left  the  discoverie  of  this  Income  till  the 
next  day :  as  wee  drew  neere  to  the  shoare,  wee  espied 
some  ten  or  twelve  Indians,  very  busie  about  a  blacke 
thing,  what  it  was  wee  could  not  tell,  till  afterwards  they 
saw  us,  and  ran  to  and  fro,  as  if  they  had  beene  carrying 




something  away,  wee  landed  a  league  or  two  from  them, 

and  had  much  adoe  to  put  a  shoare  any  where,  it  lay  so 

full  of  flat  Sands :    when  wee  came  to  shoare,  we  made 

us   a   Baricado,   and   got   fire   Wood,   and   set   out  our 

Sentinells,  and  betooke  us  to  our  lodging,  such  as  it  was; 

wee  saw  the  smoake  of  the  fire  which  the  Savages  made 

that  night,  about  foure  or  five  miles  from  us :     in  the 

GrampttsBay.  morning  wee  divided  our  Company,  some  eight  in  the 

They  found      Shallop,  and  the  rest  on  the  shoare  went  to  discover  this 

Grampuses       place,  but  we  found  it  onely  to  be  a  Bay,  without  either 

dead,  two        River  or  Creeke  comminof  into  it.     This  place  the  most 

inches  tntcke  of  -jj  1        uH^i/^  u         l 

fat  and  five  or  '^^^^  minded  wee  should  call,  the  Grampus  Bay,  because 

six  paces  long,   wee  found  many  of  them  there :     we  followed  the  tract 

[IV.  X.  of  the  Indians  bare  feet  a  good  way  on  the  Sands,  at 

1847-]  length  we  saw  here  they  strucke  into  the  Woods  by  the 

side  of  a  Pond,  as  we  went  to  view  the  place,  one  said, 

he  thought  he  saw  an  Indian-house  among  the  Trees,  so 

went  up  to  see :    and  here  we  and  the  Shallop  lost  sight 

one  of  another  till  night,  it  being  now  about  nine  or  ten 

a  clocke ;    so  we  lite  on  a  path,  but  saw  no  house,  and 

followed  a  great  way  into  the  Woods,  at  length  we  found 

where  Corne  had  been  set,  but  not  that  yeere ;   anon  we 

found    a   great    burying   place,    one    part    whereof  was 

incompassed  with  a  large  Palizado,  like  a  Church-yard, 

with  young  spires  foure  or  five  yards  long,  set  as  close 

one  by  another  as  they  could  two  or  three  foot  in  the 

ground ;    within  it  was  full  of  Graves,  some  bigger  and 

some  lesse,  some  were  also  paled  about,  and  others  had 

like  an  Indian-house  made  over  them,  but  not  matted : 

those  Graves  were  more  sumptuous  then  those  at  Corne- 

hill,  yet  we  digged  none  of  them  up,  only  viewed  them 

and  went  our  way :    without  the  Palizado  were  Graves 

also,  but  not  so  costly.     We  went  ranging  up  and  downe 

till  the  Sunne  began  to  draw  low,  and  then  we  hasted 

out  of  the  Woods,  that  we  might  come  to  our  Shallop. 

By  that  time  we  had  done,  and  our  Shallop  come  to  us 

it  was  within  night,  and  we  fed  upon  such  victualls  as 

we  had,  and  betooke  us  to  our  rest  after  we  had  set  out 




our  watch.  About  midnight  we  heard  a  great  and  hideous 
cry,  and  our  Sentinell  called,  Arme,  Arme.  So  we 
bestirred  our  selves  and  shot  off  a  couple  of  Muskets 
and  noise  ceased :  we  concluded,  that  it  was  a  company 
of  Wolves  &  Foxes,  for  one  told  us  he  had  heard  such 
a  noise  in  New-found-land.  About  five  a  clocke  in  the 
morning  we  began  to  be  stirring,  upon  a  sudden  wee 
heard  a  great  &  strange  cry  which  we  knew  to  be  the 
same  voices,  though  they  varied  their  notes ;  one  of  the 
company  being  abroad  came  running  in,  and  cried.  They 
are  men,  Indians,  Indians ;  and  withall,  their  Arrowes 
came  flying  amongst  us,  our  men  ran  out  with  all  speed 
to  recover  their  Armes.  The  cry  of  our  enemies  was 
dreadfuU,  especially,  when  our  men  ran  out  to  recover 
their  Armes,  their  note  was  after  this  manner,  Woath 
woach  ha  ha  hach  woach :  our  men  were  no  sooner  come 
to  their  Armes,  but  the  enemy  was  readie  to  assault  them. 
There  was  a  lustie  man,  and  no  whit  lesse  valiant, 
who  was  thought  to  be  their  Captain,  stood  behind  a 
Tree  within  halfe  a  Musket  shot  of  us,  and  there  let  his 
Arrowes  flie  at  us ;  hee  stood  three  shots  off  a  Musket, 
at  length  one  tooke  as  he  said  full  ayme  at  him,  after 
which  he  gave  an  extraordinarie  cry  and  away  they  went 
all,  wee  followed  them  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  but 
wee  left  sixe  to  keepe  our  Shallop,  for  wee  were  carefull 
of  our  businesse.  Wee  tooke  up  eighteene  of  their 
Arrowes,  which  wee  had  sent  to  England  by  Master 
Jones,  some  whereof  were  headed  with  brasse,  others 
with  Harts  home,  and  others  with  Eagles  clawes ;  many 
more  no  doubt  were  shot,  for  these  wee  found  were  almost 
covered  with  leaves :  yet  by  the  speciall  providence  of 
God,  none  of  them  either  hit  or  hurt  us.  On  Munday 
we  found  a  very  good  Harbour  for  our  shipping,  we  A  good  Har- 
marched  also  into  the  Land,  and  found  divers  corne  Fields  tour. 
and  little  running  Brookes,  a  place  verie  good  for 
scituation,  so  we  returned  to  our  Ship  againe  with  good 
newes  to  the  rest  of  our  people,  which  did  much  comfort 
their  hearts. 




This  Harbour  is  a  Bay  greater  then  Cape  Cod, 
compassed  with  a  goodly  Land,  and  in  the  Bay  two  fine 
Hands  uninhabited,  wherein  are  nothing  but  Woods,  Okes, 
Pines,  Wal-nut,  Beech,  Sasifras,  Vines,  and  other  Trees 
which  we  know  not.  This  Bay  is  a  most  hopefull  place, 
innumerable  store  of  Fowle,  and  excellent  good,  and 
cannot  but  be  of  Fish  in  their  seasons :  Skote,  Cod, 
Turbot  and  Herring  we  have  tasted  of,  abundance  of 
Musics  the  greatest  and  best  that  ever  we  saw ;  Crabs 
and  Lobsters,  in  their  time  infinite :  It  is  in  fashion  like 
a  Cikle  or  Fish-hooke. 

The  eighteenth  we  went  along  the  Coast  in  the  Woods, 
some  seven  or  eight  mile,  but  saw  not  an  Indian,  nor  an 
Indian  house,  onely  we  found  where  formerly  had  beene 
some  Inhabitants,  and  where  they  had  planted  their 
Corne :  wee  found  not  any  Navigable  River,  but  foure 
or  five  small  running  Brookes  of  very  fresh  water,  that 
all  run  into  the  Sea.  The  Land  for  the  crust  of  the  earth 
is  a  spits  depth,  excellent  blacke  mould  and  fat  in  some 
places ;  two  or  three  great  Okes,  but  not  very  thicke, 
Pines,  Walnuts,  Beech,  Ash,  Birch,  Hasell,  HoUey,  Asp, 
Sasifras,  in  abundance,  and  Vines  every  where,  Cherry- 
trees,  Plum-trees,  and  many  other  which  we  know  not ; 
many  kinds  of  Hearbs  we  found  here  in  Winter,  as 
Strawberry  leaves  innumerable,  Sorrell,  Yarow,  Carvell, 
Brook-lime,  Liver-wort,  Water-cresses,  great  store  of 
Leeks  and  Onyons,  and  an  excellent  strong  kind  of  Flax 
and  Hempe.  Here  is  Sand,  Gravell,  and  excellent  Clay, 
no  better  in  the  World,  excellent  for  Pots,  and  will  wash 
like  Sope,  and  great  store  of  Stone,  though  somewhat 
soft,  and  the  best  water  that  ever  we  drunke,  and  the 
Brookes  now  begin  to  be  full  of  Fish ;  that  night  many 
being  weary  with  marching,  we  went  aboord  againe. 

The  nineteenth  of  December,  after  our  landing  and 
viewing  of  the  places,  so  well  as  we  could  we  came  to 
a  conclusion,  by  most  voyces,  to  set  on  the  Maine  Land, 
on  the  first  place,  on  an  high  ground,  where  there  is  a 
great  deale  of  Land  cleered,  and  hath  beene  planted  with 




Corne  three  or  foure  yeeres  agoe,  and  there  is  a  very 
sweet  Brook  runs  under  the  Hill  side,  and  many  delicate 
Springs  of  as  good  water  as  can  be  drunke,  and  where 
wee  may  harbour  our  Shallops  and  Boates  exceeding  well, 
and  in  this  Brooke  is  much  good  Fish  in  their  seasons. 
On  the  further  side  of  the  River  also  much  Corne  ground 
cleered,  in  one  Field  is  a  great  HiU,  on  which  wee  point 
to  make  a  plat-forme,  and  plant  our  Ordnance,  which 
will  command  all  round  about,  from  thence  we  may  see 
into  the  Bay,  and  far  into  the  Sea,  and  we  may  see  thence 
Cape  Cod. 

Saturday  the  three  and  twentieth,  so  many  of  us  as  [IV.  x. 
could  went  on  shore,  felled  and  carried  timber,  to  provide  1848. J 

themselves  stufFe  for  building.  Munday  the  five  and 
twentieth,  wee  went  on  shoare,  some  to  fell  timber,  some 
to  sawe,  some  to  rive,  and  some  to  carry,  so  no  man  rested 
all  that  day. 

Munday  the  five  and  twentieth,  being  Christmasse  day, 
we  began  to  drinke  water  aboord,  but  at  night  the  Master 
caused  us  to  have  some  Beer,  and  so  on  boord  we  had 
divers  times  now  &  then  some  Beere,  but  on  shoare  none 
at  all.  Wee  tooke  notice  how  many  Families  they  were, 
willing  all  single  men  that  had  no  wives  to  joyne  with 
some  Family  as  they  thought  fit,  that  so  wee  might  build 
fewer  houses,  which  was  done,  and  we  reduced  them  to 
nineteene  Families ;  to  greater  Families  we  allotted  larger 
plots,  to  every  person  halfe  a  Pole  in  breadth,  and  three 
in  length,  and  so  Lots  were  cast  where  every  man  should 
lie,  which  was  done,  and  staked  out ;  we  thought  this 
proportion  was  large  enough  at  the  first,  for  Houses  and 
Gardens  to  impale  them  round,  considering  the  weakenesse 
of  our  people,  many  of  them  growing  ill  with  colds,  for 
our  former  Discoveries  in  frost  and  stormes,  and  the 
wading  at  Cape  Cod  had  brought  much  weaknesse 
amongst  us,  which  increased  every  day  more  and  more, 
and  after  was  the  cause  of  many  of  ovir  deaths. 

Friday  and  Saturday  wee  fitted  our  selves  for  our 
labour,  but  our  people  on  shoare  were  much  troubled 




and  discouraged  with  rayne  and  wet  that  day,  being  very- 
stormy  and  cold ;  wee  saw  great  smoakes  of  fire  made 
by  the  Indians,  about  six  or  seven  miles  from  us  as  wee 

Thursday  the  fourth  of  Januarie,  Captaine  Miles 
Standish,  with  foure  or  five  more,  went  to  see  if  they 
could  meete  with  any  of  the  Savages  in  that  place  where 
the  fires  was  made,  they  went  to  some  of  their  houses 
but  not  lately  inhabited,  yet  could  they  not  meet  with 
any ;  as  they  came  home,  they  shot  at  an  Eagle  and 
killed  her,  which  was  excellent  meat ;  It  was  hardly  to 
be  discerned  from  Mutton. 

Tuesday  the  ninth  of  Janury,  was  a  reasonable  faire 
day,  and  wee  went  to  labour  that  day  in  the  building  of 
our  Towne,  in  two  rowes  of  houses  for  more  safetie : 
wee  divided  by  lot  the  plot  of  ground  whereon  to  build- 
our  Towne :  After  the  proportion  formerly  allotted,  we 
agreed  that  every  man  should  build  his  owne  house,, 
thinking  by  that  course  men  would  make  more  hast  then 
working  in  common :  the  common  house,  in  which  for 
the  first  we  made  our  Rendevous,  being  neere  finished,^ 
wanting  only  covering,  it  being  about  twentie  foot  square, 
some  should  make  morter,  and  some  gather  thatch,  so 
that  in  foure  dales  halfe  of  It  was  thatched,  frost  and 
foule  weather  hindered  us  much ;  this  time  of  the  yeare 
seldome  could  we  worke  halfe  the  weeke. 

On  the  twelfth  day,  John  Goodman  and  Peter  Browne 
at  dinner  time  tooke  their  meat  in  their  hands,  and  would 
go  walke  and  refresh  themselves,  so  going  a  little  off 
they  find  a  Lake  of  water,  and  having  a  great  Mastiffe 
bitch  with  them,  and  a  Spannell ;  by  the  water  side  they 
found  a  great  Deere,  the  Dogs  chased  him,  and  they 
followed  so  far  as  they  lost  themselves,  and  could  not 
find  the  way  backe,  they  wandred  all  that  afternoone  being 
wet,  and  at  night  did  freeze  and  snow,  they  were  slenderly 
apparelled,  and  had  no  weapons  but  each  one  his  Cicle, 
nor  any  victualls,  they  ranged  up  and  downe  and  could 
finde  none  of  the  Savages  habitations.     When  it  drew 



to  night  they  were  much  perplexed,  for  they  could  find 
neither  harbour  nor  meat,  but  in  frost  and  snow,  were 
forced  to  make  the  Earth  their  bed,  and  the  Element 
their  covering,  and  another  thing  did  very  much  terrifie 
them ;  they  heard  as  they  thought  two  Lions  roaring 
exceedingly  for  a  long  time  together,  and  a  third,  that 
they  thought  was  very  neere  them :  so  not  knowing 
what  to  doe,  they  resolved  to  climbe  up  into  a  Tree  as 
the  safest  refuge,  though  that  would  prove  an  intoUerable 
cold  lodging.  They  stood  at  the  Trees  root,  that  when 
the  Lions  came  they  might  take  their  opportunitie  of 
climbing  up,  the  Bitch  they  were  faine  to  hold  by  the 
necke,  for  shee  would  have  beene  gone  to  the  Lion ;  but 
it  pleased  God  so  to  dispose,  that  the  wild  Beasts  came 
not :  so  they  walked  up  and  downe  under  the  Tree  all 
night,  it  was  an  extreame  cold  night ;  so  soone  as  it  was 
light  they  travelled  againe,  passing  by  many  Lakes,  and 
Brookes,  and  Woods,  and  in  one  place  where  the  Savages 
had  burnt  the  space  of  five  miles  in  length,  which  is  a 
fine  Champion  Countrey,  and  even.  In  the  afternoon  it 
pleased  God  from  an  high  HiU,  they  discovered  the  two 
lies  in  the  Bay,  and  so  that  night  got  to  the  Plantation, 
being  ready  to  faint  with  travell  and  want  of  victualls, 
and  almost  famished  with  cold,  John  Goodman  was  faine 
to  have  his  shooes  cut  off  his  feet  they  were  so  swelled 
with  cold,  and  it  was  a  long  while  after  ere  hee  was  able 
to  goe.  The  house  was  fired  occasionally  by  a  sparke 
that  flew  into  the  thatch,  which  instantly  burnt  it  all  up, 
but  the  roofe  stood  and  little  hurt ;  the  most  losse  was 
Master  Carvers  and  William  Bradfords,  who  then  lay 
sicke  in  bed,  and  if  they  had  not  risen  with  good  speed, 
had  beene  blowne  up  with  powder :  but  through  Gods 
mercy  they  had  no  harme ;  the  house  was  as  full  of  beds 
as  they  could  lie  one  by  another,  and  their  Muskets 
charged,  but  blessed  be  God  there  was  no  harme  done. 

Munday  the  fifteenth  day,  it  rained  much  all  day,  that 
they  on  ship-boord  could  not  goe  on  shoare,  nor  they 
on  shoare  doe  any  labour  but  were  all  wet.     Tuesday, 





Two  great 

Wednesday,  Thursday,  were  very  faire  Sun-shiny  daies, 
as  if  it  had  beene  in  April,  and  our  people  so  many  as 
were  in  health  wrought  chearefully.  The  ninteenth 
day  wee  resolved  to  make  a  Shed,  to  put  our  common 
provision  in,  of  which  some  were  already  set  on  shoare, 
[IV.  X.  buf  a,t  noone  it  rained  that  wee  could  not  worke.     This 

day  in  the  evening,  John  Goodman  went  abroad  to  use 
his  lame  feet,  that  were  pittyfuUy  ill  with  the  cold  hee 
had  got,  having  a  little  Spannell  with  him,  a  little  way 
from  the  Plantation,  two  great  Wolves  ran  after  the  Dog, 
the  Dog  ran  to  him,  and  betwixt  his  legs  for  succour, 
he  had  nothing  in  his  hand,  but  tooke  up  a  sticke  and 
threw  at  one  of  them  and  hit  him,  and  they  presently 
ran  both  away,  but  came  againe;  he  got  a  Paile  boord 
in  his  hand,  and  they  sate  both  on  their  tailes,  grinning 
at  him  a  good  while  and  went  their  way  and  left  him. 

Saturday  the  seventeenth  day  in  the  morning,  we  called 
a  meeting  for  the  establishing  of  Military  Orders  amongst 
our  selves,  and  we  chose  Miles  Standish  our  Captaine, 
and  gave  him  authoritie  of  command  in  affayres. 

Saturday  the  third  of  March,  the  wind  was  South,  the 
morning  mystie,  but  towards  noone  warme  and  faire 
weather :  the  Birds  sang  in  the  Woods  most  pleasantly ; 
Thunder.  at  one  of  the  clocke  it  thundred,  which  was  the  first  we 
heard  in  that  Countrey,  it  was  strong  and  great  claps, 
but  short,  but  after  an  houre  it  rayned  very  sadly  till 
midnight.  Wednesday  the  seventh  of  March,  the  wind 
was  full  East,  cold,  but  faire. 
Conference  Friday  the  sixteenth,  there  presented  himselfe  a  Savage, 

with  Savages,  ^j^j^-}^  caused  an  Alarum,  he  very  boldly  came  all  alone 
and  along  the  houses  straight  to  the  Randevous,  where 
we  intercepted  him,  not  suffering  him  to  goe  in,  as 
undoubtedly  he  would  out  of  his  boldnesse  hee  saluted 
us  in  English,  and  bad  us  welcome,  for  he  had  learned 
some  broken  English  amongst  the  Englishmen  that  came 
to  fish  at  Monhiggan,  and  knew  by  name  the  most  of 
the  Captaines,  Commanders,  and  Masters,  that  usually 
come ;   he  was  a  man  free  in  speech,  so  farre  as  he  could 




expresse  his  minde,  and  of  a  seemly  carriage,  we  ques- 
tioned him  of  many  things,  he  was  the  first  Savage  we 
could  meet  withall;  hee  said  he  was  not  of  those  parts, 
hut  of  Morattiggon,  and  one  of  the  Sagamores  or  Lords 
thereof,  had  beene  eight  moneths  in  these  parts,  it  lying 
hence  a  daies  saile  with  a  great  wind,  and  five  dayes  by 
Land :  he  discoursed  of  the  whole  Countrey,  and  of  every 
Province,  and  of  their  Sagamores,  and  their  number  of 
men,  and  strength.  The  wind  beginning  to  rise  a  little, 
wee  cast  a  Horsemans  Coat  about  him,  for  he  was  starke 
naked,  only  a  leather  about  his  wast,  with  a  fringe  about 
a  span  long,  or  little  more ;  he  had  a  Bow  and  two 
Arrowes,  the  one  headed,  and  the  other  unheaded,  he 
was  a  tall  straight  man,  the  haire  of  his  head  blacke,  long 
behind,  only  short  before,  none  on  his  face  at  all ;  he 
asked  some  Beere,  but  we  gave  him  Strong-water  and 
Bisket,  and  Butter,  and  Cheese,  and  Pudding,  and  a  piece 
of  a  Mallerd ;  all  which  he  liked  wel,  and  had  bin 
acquainted  with  such  amongst  the  English ;  he  told  us 
the  place  where  we  now  live,  is  called,  Patuxet,  and  that  Patuxet. 
about  foure  yeeres  agoe  all  the  Inhabitants  died  of  an  Peoplealldead 
extraordinary  plague,  and  there  is  neither  man,  woman,  of  a  plague. 
nor  child  remaining,  as  indeed  we  have  found  none,  so 
as  there  is  none  to  hinder  our  possession,  or  to  lay  claime 
unto  it.  All  the  afternoone  we  spent  in  communication 
with  him,  we  would  gladly  have  been  rid  of  him  at  night, 
but  he  was  not  willing  to  goe  this  night,  then  we  thought 
to  carry  him  on  ship-boord,  wherwith  hee  was  wel  content 
and  went  into  the  Shallop,  but  the  wind  was  high  and 
water  scant,  that  it  could  not  returne  backe.  We  lodged 
that  night  at  Steven  Hopkins  house,  and  watched  him : 
the  next  day  he  went  away  back  to  the  Masasoyts,  fi-om  Masasoyts. 
whence  he  said  he  came,  who  are  our  next  bordering 
neighbours,  they  are  sixtie  strong,  as  he  saith.  The 
Nausites  are  as  neere  South-east  of  them,  and  are  a  Nausites. 
hundred  strong,  and  those  were  they  of  whom  our  people 
were  encountered,  as  we  before  related.  They  are  much 
incensed  and  provoked  against  the  English,  and  about 




eight  moneths  agoe  slew  three  Englishmen,  and  two  more 
hardly  escaped  by  flight  to  Monhiggon ;  they  were  Sir 
Ferdinando  Gorge  his  men,  as  this  Savage  told  us,  as  he 
did  likewise  of  the  Huggery,  that  is.  Fight,  that  our 
discoverers  had  with  the  Nausites,  and  of  our  Tooles  they 
were  taken  out  of  the  Woods,  which  we  willed  him 
should  be  brought  againe,  otherwise  we  would  right  our 
selves.  These  people  are  ill  affected  towards  the  English^ 
Hunts  wicked-  by  reason  of  one  Hunt,  a  Master  of  a  Ship,  who  deceived 
nesse.  j.]^g  people,  and  got  them  under  colour  of  trucking  with 

them,  twentie  out  of  this  very  place  where  we  inhabite„ 
and  seven  men  from  the  Nausites,  and  carried  them  away 
and  sold  them  for  Slaves,  like  a  wretched  man  (for  twentie 
pound  a  man)  that  care  not  what  mischiefe  he  doth  for 
his  profit. 

Saturday  in  the  morning  we  dismissed  the  Savage,  and 
gave  him  a  Knife,  a  Bracelet,  and  a  Ring;  he  promised 
within  a  night  or  two  to  come  again,  &  to  bring  with  him 
some  of  the  Massasoyts  our  neighbours,  with  such 
Beavers  skins  as  they  had  to  trucke  with  us.  Saturday 
and  Sunday  reasonable  faire  dayes.  On  this  day  came 
againe  the  Savage,  and  brought  with  him  five  other  tall 
proper  men,  they  had  every  man  a  Deeres  skin  on  him, 
and  the  principall  of  them  had  a  wild  Cats  skin,  or  such 
like  on  the  one  arme :  they  had  most  of  them  long  hosen 
up  to  their  groynes,  close  made ;  and  above  their  groynes, 
to  their  wast  another  leather,  they  were  altogether  like  the 
Irish-trouses ;  they  are  of  complexion  like  our  English 
Gipseys,  no  haire  or  very  little  on  their  faces,  on  their 
heads  long  haire  to  the  shoulders,  onely  cut  before ;  some 
trussed  up  before  with  a  feather,  broad  wise,  like  a  fan, 
another  a  Fox  taile  hanging  out :  these  left  (according  to 
cur  charge  given  him  before)  their  Bowes  and  Arrowes  a. 
quarter  of  a  mile  from  our  Towne,  we  gave  them  enter- 
Savages  tainment  as  we  thought  was  fitting  them.     They  did  eate 

described.  liberally  of  our  English  victuals,  they  made  semblance 
unto  us  of  friendship  and  amitie ;  they  sang  and  danced 
after  this  manner  like  Anticks;    they  brought  with  him. 




in  a  thing  like  a  Bow-case  (which  the  principall  of  them 

had  about  his  wast)  a  little  of  their  Corne  pounded  to  [IV.  x. 

powder,  which  put  to  a  little  water  they  eate :   he  had  a  '^So-] 

little  Tobacco  in  a  bag,  but  none  of  them  drunke  but 

when  he  listed,  some  of  them  had  their  faces  painted 

blacke,  from  the  forehead  to  the  chin,  foure  or  five  fingers 

broad ;    others  after  other  fashions,  as  they  liked :    they 

brought  three  or  foure  Skins,  but  wee  would  not  trucke 

with  them  all  that  day,  but  wished  them  to  bring  more, 

and  we  would  trucke  for  all,  which  they  promised  within 

a  night  or  two,  and  would  leave  these  behind  them,  though 

wee  were  not  willing  they  should,  and  they  brought  all 

our  Tooles  againe  which  were  taken  in  the  Woods,  in 

our  mens  absence,  so  because  of  the  day  we  dismissed 

them    so    soone    as    we   could.     But    Samoset    our   first 

acquaintance,  either  was  sicke,  or  fained  himselfe  so,  and 

would    not    goe    with    them,    and    staied    with    us    till 

Wednesday  morning :    Then  we   sent  him  to  them,   to 

know  the  reason  they  came  not  according  to  their  words, 

and  we  gave  him  an  Hat,  a  paire  of  Stockings  and  Shooes, 

a  Shirt,  and  a  piece  of  Cloth  to  tye  about  his  wast. 

Thursday  the  22.  of  March,  was  a  very  faire  warme 
day.  About  noone  we  met  againe  about  our  publike 
businesse,  but  we  had  scarce  beene  an  houre  together,  but 
Samoset  came  againe,  and  Squanto,  the  onely  Native  of 
Patuxat,  where  wee  now  inhabite,  who  was  one  of  the 
twentie  Captives  that  by  Hunt  were  carried  away,  and 
had  beene  in  England,  and  dwelt  in  Cornhill  with  Master 
John  Slanie  a  Merchant,  and  could  speake  a  little  English, 
with  three  others,  and  they  brought  them  some  few  Skins 
to  trucke,  and  some  Red  Herrings  newly  taken  and  dried, 
but  not  salted,  and  signified  unto  us,  that  there  Great 
Sagamore  Massasoyt  was  hard  by,  with  Quadequina  his 
brother,  and  all  their  men.  They  could  not  well  expresse 
In  English  what  they  would,  but  after  an  houre  the  King 
came  to  the  top  of  an  Hill  over  against  us,  and  had  In 
his  trayne  sixtle  men,  that  we  could  well  behold  them, 
and  they  us :  wee  were  not  willing  to  send  our  Governour 




to  them,  and  they  unwilling  to  come  to  us,  so  Squanto 
went  againe  unto  him,  who  brought  word  that  wee  should 
send  one  to  parley  with  him,  which  we  did,  which  was 
Edward  Winsloe,  to  know  his  mind,  and  to  signifie  the 
mind  and  will  of  our  Governor,  which  was  to  have  trading 
and  peace  with  him.  Wee  sent  to  the  King  a  paire  ot 
Knives,  and  a  Copper  Chaine,  with  a  Jewell  at  it.  To 
Quadequina  we  sent  likewise  a  Knife  and  a  Jewell  to  hang 
in  his  eare,  and  withall  a  Pot  of  strong  water,  a  good 
quantitie  of  Bisket,  and  some  Butter,  which  were  all 
willingly  accepted :  our  Messenger  made  a  speech  unto 
him,  that  King  James  saluted  him  with  words  of  Love 
and  Peace,  and  did  accept  of  him  as  his  Friend  and  Alley, 
and  that  our  Governour  desired  to  see  him  and  to  trucke 
with  him,  and  to  confirme  a  Peace  with  him,  as  his  next 
neighbour:  hee  liked  well  of  the  speech,  and  heard  it 
attentively,  though  the  Interpreters  did  not  well  expresse 
it ;  after  hee  had  eaten  and  drunk  himselfe,  &  given  the 
rest  to  his  company,  he  looked  upon  our  Messengers 
Sword  and  Armor  which  he  had  on,  with  intimation  of 
his  desire  to  buy  it,  but  on  the  other  side,  our  Messenger 
shewed  his  unwillingnesse  to  part  with  it :  In  the  end 
he  left  him  in  the  custodie  of  Quadequina  his  brother, 
and  came  over  the  Brook,  and  some  twenty  men  following 
him,  leaving  all  their  Bowes  and  Arrowes  behind  them. 
We  kept  six  or  seven  as  Hostages  for  our  Messenger  y 
Cap.  Standish  and  M.  Williamson  met  the  King  at  the 
Brook,  with  halfe  a  dozen  Musketiers,  they  saluted  him 
and  he  them,  so  one  going  over,  the  one  on  the  one  side, 
and  the  other  on  the  other,  conducted  him  to  an  house 
then  in  building,  where  wee  placed  a  greene  Rug,  and 
three  or  foure  Cushions.  Then  instantly  came  our 
Governour,  with  a  Drum  and  Trumpet  after  him,  and 
some  fev/  Musketiers.  After  salutations,  our  Governour 
kissing  his  hand,  the  King  kissed  him,  and  so  they  sate 
downe.  The  Governour  called  for  some  strong  water, 
and  drunke  to  him,  and  he  drunke  a  great  draught  that 
made  him  sweate  all  the  while  after  ;   hee  called  for  a  little 




fresh  meate,  which  the  King  did  eate  willingly,  and  did 
give  his  followers.  Then  they  treated  of  Peace,  which 

First,  That  neither  he  nor  any  of  his  should  injure  or  The  agree- 
do  hurt  to  any  of  our  people.  Secondly,  &  if  any  of  ^ifffp'aee 
his  did  hurt  to  any  of  ours,  he  should  send  the  offender,  ^s  an7' 
that  we  might  punish  him.  Thirdly,  that  if  any  of  our  Massasoyt. 
tooles  were  taken  away  when  our  people  were  at  work, 
he  should  cause  them  to  bee  restored,  and  if  ours  did  any 
harme  to  any  of  his,  we  would  doe  the  like  to  them. 
Fourthly,  If  any  did  unjustly  war  against  him  we  would 
aide  him ;  If  any  did  war  against  us,  he  should  aide  us. 
Fifthly,  He  should  send  to  his  neighbor  Confederates,  to 
certifie  them  of  this,  that  they  might  not  wrong  us,  but 
might  be  likewise  comprised  in  the  conditions  of  Peace. 
Sixthly,  That  when  their  men  came  to  us,  they  should 
leave  their  Bowes  and  Arrowes  behind  them,  as  wee 
should  doe  our  Peeces  when  we  came  to  them.  Lastly, 
that  doing  thus.  King  James  would  esteeme  of  him  as 
his  Friend  and  Ally :  all  which  the  King  seemed  to  like 
well,  and  it  was  applauded  of  his  followers,  all  the  while 
he  sate  by  the  Governour  hee  trembled  for  feare.  In  his 
person  hee  is  a  very  lusty  man,  in  his  best  yeeres,  an  able 
body,  grave  of  countenance,  and  spare  of  speech :  In  his 
attyre  little  or  nothing  differing  from  the  rest  of  his 
followers,  onely  in  a  great  Chaine  of  white  bone  Beades 
about  his  neck,  &  at  it  behind  his  neck  hangs  a  little 
bag  of  Tobacco,  which  he  drank  and  gave  us  to  drinke ; 
his  face  was  painted  with  a  sad  Red  like  Murry,  and  oyled 
both  head  and  face,  that  hee  looked  greasily :  All  his 
followers  likewise,  were  in  their  faces  in  part  or  in  whole 
painted,  some  Blacke,  some  Red,  some  Yellow,  and  some 
White,  some  with  Crosses,  and  other  Antick  workes,  some 
had  Skins  on  them,  and  some  naked,  all  strong,  tall  men 
in  appearance.  The  King  had  his  bosome  hanging  in  a 
string,  a  great  long  Knife ;  he  marvelled  much  at  our 
Trumpet,  and  some  of  his  men  would  sound  it  as  well  as  [IV.  i. 
they  could;    Samoset  and  Squanto,  stayed  all  night  with  1851.] 




US,  and  the  King  and  all  his  men  lay  all  night  in  the 
Wood,  not  above  halfe  an  English  mile  from  us,  and  all 
their  wives  and  women  with  them,  they  said,  that  within 
eight  or  nine  dales,  they  would  come  and  set  Corne  on 
the  other  side  of  the  Brooke,  and  dwell  there  all  Summer, 
which  is  hard  by  us.  That  night  wee  kept  good  watch, 
but  there  was  no  appearance  of  danger  ;  the  next  morning 
divers  of  our  people  came  over  to  us,  hoping  to  get  some 
victualls  as  wee  imagined,  some  of  them  told  us  the 
King  would  have  some  of  us  come  see  him ;  Captaine 
Standish,  and  Isaac  Alderton  went  venterously,  who  were 
welcommed  of  him  after  their  manner:  he  gave  them 
three  or  foure  ground  Nuts,  and  some  Tobacco.  Wee 
cannot  yet  conceive,  but  that  hee  is  willing  to  have  peace 
with  us,  for  they  have  seene  our  people  sometimes  alone 
two  or  three  in  the  Woods  at  worke  and  Fowling,  when 
as  they  offered  them  no  harme,  as  they  might  easily  have 
done,  and  especially  because  hee  hath  a  potent  Adversarie, 
the  Narowhiganseis,  that  are  at  warre  with  him,  against 
whom  hee  thinkes  wee  may  bee  some  strength  to  him, 
for  our  Peeces  are  terrible  unto  them.  This  morning 
they  staled  till  ten  or  eleven  of  the  clocke,  and  our 
Governour  bid  them  send  the  Kings  Kettle,  and  filled  it 
full  of  Pease,  which  pleased  them  well,  and  so  they  went 
their  way. 

Friday  was  a  very  faire  day,  Samoset  and  Squanto  stil 
remained  with  us,  Squanto  went  at  noon  to  fish  for  Eeles, 
at  night  he  came  home  with  as  many  as  hee  could  well 
lift  in  one  hand,  which  our  people  were  glad  of,  they 
were  fat  and  sweete,  hee  trod  them  out  with  his  feete, 
and  so  caught  them  with  his  hands  without  any  other 
Instrument.  This  day  we  proceeded  on  with  our  common 
businesse,  from  which  we  had  bin  so  often  hindred  by 
the  Savages  comming,  and  concluded  both  of  Militarie 
Orders,  and  of  some  Lawes  and  Orders  as  we  thought 
behoovefull  for  our  present  estate,  and  condition,  and 
likewise  chuse  our  Governour  for  this  yeere,  which  was 
Master  John  Carver,  a  man  well  approved  amongst  us. 




IT  seemed  good  to  the  Company  for  many  considera-  Ajow-ney  to 
tions,  to  send  some  amongst  them  to  Massasoyt,  the  ^'"^^"f*'*'. 
greatest    Commander    amongst    the    Savages,    bordering  JthtGreat' 
about  us ;  partly  to  know  where  to  find  them,  if  occasion  King 
served,  as  also  to  see  their  strength,  discover  the  Countrey,  Masmop. 
prevent  abuses  in  their  disordeny  comming  unto  us,  make 
satisfaction  for  some  conceived  injuries  to  be  done  on 
our  parts,  and  to  continue  the  league  of  Peace  and  Friend- 
ship betweene   them  and   us.     For  these,   and   the  like 
ends,  it  pleased  the  Governour  to  make  choice  of  Steven 
Hopkins,  and  Edward  Winsloe  to  goe  unto  him,  and 
having  a  fit  opportunitie,  by  reason  of  a  Savage,  called 
Tisquantum  (that  could  speake  English)  comming  unto 
with  all  expedition  provided  a  Horsemans  Coat,  of 


Red  Cotton,  and  laced  with  a  slight  Lace  for  a  Present, 
that  both  they  and  their  message  might  bee  the  more 
acceptable  amongs  them. 

Wee  set  forward  the  tenth  of  June,  about  nine  a  clock 
in  the  morning,  our  guide  resolving  that  night  to  rest 
at  Namaschet,  a  Towne  under  Massasoyt,  and  conceived 
by  us  to  be  very  neere,  because  the  Inhabitants  flocked 
so  thicke  upon  every  slight  occasion  amongst  us :  but 
wee  found  it  to  bee  some  fifteene  English  miles.  On  the 
way  wee  found  some  ten  or  twelve  men,  women,  and 
children,  which  had  pestered  us,  till  wee  were  wearie  of 
them,  perceiving  that  (as  the  manner  of  them  all  is)  where 
victuall  is  easiliest  to  be  got,  there  they  live,  especially  in 
the  Summer  :  by  reason  whereof,  our  Bay  affording  many 
Lobsters,  they  resort  every  Spring  Tide  thither :  and  now 
returned  with  us  to  Namaschet.  Thither  we  came  about 
three  a  docke  after  noone,  the  Inhabitants  entertaining 
us  with  joy,  in  the  best  manner  they  could,  giving  us  a 
kind  of  bread,  called  by  them  Maizium.,  and  the  spawne 
of  Shads,  which  then  they  got  in  abundance,  in  so  much 
as  they  gave  us  spoones  to  eate  them,  with  these  they 
boyled  mustie  Acornes,  but  of  the  Shads  wee  eate  heartily. 
After  this  they  desired  one  of  our  men  to  shoot  at  a  Crow, 
complaining  what  damage  they  sustained  in  their  Corne 

337  V 





by  them,  who  shooting  some  foiirescore  off  and  killing, 
they  much  admired  it,  as  other  shots  on  other  occasions. 
After  this  Tisquantum  told  us  wee  should  hardly  in  one 
day  reach  Pakanokick,  moving  us  to  go  some  eight  miles 
further,  where  we  should  find  more  store  and  better 
victuals  then  there :  Being  willing  to  hasten  our  journey 
we  went,  and  came  thither  at  Sunne  setting,  where  we 
found  many  of  the  Namascheucks  (they  so  calling  the 
men  of  Namaschet)  fishing  upon  a  Ware  which  they  had 
made  on  a  River  which  belonged  to  them,  where  they 
caught  abundance  of  Basse.  These  welcommed  us  also, 
gave  us  of  their  fish,  and  we  them  of  our  victualls,  not 
doubting  but  we  should  have  enough  where  ere  we  came. 
There  we  lodged  in  the  open  fields :  for  houses  they  had 
none,  though  they  spent  the  most  of  the  Summer  there. 
The  head  of  this  River  is  reported  to  bee  not  farre  from 
the  place  of  our  abode,  upon  it  are,  and  have  beene  many 
Townes,  it  being  a  good  length.  The  ground  is  very 
good  on  both  sides,  it  being  for  the  most  part  cleered : 

Great  plague.  Thousands  of  men  have  lived  there,  which  died  in  a  great 
plague  not  long  since :  and  pittie  it  was  and  is  to  see, 
so  many  goodly  fields,  and  so  well  seated,  without  men 
to  dresse  and  manure  the  same.  Upon  this  River 
dwelleth  Massasoyt. 

The  next  morning  wee  brake  our  fast,  tooke  our  leave 
and  departed,  being  then  accompanied  with  some  sixe 
Savages,  having  gone  about  sixe  miles  by  the  River  side, 
at  a  knowne  shoale  place,  it  being  low  water,  they  spake 
to  us  to  put  off  our  breeches,  for  wee  must  wade  thorow. 

[IV.  X.  Here  let  me  not  forget  the  valour  and  courage  of  some  of 

1852.]  the  Savages,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  River,  for  there 
were  remaining  alive  onely  two  men,  both  aged,  especially 
the  one  being  above  threescore:  These  two  espying  a 
company  of  men  entring  the  River,  ran  very  swiftly  and 
low  in  the  grasse  to  meet  us  at  the  Banke,  where  with 
shrill  voyces  and  great  courage,  standing  charged  upon 
us  with  their  Bowes,  they  demanded  what  wee  were, 
supposing  us  to  be  enemies,  and  thinking  to  take  advan- 




tage  on  us  in  the  water  :  but  seeing  wee  were  friends,  they 
welcommed  us  with  such  food  as  they  had,  and  we  bestowed 
a  small  bracelet  of  Beads  on  them.  Thus  farre  we  are 
sure  the  Tide  ebbes  and  flowes. 

Having  here  againe  refreshed  our  selves  we  proceeded 
in  our  Journey,  the  weather  being  verie  hot  for  travell, 
yet  the  Countrey  so  well  watered,  that  a  man  could  scarce 
be  drie,  but  hee  should  have  a  Spring  at  hand  to  coole  his 
thirst,  beside  small  Rivers  in  abundance :  But  the  Savages 
will  not  willingly  drinlce,  but  at  a  Spring  head.  When 
we  came  to  any  small  Brooke,  where  no  Bridge  was,  two 
of  them  desired  to  carry  us  through  of  their  owne  accords, 
also  fearing  wee  were  or  would  bee  wearie,  offered  to 
Carrie  our  Peeces,  also  if  wee  would  lay  off  any  of  our 
clothes,  wee  should  have  them  carried :  and  as  the  one 
of  them  had  found  more  speciall  kindnesse  from  one  of 
the  Messengers,  and  the  other  Savage  from  the  other ; 
so  they  shewed  their  thankftilnesse  accordingly  in  affording 
us  all  helpe,  and  furtherance  in  the  Journey. 

As  we  passed  along,  we  observed  that  there  were  few 
places  by  the  River,  but  had  beene  inhabited,  by  reason 
whereof  much  ground  was  cleere,  save  of  weeds  which 
grew  higher  then  our  heads.  There  is  much  good 
Timber,  both  Cake,  Walnut-tree,  Firre,  Beech,  and 
exceeding  great  Chesnut-trees. 

After  we  came  to  a  Towne  of  Massasoyts,  where  we 
eat  Oysters  and  other  Fish.  From  thence  we  went  to 
Packanokick,  but  Massasoyt  was  not  at  home,  there  we 
staled,  he  being  sent  for :  when  newes  was  brought  of 
his  comming,  our  guide  Tisquantum  requested  that  at 
our  meeting,  wee  would  discharge  our  Peeces,  but  one 
of  us  going  about  to  charge  his  Peece,  the  women  and 
children  through  feare  to  see  them  take  up  his  Peece,  ran 
away,  and  could  not  be  pacified,  till  he  laid  it  downe 
againe,  who  afterward  were  better  informed  by  our  Inter- 
preter. Massasoyt  being  come,  wee  discharged  our 
Peeces,  and  saluted  him,  who  after  their  manner  kindly 
welcommed  us,  and  tooke  us  into  his  house,  and  set  us 




downe  by  him,  where  having  delivered  our  Message  and 
Presents,  and  having  put  the  Coat  on  his  backe,  and  the 
Chaine  about  his  necke,  hee  was  not  a  little  proud  to 
behold  himselfe,  and  his  men  also  to  see  their  King  so 
bravely  attired.  For  answere  to  our  Message,  he  told 
us  we  were  welcome,  and  he  would  gladly  continue  that 
Peace  and  Friendship  which  was  betweene  him  and  us : 
and  for  his  men  they  should  no  more  pester  us  as  they 
had  done :  Also,  that  hee  would  send  to  Paomet,  and 
would  helpe  us  with  Corne  for  Seed,  according  to  our 

This  being  done,  his  men  gathered  neere  unto  him, 
to  whom  hee  turned  himselfe,  and  made  a  great  Speech; 
they  sometime  interposing,  and  as  it  were,  confirming 
and  applauding  him  in  that  he  said.  The  meaning 
whereof  was  (as  farre  as  wee  could  learne)  thus ;  Was 
not  hee  Massasoyt  Commander  of  the  Countrey  about 
them  ?  Was  not  such  a  Towne  his  and  the  people  of  it .'' 
and  should  they  not  bring  their  skins  unto  us.  After 
this  manner,  he  named  at  least  thirtie  places,  and  their 
answere  was  as  aforesaid  to  every  one :  so  that  as  it  was 
delightftill,  it  was  tedious  unto  us.  This  being  ended, 
he  lighted  Tobacco  for  us,  and  fell  to  discoursing  of 
England,  and  of  the  Kings  Majestic,  marvelling  that  hee 
would  live  without  a  Wife.  Also  hee  talked  of  the 
Frenchmen,  bidding  us  not  to  suffer  them  to  come  to 
Narohiganset,  for  it  was  King  James  his  Countrey,  and 
he  also  was  King  James  his  man.  Late  it  grew,  but 
Royall  enter-  victualls  he  oifered  none ;  for  indeed  he  had  not  any, 
ialnment.  being  he  came  so  newly  home.  So  we  desired  to  goe  to 
rest :  hee  laid  us  on  the  bed  with  himselfe  and  his  wife, 
they  at  the  one  end  and  wee  at  the  other,  it  being  onely 
plankes  laid  a  foot  from  the  ground,  and  a  thinne  Mat 
upon  them.  Two  more  of  his  chiefe  men  for  want  of 
roome  pressed  by  and  upon  us ;  so  that  wee  were  worse 
wearie  of  our  lodging  then  of  our  journey. 

The  next  day  being  Thursday,  many  of  their  Sachmis, 
or  pettie  Governours  came  to  see  us,  and  many  of  their 





men  also.     There  they  went  to  their  manner  of  Games 

for  Skins  and  Knives.     There  we  challenged   them  to 

shoot  with  them  for  Skins :   but  they  durst  not :   onely 

they  desired  to  see  one  of  us  shoot  at  a  marke,  who 

shooting  with  Haile-shot,  they  wondred  to  see  the  marke 

so  full  of  holes.     About  one  a  clocke,  Massasoyt  brought 

two  Fishes  that  he  had  shot,  they  were  like  Breame,  but 

three   times   so   bigge,   and  better   meat.     These   being  Hungrie  fare. 

boyled,  there  were  at  least  fortie  looked  for  share  in  them, 

the  most  eate  of  them :  This  meale  onely  we  had  in  two 

nights   and   a   day,   and   had   not   one   of   us   bought   a 

Partridge,    we    had    taken    our    Journey    fasting :    Very 

importunate  hee  was  to  have  us  stay  with  them  longer : 

But  wee  desired  to  keepe  the  Sabbath  at  home,  and  feared 

wee  should  either  bee  light-headed  for  want  of  sleepe,  for 

what  with  bad  lodging,  the  Savages  barbarous  singing 

(for  they  use  to  sing  themselves  asleepe)  Lice  and  Fleas 

within  doores,  and  Muskeetoes  without,  wee  could  hardly 

sleepe  all  the  time  of  our  being  there ;   we  much  fearing 

that  if  we  should  stay  any  longer,  we  should  not  bee  able 

to  recover  home  for  want  of  strength.     So  that  on  the 

Friday  morning  before  Sun-rising,  wee  tooke  our  leave 

and  departed,  Massasoyt  being  both  grieved  and  ashamed,  \)^- 

that  he  could   not  better  entertaine  us;    and  retaining 

Tisquantum  to  send  from  place  to  place  to  procure  trucke 

for  us :  and  appointing  another,  called  Tokamahamon  in 

his  place,  whom  we  had  found  faithfull  before  and  after 

upon  all  occasions. 


THe  eleventh  of  June  we  set  forth  toward  Nauset,  the 
weather  being  very  faire:  but  ere  we  had  bin  long 
at  Sea,  there  arose  a  storme  of  winde  and  raine,  with 
much  lightning  and  thunder,  insomuch  that  a  spout  arose 
not  farre  from  us :  but  God  be  praised,  it  dured  not  long, 
and  we  put  in  that  night  for  Harbour  at  a  place  called 
Cummaquid,  where  we  had  some  hope  to  finde  the  Boy. 
Two  Savages  were  in  the  Boat  with  us,  the  one  was 
Tisquantum  our  Interpreter,  the  other  Tokamahamon,  a 


A  Voyage 
made  by  ten  of 
our  men  to  the 
Kingdoms  of 
Nauset,  to  seek 
a  Boy  that  had 
lost  himselfe  in 
the  Woods; 
with  such  acci- 
dents as  befell 
us  in  that 



speciall  friend.  It  being  night  before  we  came  in,  wee 
Anchored  in  the  middest  of  the  Bay,  where  we  were  dry 
at  a  low  water.  In  the  morning  we  espied  Savages  seeking 
Lobsters,  and  sent  our  two  Interpreters  to  speake  with 
them,  the  channel!  being  betweene  them;  where  they 
told  them  what  we  were,  and  for  what  we  were  come, 
willing  them  not  at  all  to  feare  us,  for  we  would  not  hurt 
them.  Their  answere  was,  that  the  Boy  was  well,  but  he 
was  at  Nauset ;  yet  since  wee  were  there  they  desired  us 
to  come  ashoare  and  eate  with  them :  which  as  soone  as 
our  Boate  floated  we  did :  and  went  sixe  ashoare,  having 
foure  pledges  for  them  in  the  Boate.  They  brought  us 
to  their  Sachim  or  Governour,  whom  they  call  lyanough, 
a  man  not  exceeding  twenty  six  yeares  of  age,  but  very 
personable,  gentle  courteous,  and  faire  conditioned, 
indeede  not  like  a  Savage,  save  for  his  attyre :  his  enter- 
tainment was  answerable  to  his  parts,  and  his  cheare 
plentiful!  and  various. 

One  thing  was  very  grievous  unto  us  at  this  place : 
There  was  an  old  Woman,  whom  wee  judged  to  be  no 
lesse  then  an  hundred  yeares  old,  which  came  to  see  us 
because  shee  never  saw  English,  yet  could  not  behold 
us  without  breaking  forth  into  great  passion,  weeping  and 
crying  excessively.  We  demanding  the  reason  of  it,  they 
told  us,  she  had  three  Sonnes,  who  when  Master  Hunt 
was  in  these  parts,  went  aboord  his  Ship  to  trade  with 
him,  and  he  carried  them  Captives  into  Spaine  (for 
Tisquantum  at  that  time  was  carried  away  also)  by  which 
meanes  shee  was  deprived  of  the  comfort  of  her  children 
in  her  old  age.  We  told  them  wee  were  sorry  that  any 
Englishman  should  give  them  that  offence,  that  Hunt 
was  a  bad  man,  and  that  all  the  English  that  heard  of  it 
condemned  him  for  the  same :  but  iror  us,  we  would  not 
offer  them  any  such  injury,  though  it  would  gaine  us 
all  the  Skins  in  the  Countrie.  So  we  gave  her  some  small 
trifles,  which  somewhat  appeased  her. 

After  dinner  we  tooke  Boate  for  Nauset,  lyanough  and 
two   of  his   men   accompanying   us.     Ere   we   came  to 



Nauset,  the  day  and  tide  were  almost  spent,  in  so  much 
as  we  could  not  goe  in  with  our  Shallop :  but  the  Sachim 
or  Governour  or  Cummaquid  went  ashoare  and  his  men 
with  him,  we  also  sent  Tisquantum  to  tell  Aspinet  the 
Sachim  of  Nauset,   wherefore  we  came.     After  Sunset 
Aspinet  came  with  a  great  traine,  and  brought  the  Boy 
with  him,  one  bearing  him  through  the  water :   he  had 
not  lesse  then  an  hundred  with  him,  the  halfe  whereof 
came  to  the  Shallop  side  unarmed  with  him,  the  other 
stood  aloofe  with  their  Bowe  and  Arrowes.     There  he 
delivered  us  the  Boy,  behung  with  Beades,  and  made  The  Boy  is^ 
peace  with  us,  wee  bestowing  a  Knife  on  him,  and  like-  '■^^*"''*- 
wise  on  another  that  first  entertained  the  Boy  and  brought 
him  thither.     So  they  departed  from  us. 

Here  we  understood  that  the  Narrohigansets  had 
spoyled  some  of  Massasoyts  men,  and  taken  him.  This 
strucke  some  feare  in  us,  because  the  Colony  was  so 
weakely  guarded,  the  strength  thereof  being  abroad :  But 
we  set  forth  with  resolution  to  make  the  best  haste  home 
we  could ;  yet  the  winde  being  contrary,  having  scarce 
any  fresh  water  left,  and  at  least  sixteene  leagues  home, 
we  put  in  againe  for  the  shoare.  There  we  met  againe 
with  lyanough  the  Sachim  of  Cummaquid,  and  the  most 
of  his  Towne,  both  men,  women  and  children  with  him. 
Hee  being  still  willing  to  gratifie  us,  tooke  a  runlet  and 
led  our  men  in  the  darke  a  great  way  for  water,  but  could 
finde  none  good ;  yet  brought  such  as  there  was  on  his 
necke  with  them.  In  the  meane  time  the  women  joyned 
hand  in  hand,  singing  and  dancing  before  the  Shallop,  the 
men  also  shewing  all  the  kindenesse  they  could,  lyanough 
himselfe  taking  a  Bracelet  from  about  his  necke,  and 
hanging  it  upon  one  of  us.  By  Gods  providence  we 
came  safely  home  that  night. 




Chap.  V. 

Good  newes  from  New  England:  Or,  A  Relation 
of  things  remarkeable  in  that  Plantation- 
written  by  E.  Winslow  and  here  abbreviated. 

He  good  Ship  called  the  Fortune,  which 

in    the    Moneth    of    November     i62i> 

(blessed  be  God)  brought  us  a  new  supply 

of  five  and  thirty  persons,  was  not  long 

departed  our  Coast,  ere  the  Great  people 

of  Narohigganset,  which  are  reported  to 

be    many    thousands    strong,    began    to 

breath   forth   many   threats  against   us,   notwithstanding 

their  desired  and  obtained  peace  with  us  in  the  fore-going 

Summer.     Insomuch  as  the  common  talke  of  our  neighbour 

[IV.  X.  Indians  on  all  sides  was  of  the  preparation  they  made  to 

1854.]  come  against  us.   In  reason,  a  man  would  thinke  they 

should  have  now  more  cause  to  feare  us  than  before  our 

supply  came :    but  though  none  of  them  were  present, 

yet  understanding  by  others  that  they  neither  brought 

Armes  nor  other  provisions  with  them,  but  wholly  relied 

on  us,  it  occasioned  them  to  sleight  and  brave  us  with 

Snakes  skin       so  many  threats  as  they  did.     At  length  came  one  of 

defiance.  them   to   us,   who   was   sent   by   Conavacus   their  chiefe 

Sachim  or  King,  accompanied  with  one  Tokamahamon  a 

friendly  Indian.     This  Messenger  inquired  for  Tisquan- 

tum  our  Interpreter,  who  not  being  at  home  seemed  rather 

to  be  glad  then  sorry,  and  leaving  for  him  a  bundle  of 

new  Arrowes  lapped  in  a  rattle  Snakes  skinne,  desired  to 

depart  with  all  expedition. 

When  Tisquantum  returned,  and  the  Arrowes  were 
delivered,  and  the  manner  of  the  Messengers  cariage 
related,  he  signified  to  the  Governour,  that  to  send  the 
rattle  Snakes  skinne  in  that  manner,  imported  enmitie, 
and  that  it  was  no  better  then  a  challenge.  Hereupon^ 
after  some  deliberation,  the  Governour  stuffed  the  skin 
with  Powder  and  Shot,  and  sent  it  backe,  returning  no 




lesse  defiance  to  Conavacus,  assuring  him  if  he  had 
Shipping  now  present  thereby  to  send  his  men  to 
Narohigganset  (the  place  of  his  abode)  they  should  not 
neede  to  come  so  farre  by  Land  to  us  :  yet  withall,  shewing 
that  they  should  never  come  unwelcome  or  unlooked  for. 
This  message  was  sent  by  an  Indian,  and  delivered  in 
such  sort,  as  it  was  no  small  terrour  to  this  Savage  King, 
insomuch  as  he  would  not  once  touch  the  Powder  and 
Shot,  or  suffer  it  to  stay  in  his  House  or  Countrie. 
Whereupon  the  Messenger  refusing  it,  another  tooke  it 
up,  and  having  beene  posted  from  place  to  place  a  long 
time,  at  length  came  whole  backe  againe. 

In  the  meane  time,  knowing  our  owne  weakenesse, 
notwithstanding  our  high  words  and  loftie  lookes  towards 
them,  and  still  lying  open  to  all  casualty,  having  as  yet 
(under  God)  no  other  defence  then  our  Armes,  we  thought 
it  most  needfull  to  impale  our  Towne,  which  with  all  Towne 
expedition  we  accomplished  in  the  moneth  of  February,  ""/*"''«• 
and  some  few  dayes,  taking  in  the  top  of  the  HiU  under 
which  our  Towne  is  seated,  making  foure  Bulwarkes  or 
jetties  without  the  ordinary  circuit  of  the  Pale,  from 
whence  we  could  defend  the  whole  Towne :  In  three 
whereof  are  Gates,  and  the  fourth  in  time  to  be.  This 
being  done,  Captaine  Standish  divided  our  strength  into 
foure  squadrons  or  companies,  appointing  whom  he 
thought  most  fit  to  have  command  of  each :  And  at  a 
generall  Muster  or  Training,  appointed  each  his  place, 
gave  each  his  Company,  giving  them  charge  upon  every 
alarum  to  resort  to  their  Leaders  to  their  appointed  place, 
and  in  his  absence,  to  be  commanded  and  directed  by 
them.  That  done  according  to  his  order,  each  drew  his 
Company  to  his  appointed  place  for  defence,  and  there 
together  discharged  their  Muskets.  After  which  they 
brought  their  new  Commanders  to  their  houses,  where 
againe  they  graced  them  with  their  shot,  and  so  departed. 
Fearing  also  least  the  enemy  at  any  time  should  take 
any  advantage  by  firing  our  houses,  Captaine  Standish 
appointed  a  certaine  Company,  that  whensoever  they  saw 




or  heard  fire  to  be  cryed  in  the  Towne,  should  onely  betake 
themselves  to  their  Armes,  and  should  inclose  the  house 
or  place  so  indangered,  and  stand  aloofe  on  their  guard, 
with  their  backes  towards  the  fire,  to  prevent  trechery, 
if  any  were  in  that  kinde  intended.  If  the  fire  were  in 
any  of  the  houses  of  this  guard,  they  were  then  freed 
from  it,  but  not  otherwise,  without  speciall  command. 

Long  before  this  time  we  promised  the  people  of 
Massachuset  in  the  beginning  of  March  to  come  unto 
them,  and  trade  for  their  Furres,  which  being  then  come, 
we  began  to  make  preparation  for  that  Voyage.  In  the 
meane  time,  an  Indian,  called  Hobbamocke,  who  still 
lived  in  the  Towne,  told  us,  that  he  feared  the 
Massachusets  or  Massachuseuks  (for  they  so  called  the 
people  of  that  place)  were  joyned  in  confederate  with 
the  Narohigganneucks,  or  people  of  Narohigganset,  and 
that  they  therefore  would  take  this  opportunity  to  cut  off 
Captaine  Standish  and  his  Company  abroad :  but  howso- 
ever in  the  meane  time,  it  was  to  be  feared  that  the 
Narohigganeuks  would  assault  the  Towne  at  home,  giving 
many  reasons  for  his  jealousie,  as  also  that  Tisquantum 
was  in  the  confederacy,  who  we  should  finde  would  use 
many  perswasions  to  draw  us  from  our  Shallops  to  the 
Indians  houses  for  their  better  advantage. 

Notwithstanding  the  forenamed  Captaine  with  ten  men, 
accompanied  with  Tisquantum  and  Hobbamocke,  set 
forwards  for  the  Massachusets :  but  we  had  no  sooner 
turned  the  point  of  the  Harbour,  called  the  Gurnets  nose 
(where  being  becalmed  we  let  fall  our  grapnell,  to  set 
things  to  rights,  and  prepare  to  row)  but  there  came  an 
Indian  of  Tisquantums  family,  running  to  certaine  of  our 
people  that  were  from  home  with  all  eagernesse,  having 
his  face  wounded,  and  the  bloud  still  fresh  on  the  same, 
calling  to  them  to  repaire  home,  oft  looking  behinde 
him,  as  if  some  others  had  him  in  chase,  saying  that  at 
Namaschet  (a  Towne  some  fifteene  miles  from  us)  there 
were  many  of  the  Narohiggansets,  Massassowat  our 
supposed  friend;   and  Conbatant  our  feared  enemy,  with 




many  others,  with  a  resolution  to  take  advantage  on  the 
present  opportunity,  to  assault  the  Towne  in  the  Captaines 
absence,  affirming  that  hee  received  the  wound  in  his 
face  for  speaking  in  our  behalfe,  and  by  sleight  escaped, 
looking  oft  backward,  as  if  he  suspected  them  to  be  at 
hand.  This  he  affirmed  againe  to  the  Governour,  where- 
upon he  gave  command  that  three  peece  of  Ordnance 
should  be  made  ready  and  discharged,  to  the  end  that  if 
wee  were  not  out  of  hearing,  we  might  returne 
thereat.  Which  we  no  sooner  heard,  but  we  repaired 
homeward  with  all  convenient  speede,  arming  our  [IV.  x. 
selves,   and   making   all   in   readinesse   to  fight.     When  '855.] 

wee  entred  the  Harbour,  we  saw  the  Towne  likewise  on 
their  guard,  whither  we  hasted  with  all  convenient  speede. 
The  newes  being  made  knowne  unto  us,  Hobbamock  said 
flatly  that  it  was  false,  assuring  us  of  Massassowats  faith- 
fulnesse ;  howsoever  he  presumed  he  would  never  have 
undertaken  any  such  act  without  his  privitie,  himselfe 
being  a  Pinse,  that  is,  one  of  his  chiefe  Champions  or  men 
of  valour,  it  being  the  manner  amongst  them  not  to 
undertake  such  enterprises  without  the  advice  and  further- 
ance of  men  of  that  ranke. 

The  Governour  caused  Hobbamock  to  send  his  wife 
with  all  privacie  to  Puckanokick,  the  chiefe  place  of 
Massassowats  residence  (pretending  other  occasions)  there 
to  informe  her  selfe,  and  so  us,  of  the  right  state  of 
things.  When  she  came  thither,  and  saw  all  things  quiet, 
and  that  no  such  matter  was  or  had  beene  intended,  she 
told  Massassowat  what  had  hapned  at  Plimoth  (by  them 
called  Patuxet)  which  when  he  understood,  he  was  much 
offended  at  the  carriage  of  Tisquantum,  rettirning  many 
thankes  to  the  Governour  for  his  good  thoughts  of  him ; 
and  assuring  him,  that  according  to  their  first  Articles  of 
peace,  hee  would  send  word  and  give  warning  when  any 
such  businesse  was  towards. 

Thus  by  degrees  we  began  to  discover  Tisquantum,  Tisquantums 
whose  ends  were  onely  to  make  himselfe  great  in  the  eyes  trechery. 
of  his  Country-men,  by  meanes  of  his  neerenesse  and 




favour  with  us,  not  caring  who  fell,  so  he  stood.  In 
general!,  his  course  was  to  perswade  them  hee  could  lead 
us  to  peace  or  warre  at  his  pleasure,  and  would  oft  threaten 
the  Indians,  sending  them  word  in  a  private  manner,  we 
were  intended  shortly  to  kill  them,  that  thereby  he  might 
get  gifts  to  himselfe  to  worke  their  peace,  insomuch  as 
they  had  him  in  greater  esteeme  then  many  of  their 
Sachims ;  yea,  they  themselves  sought  to  him,  who 
promised  them  peace  in  respect  of  us ;  yea,  and  protection 
also,  so  as  they  would  resort  to  him.  So  that  whereas 
divers  were  wont  to  relye  on  Massassowat  for  protection, 
and  resort  to  his  abode,  now  they  began  to  leave  him,  and 
seeke  after  Tisquantum.  But  when  we  understood  his 
dealings,  we  certified  all  the  Indians  of  our  ignorance  and 
innocency  therein,  assuring  them  till  they  begun  with  us, 
they  should  have  no  cause  to  feare.  And  if  any  hereafter 
should  raise  any  such  reports,  they  should  punish  them 
as  liers  and  seekers  of  their  and  our  disturbance,  which 
gave  the  Indians  good  satisfaction  on  all  sides. 

After  this  we  proceeded  in  our  Voyage  to  the 
Massachusets,  where  we  had  good  store  of  Trade  and 
(blessed  be  God)  returned  in  safety,  though  driven  from 
before  our  Towne  in  great  danger  and  extremity  of 
weather.  At  our  returne,  we  found  Massassowat  at  the 
Plantation,  who  made  his  seeming  just  Apologie  for  all 
former  matters  of  accusation,  being  much  offended  and 
inraged  against  Tisquantum,  whom  the  Governour  pacified 
as  much  as  he  could  for  the  present.  But  not  long  after 
his  departure,  he  sent  a  Messenger  to  the  Governour, 
intreating  him  to  give  way  to  the  death  of  Tisquantum, 
who  had  so  much  abused  him.  But  the  Governour 
answered ;  Although  he  had  deserved  to  dye  both  in 
respect  of  him  and  us ;  yet  for  our  sakes  he  desired  he 
would  spare  him,  and  the  rather  because  without  him  he 
knew  not  well  how  to  understand  himselfe,  or  any  other 
the  Indians.  With  this  answer  the  Messenger  returned, 
but  came  againe  not  long  after,  accompanied  with  divers, 
others,  demanding  him  from  Massassowat  their  Master. 




as  being  one  of  his  subjects,  whom  by  our  first  Articles 
of  peace  we  could  not  retaine :  yet  because  hee  would  not 
willingly  doe  it  without  the  Governors  approbation, 
offered  him  many  Bevers  skins  for  his  consent  thereto, 
saying,  that  according  to  their  manner,  their  Sachim  had 
sent  his  owne  Knife,  and  therewith,  to  cut  off  his  head 
and  hands,  and  bring  them  to  him.  To  which  the 
Governour  answered ;  It  was  not  the  manner  of  the 
English  to  sell  mens  lives  at  a  price,  but  when  they  had 
deserved  justly  to  die,  to  give  them  their  reward,  and 
therefore  refused  their  Beavers  as  a  gift :  but  sent  for 
Tisquantum,  who  though  he  knew  their  intent,  yet  offered 
not  to  flye,  but  came  and  accused  Hobbamocke  as  the 
author  and  worker  of  his  overthrow;  yeelding  himselfe 
to  the  Governour  to  be  sent  or  not  according  as  he  thought 
meete.  But  at  the  instant,  when  our  Governour  was 
ready  to  deliver  him  into  the  hands  of  his  Executioners, 
a  Boate  was  seene  at  Sea  to  crosse  before  our  Towne,  and 
fall  behinde  a  head-land  not  farre  off :  whereupon,  having 
heard  many  rumours  of  the  French,  and  not  knowing 
whether  there  were  any  combination  betweene  the  Savages 
and  them,  the  Governour  told  the  Indians,  he  would  first 
know  what  Boate  that  was  ere  he  would  deliver  him  into 
their  custody.  But  being  mad  with  rage,  and  impatient 
at  delay,  they  departed  in  great  heate. 

Here  let  me  not  omit  one  notable  (though  wicked) 
practise  of  this  Tisquantum,  who  to  the  end  he  might 
possesse  his  Countrimen  with  the  greater  feare  of  us,  and 
so  consequently  of  himselfe,  told  them  we  had  the  plague 
buried  in  our  store-house,  which  at  our  pleasure  we  could 
send  forth  to  what  place  or  people  we  would,  and  destroy 
them  therewith,  though  wee  stirred  not  from  home.  Being 
upon  the  forenamed  brabbles  sent  for  by  the  Governour 
to  this  place,  where  Hobbamock  was  &  some  other  of  us, 
the  ground  being  broke  in  the  middest  of  the  house 
(whereunder  certaine  barrels  of  Powder  were  buried, 
though  unknowne  to  him)  Hobbamock  asked  him  what 
it  meant .''     To  whom  he  readily  answered  ;   That  was  the 




fla^  conceit,  place  wherein  the  plague  was  buried,  whereof  he  formerly 
told  him  and  others.  After  this  Hobbamock  asked  one 
of  our  people  whether  such  a  thing  were,  and  whether  we 

[IV.  X.  }j^(j  g^(,j^  command  of  it  ?     Who  answered  no  ;    But  the 

^  5  •]  God  of  the  English  had  it  in  store,  and  could  send  it 
at  his  pleasure  to  the  destruction  of  his  and  our  enemies. 
This  was,  as  I  take  it,  about  the  end  of  May,  1622. 
At  which  time  our  store  of  victuals  was  wholly  spent, 
having  lived  long  before  with  a  bare  and  short  allowance : 
The  reason  was,  that  supply  of  men  before  mentioned, 
which  came  so  unprovided,  not  landing  so  much  as  a 
barrell  of  Bread  or  Meale  for  their  whole  Company,  but 
contrariwise  received  from  us  for  their  Ships  store  home- 
ward. Neither  were  the  setters  forth  thereof  altogether 
to  be  blamed  therein,  but  rather  certaine  amongst  our 
selves,  who  were  too  prodigall  in  their  writing  and  report- 
ing that  plenty  we  enjoyed.     But  that  I  may  returne. 

This  Boate  proved  to  be  a  Shallop  that  belonged  to  a 
fishing  Ship,  called  the  Sparrow,  set  forth  by  Master 
Thomas  Weston,  late  Merchant  and  Citizen  of  London, 
which  brought  six  or  seven  passengers  at  his  charge,  that 
should  before  have  beene  landed  at  our  Plantation,  who 
also  brought  no  more  provision  for  the  present  then  served 
the  Boats  gang  for  their  returne  to  the  Ship,  which  made 
her  Voyage  at  a  place  called  Damarins  Cove,  neere  Mun- 
higgen,  some  forty  leagues  from  us  North-east-ward; 
about  which  place  there  fished  above  thirty  saile  of  Ships, 
and  whither  my  selfe  was  imployed  by  our  Governour, 
with  orders  to  take  up  such  victuals  as  the  Shippes  could 
spare ;  where  I  found  kinde  entertainment  and  good 
respect,  with  a  willingnesse  to  supply  our  wants :  But 
being  not  able  to  spare  that  quantity  I  required,  by  reason 
of  the  necessitie  of  some  amongst  themselves,  whom  they 
supplied  before  my  comming,  would  not  take  any  Bils 
for  the  same,  but  did  what  they  could  freely,  wishing  their 
store  had  beene  such  as  they  might  in  greater  measure 
have  expressed  their  owne  love,  and  suppEed  our  necessi- 
ties, for  which  they  sorrowed,  provoking  one  another  to 




the  utmost  of  their  abilitie :  which  although  it  were  not 

much  amongst  so  many  people  as  were  at  the  Plantation, 

yet   through    the   provident   and    discreete    care    of   the 

Governours,   recovered   and   preserved   strength   till   our 

owne  crop  on  the  ground  was  ready. 

Having  dispatched  there,  I  returned  home  with  all 
speede  convenient,  where  I  found  the  state  of  the  Colony 
much  weaker  then  when  I  left  it :  for  til  now  we  were 
never  without  some  Bread,  the  want  whereof  much  abated 
the  strength  and  flesh  of  some,  and  swelled  others.  But 
here  it  may  be  said,  if  the  Countrey  abound  with  Fish 
and  Fowle  in  such  measure  as  is  reported,  how  could 
men  undergoe  such  measure  of  hardnesse,  except  through 
their  owne  negligence  ?  I  answere :  Every  thing  must 
be  expected  in  its  proper  season.  No  man,  as  one  said, 
will  goe  into  an  Orchard  in  the  Winter  to  gather  Cherries  : 
so  he  that  lookes  for  Fowle  there  in  the  Summer,  will  be 
deceived  in  his  expectation.  The  time  they  continue  in 
plenty  with  us,  is  from  the  beginning  of  October  to  the 
end  of  March :  but  these  extremities  befell  us  in  May 
and  June.  I  confesse,  that  as  the  Fowle  decrease,  so  Fish 
increase.  And  indeede  their  exceeding  abundance  was  a 
great  cause  of  increasing  our  wants.  For  though  our 
Bay  and  Creekes  were  full  of  Basse,  and  other  fish,  yet 
for  want  of  fit  and  strong  Saynes,  and  other  netting,  they 
for  the  most  part  brake  thorow  and  carried  all  away  before 
them.  And  though  the  Sea  were  full  of  Cod,  yet  we  had 
neither  tackling  nor  harseis  for  our  Shallops.  And 
indeede  had  we  not  beene  in  a  place  where  divers  sorts  of 
Shel-fish  are  that  may  be  taken  with  the  hand,  we  must 
have  perished,  unlesse  God  had  raised  some  unknowne 
or  extraordinary  meanes  for  our  preservation. 

In  the  time  of  these  streits  (indeede  before  my  going 
to  Munhiggen)  the  Indians  began  againe  to  cast  forth 
many  insulting  speeches,  glorying  in  our  weakenesse,  and 
giving  out  how  easie  it  would  be  ere  long  to  cut  us  off. 
Now  also  Massassowat  seemed  to  frowne  on  us,  and 
neither  came  or  sent  to  us  as  formerly.     These  things 




which  plaid 
the  wasps  with 
English  and 

[IV.  X, 



occasioned  further  thoughts  of  Fortification.  And 
whereas  we  have  a  Hill  called  the  Mount,  inclosed  within 
our  Pale,  under  which  our  Towne  is  seated,  we  resolved 
to  erect  a  Fort  thereon,  from  whence  a  few  might 
easily  secure  the  Town  from  any  assault  the  Indians 
can  make,  whilest  the  rest  might  be  imployed  as 
occasion  served.  This  worke  was  begun  with  great 
eagernesse,  and  with  the  approbation  of  all  men, 
hoping  that  this  being  once  finished,  and  a  continuall 
guard  there  kept,  it  would  utterly  discourage  the  Savages 
from  having  any  hopes  or  thoughts  of  rising  against  us. 
And  though  it  tooke  the  greatest  part  of  our  strength  from 
dressing  our  Corne,  yet  (life  being  continued)  wee  hoped 
God  would  raise  some  meanes  in  stead  thereof  for  our 
further  preservation. 

In  the  end  of  June,  or  beginning  of  July,  came  into  our 
harbour  two  Ships  of  Master  Westons  aforesaid,  the  one 
called  the  Charitie,  the  other  the  Swan,  having  in  them 
some  fiftie  or  sixtie  men  sent  over  at  his  owne  charge  to 
plant  for  him.  These  we  received  into  our  Towne, 
affording  them  whatsoever  curtesie  our  meane  condition 
could  afford.  There  the  Charitie,  being  the  bigger  Ship, 
left  them,  having  many  passengers  which  she  was  to  land 
in  Virginia.  In  the  meane  time,  the  body  of  them 
refreshed  themselves  at  Plimoth,  whilest  some  most  fit 
sought  out  a  place  for  them.  That  little  store  of  Corne 
we  had,  was  exceedingly  wasted  by  the  unjust  and  dis- 
honest walking  of  these  strangers,  who  though  they  would 
sometimes  seeme  to  helpe  us  in  our  labour  about  our 
Corne,  yet  spared  not  day  and  night  to  steale  the  same, 
it  being  then  eatable,  and  pleasant  to  taste,  though  green 
and  unprofitable.  And  though  they  received  much  kind- 
nesse,  set  light  both  by  it  and  us.  At  length  their  Coasters 
returned,  having  found  in  their  judgement  a  place  fit  for 
plantation,  within  the  Bay  of  the  Massachusets,  at  a  place 
called  by  the  Indians  Wichaguscusset.  To  which  place 
the  body  of  them  went  with  all  convenient  speede,  leaving 
still    with    us    such    as    were    sicke    and    lame,    by    the 



Governours  permission,  though  on  their  parts  undeserved; 
whom  our  Surgeon  by  the  helpe  of  God  recovered  gratis 
for  them,  and  they  fetched  home,  as  occasion  served. 
They  had  not  beene  long  from  us,  ere  the  Indians  filled 
our  eares  with  clamours  against  them,  for  stealing  their 
Corne,  and  other  abuses  conceived  by  them.  At  which 
we  grieved  the  more,  because  the  same  men,  in  mine  owne 
hearing,  had  beene  earnest  in  perswading  Captaine 
Standi  sh,  before  their  comming  to  solicite  our  Governour 
to  send  some  of  his  men  to  plant  by  them,  alledging  many 
reasons  how  it  might  be  commodious  for  us.  But  wee 
knew  no  meanes  to  redresse  those  abuses,  save  reproofe, 
and  advising  them  to  better  walking,  as  occasion  served. 

In  the  end  of  August  came  other  two  Ships  into  our  Two  Ships. 
harbour,  the  one  (as  I  take  it)  was  called  the  Discoverie, 
Captaine  Jones  having  the  command  thereof,  the  other 
was  that  Ship  of  Master  Westons,  called  the  Sparrow, 
which  had  now  made  her  Voyage  of  Fish,  and  was  con- 
sorted with  the  other,  being  both  bound  for  Virginia.  Of 
Captaine  Jones  we  furnished  our  selves  of  such  provisions  Helpe  from 
as  we  most  needed,  and  he  could  best  spare,  who  as  he  Master  Jones. 
used  us  kindely,  so  made  us  pay  largely  for  the  things  we 
had.  And  had  not  the  Almighty,  in  his  All-ordering 
Providence,  directed  him  to  us,  it  would  have  gone  worse 
with  us,  then  ever  it  had  beene,  or  after  was :  for,  as  we 
had  now  but  small  store  of  Corne  for  the  yeere  following  : 
so  for  want  of  supply,  we  were  worne  out  of  all  manner 
of  trucking-stufFe,  not  having  any  meanes  left  to  helpe 
our  selves  by  trade;  but  through  Gods  good  mercy 
towards  us,  hee  had  wherewith,  and  did  supply  our  wants 
on  that  kinde  competently. 

In  the  end  of  September,  or  beginning  of  October, 
Master  Westons  biggest  Ship  called  the  Charitie,  returned 
for  England,  and  left  their  Colony  sufficiently  victualled, 
as  some  of  most  credit  amongst  them  reported.  The 
lesser,  called  the  Swan,  remained  with  his  Colony  for  their 
further  helpe.  At  which  time  they  desired  to  joyne  in 
partnership  with  us  to  trade  for  Corne ;  to  which  our 
XIX  353  z 



Governour  and  his  Assistant  agreed  upon  such  equall 
conditions,  as  were  drawne  and  confirmed  betweene  them 
and  us.  The  chiefe  places  aimed  at  were  to  the  Southward 
of  Cape  Cod,  and  the  more  because  Tisquantum,  whose 
peace  before  this  time  was  wrought  with  Masassowat, 
undertooke  to  discover  unto  us  that  supposed,  and  still 
hoped  passage  within  the  Sholes. 

Both  Colonies  being  thus  agreed,  our  Governour  in 
his  owne  person  supplied  the  Captaines  place,  and  in  the 
month  of  November  set  forth,  having  Tisquantum  for  his 
Interpreter  and  Pilot,  who  affirmed  he  had  twice  passed 
within  the  Sholes  of  Cape  Cod,  both  with  English  and 
French.  Neverthelesse,  they  went  so  farre  with  him,  as 
the  Master  of  the  Ship  saw  no  hope  of  passage  :  but  being 
(as  he  thought)  in  danger,  bare  up,  and  according  to 
Tisquantums  directions,  made  for  an  harbour  not  farre' 
from  them,  at  a  place  called  Manamoycke,  which  they 
found,  and  sounding  it  with  their  Shallop  found  the 
channell,  though  but  narrow  and  crooked,  where  at  length 
they  harboured  the  Ship.  Here  they  perceived  that  the 
Tide  set  in  and  out  with  more  violence  at  some  other 
place  more  Southerly,  which  they  had  not  seene  nor  could 
discover,  by  reason  of  the  violence  of  the  season  all  the 
time  of  their  abode  there*  Some  judged  the  entrance 
thereof  might  be  beyond  the  Sholes,  but  there  is  no 
certainty  thereof  as  yet  knowne.  That  night  the 
Governour  accompanied  with  others,  having  Tisquantum 
for  his  Interpreter  went  ashoare :  At  first  the  Inhabitants 
plaied  least  in  sight,  because  none  of  our  people  had  ever 
beene  there  before ;  but  understanding  the  ends  of  their 
comming,  at  length  came  to  them,  welcomming  our 
Governour  according  to  their  Savage  manner,  refreshing 
them  very  well  with  store  of  Venison  and  other  victuals 
which  they  brought  them  in  great  abundance,  promising 
to  trade  with  them,  with  a  seeming  gladnesse  of  the 
occasion :  yet  their  joy  was  mixed  with  much  jealousie, 
as  appeared  by  their  after  practices :  for  at  first  they  were 
loath  their  dwellings  should  be  knowne,  but  when  they 



saw  our  Governours  resolution  to  stay  on  the  shoare  all 
night,  they  brought  him  to  their  houses,  having  first 
convaied  all  their  stufFe  to  a  remote  place,  not  farre  from 
the  same,  which  one  of  our  men  walking  forth  occasionally, 
espied;  whereupon,  on  the  sudden,  neither  it  nor  they 
could  be  found,  and  so  many  times  after  upon  conceived 
occasions,  they  would  be  all  gone,  bag  and  baggage.  But 
being  afterwards  (by  Tisquantums  meanes)  better  per- 
swaded,  they  left  their  jealousie  and  traded  with  them; 
where  they  got  eight  hogsheads  of  Corne  and  Beanes, 
though  the  people  were  but  few.  This  gave  our 
Governour  and  the  Company  good  encouragement. 
Tisquantum  being  still  confident  in  the  passage,  and  the 
Inhabitants  affirming,  they  had  scene  Ships  of  good 
burthen  passe  within  the  Sholes  aforesaid.  But  here, 
though  they  had  determined  to  make  a  second  assay, 
yet  God  had  otherwaies  disposed,  who  strucke  Tisquantum 
with  sicknesse,  in  so  much  as  he  there  died,  which  crossed 
their  Southward  trading,  and  the  more,  because  the 
Masters  sufficiency  was  much  doubted,  and  the  season 
very  tempestuous,  and  not  fit  to  goe  upon  discovery, 
having  no  guide  to  direct  them. 

From  thence  they  departed,  and  the  winde  being  faire 
for  the  Massachusets,  went  thither,  and  the  rather  because 
the  Savages  upon  our  motion  had  planted  much  Corne 
for  us,  which  they  promised  not  long  before  that  time.  [iv.  x. 
When  they  came  thither,  they  found  a  great  sicknesse  to  1S58.] 

be  amongst  the  Indians,  not  unlike  the  Plague,  if  not  A  Plague. 
the  same.  They  renued  their  complaints  to  our  Gover- 
nour, against  that  other  Plantation  seated  by  them,  for 
their  injurious  walking.  But  indeede  the  trade  both  for  Note. 
Furres  and  Corne  was  overthrowne  in  that  place,  they 
giving  as  much  for  a  quart  of  Corne,  as  we  used  to  doe 
for  a  Beavers  skin;  so  that  little  good  could  be  there 
done.  From  thence  they  returned  into  the  bottome  of 
the  Bay  of  Cape  Cod,  to  a  place  called  Nauset,  where 
the  Sachim  used  the  Governour  very  kindely,  and  where 
they  bought  eight  or  ten  hogsheads  of  Corne  and  Beanes, 




Also  at  a  place  called  Mattachiest,  where  they  had  like 
kinde  entertainment  and  Corne  also.  During  the  time 
of  their  trade  in  these  places,  there  were  so  great  and 
violent  stormes,  as  the  Ship  was  much  endangered,  and 
our  Shallop  cast  away,  so  that  they  had  now  no  meanes 
to  carry  the  Corne  aboard  that  they  had  bought,  the  Ship 
riding  by  their  report  well  neere  two  leagues  from  the 
same,  her  owne  Boate  being  small,  and  so  leake  (having 
no  Carpenter  with  them)  as  they  durst  scarce  fetch  wood 
or  water  in  her.  Hereupon  the  Governour  caused  the 
Corne  to  be  made  in  a  round  stacke,  and  bought  Mats, 
and  cut  Sedge  to  cover  it,  and  gave  charge  to  the  Indians 
not  to  meddle  with  it,  promising  him  that  dwelt  next  to 
it  a  reward,  if  he  would  keepe  vermine  also  from  it,  which 
he  undertooke,  and  the  Sachim  promised  to  make  good. 
Honest  In  the  meane  time,  according  to  the  Governors  request, 
Savagei.  the  Sachim  sent  men  to  seek  the  Shallop,  which  they  found 
buried  almost  in  sand  at  a  high-water  marke,  having  many 
things  remaining  in  her,  but  unserviceable  for  the  present ; 
whereof  the  Governour  gave  the  Sachim  special!  charge 
that  it  should  not  be  further  broken.  And  having  pro- 
cured a  Guide,  it  being  no  lesse  then  fiftie  miles  to  our 
Plantation,  set  forward,  receiving  all  respect  that  could  be 
from  the  Indians  in  his  journey,  and  came  safely  home, 
though  weary  and  surbated,  whether  some  three  dayes 
after  the  Ship  also  came.  The  Corne  being  divided  which 
they  had  got,  Master  Westons  Company  went  to  their 
owne  Plantation,  it  being  further  agreed,  that  they  should 
returne  with  all  convenient  speede,  and  bring  their 
Carpenter,  that  they  might  fetch  the  rest  of  the  Corne, 
and  save  their  Shallop. 

At  their  returne  Captaine  Standish  being  recovered  and 
in  health,  tooke  another  Shallop,  and  went  with  them  to 
the  Corne,  which  they  found  in  safety  as  they  left  it : 
also  they  mended  the  other  Shallop,  and  got  all  their 
Corne  aboard  the  Ship.  This  was  in  January,  as  I  tak^e 
it,  it  being  very  cold  and  stormy,  insomuch  as  (the  harbour 
being  none  of  the  best)  they  were  constrained  to  cut  both 




the  Shallops  from  the  Ships  sterne,  and  so  lost  them  both 
a  second  time.  But  the  storme  being  over,  and  seeking 
out,  they  found  them  both,  not  having  received  any  great 
hurt.  Whitest  they  were  at  Nauset,  having  occasion  to 
lye  on  the  shoare,  laying  their  Shallop  in  a  Creeke  not 
farre  from  them,  an  Indian  came  into  the  same,  and  stole 
certaine  Beads,  Cissers,  and  others  trifles  out  of  the  same, 
which  when  the  Captaine  missed,  he  tooke  certaine  of 
his  company  with  him,  and  went  to  the  Sachim,  telling 
him  what  had  hapned,  and  requiring  the  same  againe,  or 
the  party  that  stole  them  (who  was  knowne  to  certaine 
of  the  Indians)  or  else  he  would  revenge  it  on  them  before 
his  departure,  and  so  tooke  leave  for  that  night  being  late, 
refusing  whatsoever  kindnesse  they  offered.  On  the 
morrow,  the  Sachim  came  to  their  randevow,  accompanied 
with  many  men,  in  a  stately  manner,  who  saluting  the 
Captaine  in  this  wise ;  He  thrust  out  his  tongue,  that 
one  might  see  the  roote  thereof,  and  there  with  licked 
his  hand  from  the  wrist  to  the  fingers  end,  withaU  bowing 
the  knee,  striving  to  imitate  the  English  gesture,  being 
instructed  therein  formerly  by  Tisquantum :  his  men  did 
the  like,  but  in  so  rude  and  Savage  a  manner,  as  our  men 
could  scarce  forbeare  to  breake  out  in  open  laughter. 
After  salutation,  he  delivered  the  Beads,  and  other  things 
to  the  Captaine,  saying,  he  had  much  beaten  the  party 
for  doing  it,  causing  the  women  to  make  Bread,  and 
bring  them,  according  to  their  desire,  seeming  to  be  very 
sorry  for  the  fact,  but  glad  to  be  reconciled.  So  they 
departed,  and  came  home  in  safety ;  where  the  Corne  was 
equally  divided,  as  before. 

After  this,  the  Governour  went  to  two  other  inland 
Townes,  with  another  Company,  and  bought  Corne  like- 
wise of  them,  the  one  is  called  Namasket,  the  other  Namaiket. 
Manomet.  That  from  Namasket  was  brought  home  Mammet. 
partly  by  Indian  women ;  but  a  great  sicknesse  arising 
amongst  them,  our  owne  men  were  inforced  to  fetch  home 
the  rest.  That  at  Manomet  the  Governour  left  in  the 
Sachims  custody :   this  Towne  lieth  from  us  South  well 




neere  twenty  miles,  and  stands  upon  a  fresh  River,  which 
runneth  into  the  Bay  of  Narohigganset,  and  cannot  be 
lesse  then  sixty  miles  from  thence.  It  will  beare  a  Boat 
of  eight  or  ten  tun  to  this  place.  Hither  the  Dutch,  or 
French,  or  both  use  to  come.  It  is  from  hence  to  the  Bay 
of  Cape  Cod  about  eight  miles;  out  of  which  Bay  it 
floweth  into  a  Creeke  some  six  miles  almost  direct  towards 
the  Towne.  The  heads  of  the  River,  and  this  Creeke, 
are  not  farre  distant.  This  River  yeeldeth  thus  high, 
Oysters,  Muscles,  Clams,  and  other  Shel-fish,  one  in  shape 
like  a  Beane,  another  like  a  Clam,  both  good  meate,  and 
great  abundance  at  all  times;  besides  it  aboundeth  witH 
divers  sorts  of  fresh  fish  in  their  seasons.  The  Governour 
or  Sachim  of  this  place,  was  caUed  Canacum,  who  had 
formerly,  as  well  as  many  others  (yea  all  with  whom  as 
yet  we  had  to  doe)  acknowledged  themselves  the  Subjects 
of  our  Soveraigne  Lord  the  King.  This  Sachim  used 
the  Governour  very  kindely,  and  it  seemed  was  of  good 
respect  and  authority  amongst  the  Indians.  For  whilest 
[IV.  X.  the  Governour  was  there  within  night  in  bitter  weather, 

1859.]  came  two  men  from  Manamoick,  before  spoken  of,  and 
having  set  aside  their  Bowes  and  Quivers,  according  to 
their  manner,  sat  down  by  the  fire,  and  tooke  a  pipe  of 
Tobacco,  not  using  any  words  in  that  time,  nor  any  other 
to  them,  but  all  remained  silent,  expecting  when  they 
would  speake :  At  length  they  looked  toward  Canacum, 
and  one  of  them  made  a  short  speech,  and  delivered  a 
present  to  him  from  his  Sachim,  which  was  a  basket  of 
Tobacco,  and  many  Beades,  which  the  other  received 
thankfully.  After  which,  he  made  a  long  speech  to  him, 
the  contents  hereof  was  related  to  us  by  Hobbamock  (who 
then  accompanied  the  Governour  for  his  Guide)  to  be  as 
foUoweth ;  It  hapned  that  two  of  their  men  fell  out  as 
lavages  great  they  were  in  game  (for  they  use  gaming  as  much  as  any 
gamsters.  where,  and  will  play  away  all,  even  their  skin  from  their 
backs,  yea  and  for  their  wives  skins  also,  though  it  may 
be  they  are  many  miles  distant  from  them,  as  my  selfe 
have  seene)  and  growing  to  great  heat,  the  one  killed  the 



other.  The  actor  of  this  fact  was  a  Powah,  one  of  speciall 
note  amongst  them,  and  such  an  one  as  they  covild  not  well 
misse,yet  another  people  greater  then  themselves  threatned 
them  with  warre,  if  they  would  not  put  him  to  death. 
The  partie  offending  was  in  hold,  neither  would  their 
Sachim  doe  one  way  or  other  till  their  returne,  resting 
upon  him  for  advice  and  furtherance  in  so  weightie  a 
matter.  After  this  there  was  silence  a  short  time;  at 
length  men  gave  their  judgement  what  they  thought  best. 
Amongst  others,  he  asked  Hobbamock  what  he  thought  ? 
Who  answered,  he  was  but  a  stranger  to  them,  but  thought 
it  was  better  that  one  should  die  then  many,  since  he  had 
deserved  it,  and  the  rest  were  innocent;  whereupon  he 
passed  the  sentence  of  death  upon  him. 

Not  long  after  (having  no  great  quantitie  of  Corne  left) 
Captaine  Standish  went  againe  with  a  Shallop  to  Matta- 
chiest,  meeting  also  with  the  like  extremitie  of  weather, 
both  of  winde.  Snow,  and  Frost,  insomuch  as  they  were 
frozen  in  the  harbour  the  first  night  they  entred  the  same. 
Here  they  pretended  their  wonted  love,  and  spared  them 
a  good  quantitie  of  Corne  to  confirme  the  same  :  Strangers 
also  came  to  this  place,  pretending  onely  to  see  him  and 
his  Companie,  whom  they  never  saw  before  that  time, 
but  intending  to  joyne  with  the  rest  to  kill  them,  as  after 
appeared.  But  being  forced  through  extremitie  to  lodge 
in  their  houses,  which  they  much  pressed,  God  possessed 
the  heart  of  the  Captaine  with  just  jealousie,  giving  strait  Just  jealousie. 
command,  that  as  one  part  of  his  Companie  slept,  the  rest 
should  wake,  declaring  some  things  to  them  which  he 
understood,  whereof  he  could  make  no  good  construction. 
Some  of  the  Indians  spying  a  fit  opportunitie,  stole  some 
Beades  also  from  him,  which  he  no  sooner  perceived, 
having  not  above  six  men  with  him,  drew  them  all  from 
the  Boat,  and  set  them  on  their  guard  about  the  Sachims 
house,  where  the  most  of  the  people  were,  threatning  to 
fall  upon  them  without  further  delay,  if  they  would  not 
forthwith  restore  them,  signifying  to  the  Sachim  especially, 
and  so  to  them  all,  that  as  he  would  not  offer  the  least 


AD.  :PURCHAS  HIS  pilgrimES 


injurie,  so  he  would  not  receive  any  at  theif  hands,  which 
should  escape  without  punishment  or  due  satisfaction. 
Hereupon  the  Sachim  bestirred  him  to  finde  out  the 
partie,  which  when  he  had  done,  caused  him  to  returne 
them  againe  to  the  Shallop,  and  came  to  the  Captai^e, 
desiring  him  to  search  whether  they  were  not  about  the 
Boat,  who  suspecting  their  knaverie,  sent  one,  who  found 
them  lying  openly  upon  the  Boats  cuddy ;  yet  to  appease 
his  anger,  they  brought  Corne  afresh  to  trade,^  insomuch 
as  he  laded  his  Shallop,  and  so  departed.  This  accident 
so  daunted  their  courage,  as  they  durst  not  attempt  any 
thing  against  him.  So  that  through  the  good  mercy  and 
providence  of  God  they  returned  in  safetie.  At  this 
Basse  Summer  place  the  Indians  get  abundance  of  Basse  both  Summer 
and  Winter,  and  Winter,  for  it  being  now  February  they  abounded 
with  them. 

In  the  beginning  of  March,  having  refreshed  himselfe, 
he  tooke  a  Shallop,  and  went  to  Manomet,  to  fetch  home 
that  which  the  Governour  had  formerly  bought,  hoping 
also  to  get  more  from  them,  but  was  deceived  in  his 
expectation,  not  finding  that  entertainment  he  found  else- 
where, and  the  Governour  had  there  received.  The 
reason  whereof,  and  of  the  trecherie  intended  in  the  place 
before  spoken  of,  was  not  then  knowne  unto  us,  but 
afterwards :  wherein  may  be  observed  the  abundant 
mercies  of  God  working  with  his  providence  for  our  good. 
Captaine  Standish  being  now  farre  from  the  Boat,  and  not 
above  two  or  three  of  our  men  with  him,  and  as  many 
with  the  Shallop,  was  not  long  at  Canacum  the  Sachims 
house,  but  in  came  two  of  the  Massachuset  men,  the  chiefe 
of  them  was  called  Wituwamat,  a  notable  insulting 
villaine,  one  who  had  formerly  imbrued  his  hands  in  the 
bloud  of  English  and  French,  and  had  oft  boasted  of  his 
owne  valour,  and  derided  their  weaknesse,  especia,lly 
because  (as  he  said)  they  died  crying,  making  sowre  faces, 
more  like  children  then  men.  This  villaine  tooke  a  dagger 
from  about  his  necke  (which  hee  had  gotten  of  Master 
Westons  people)  and  presented  it  to  the  Sachim,  and  after 



made  a  long  speech  in  an  audacious  manner,  framing  it 
in  such  sort,  as  the  Captaine  (though  he  be  the  best 
Linguist  amongst  us)  could  not  gather  any  thing  from  it. 
The  end  of  it  was  afterward  discovered  to  be  as  foUoweth  : 
The  Massacheuseuckes  formerly  concluded  to  ruinate 
Master  Westons  Colonie,  and  thought  themselves,  being 
about  thirty  or  forty  men  strong,  enough  to  execute  the 
same :  yet  they  durst  not  attempt  it,  till  such  time  as  they 
had  gathered  more  strength  to  themselves  to  make  their 
partie  good  against  us  at  Plimoth,  concluding,  that  if  wee 
reniained  (though  they  had  no  other  Arguments  to  use 
against  us)  yet  wee  would  never  leave  the  death  of  our  [IV.  x. 
Countrimen  unrevenged,  and  therefore  their  safetie  could  i860.] 

not  be  without  the  overthrow  of  both  Plantations.  To 
this  end  they  had  formerly  solicited  this  Sachim,  as  also 
the  other  called  lanough  at  Mattachiest,  and  many  others 
to  assist  them,  and  now  againe  came  to  prosecute  the 
same ;  and  since  there  was  so  faire  an  opportunitie  offered 
by  the  Captaines  presence,  they  thought  best  to  make  sure 
him  and  his  Company.  After  this  message  was  delivered, 
his  entertainment  much  exceeded  the  Captaines,  insomuch 
as  hee  scorned  at  their  behaviour,  and  told  them  of  it : 
after  which,  they  would  have  perswaded  him,  because  the 
weather  was  cold,  to  have  sent  to  the  Boate  for  the  rest  of 
his  Company,  but  he  would  not,  desiring  according  to 
promise,  that  the  Corne  might  be  carried  downe,  and  he 
would  content  the  women  for  their  labour,  which  they 
did.  At  the  same  time  there  was  a  lusty  Indian  of  Paomet 
or  Cape  Cod  then  present,  who  had  ever  demeaned  him- 
selfe  well  towards  us,  being  in  his  generall  carriage  very 
affable,  courteous,  and  loving,  especially  towards  the 
Captaine.  This  Savage  was  now  entred  into  confederacie 
with  the  rest,  yet  to  avoide  suspition,  made  many  signes 
of  his  continued  affections,  and  would  needes  bestow  a 
Kettle  of  some  six  or  seven  gallons  on  him,  and  would  not 
accept  of  any  thing  in  lieu  thereof,  saying,  he  was  rich, 
and  could  afford  to  bestow  such  favours  on  his  friends 
whom  he  loved :  also  hee  would  freely  helpe  to  carry  some 



Dutch  Ship. 

Visitations  of 
the  side. 


of  the  Corne,  affirming  he  had  never  done  the  like  in  his 
life  before,  and  the  winde  being  bad  would  needes  lodge 
with  him  at  their  Randevow,  having  indeede  undertaken 
to  kill  him  before  they  parted,  which  done  they  intended 
to  fall  upon  the  rest.  The  night  proved  exceeding  cold, 
insomuch  as  the  Captaine  could  not  take  any  rest,  but 
either  walked  or  turned  himselfe  to  and  fro  at  the  fire: 
This  the  other  observed,  and  asked  wherefore  he  did  not 
sleepe  as  at  other  times,  who  answered  he  knew  not  well, 
but  had  no  desire  at  all  to  rest.  So  that  he  then  mist 
his  opportunity.  The  winde  serving  on  the  next  day, 
they  returned  home,  accompanied  with  the  other  Indian, 
who  used  many  arguments  to  perswade  them  to  go  to 
Paomet,  where  himself  had  much  Corne,  and  many  other, 
the  most  whereof  he  would  procure  for  us,  seeming  to 
sorrow  for  our  wants.  Once  the  Captaine  put  forth  with 
him,  and  was  forced  backe  by  contrary  winde ;  which  winde 
served  for  the  Massachuset,  was  fitted  to  goe  thither. 
But  on  a  sudden  it  altered  againe. 

During  the  time  that  the  Captaine  was  at  Manomet, 
newes  came  to  Plimoth  that  Massassowat  was  like  to 
die,  and  that  at  the  same  time  there  was  a  Dutch  Ship 
driven  so  high  on  the  shoare  by  stresse  of  weather,  right 
before  his  dwelling,  that  till  the  tides  encreased,  she  could 
not  be  got  off.  Now  it  being  a  commendable  manner 
of  the  Indians,  when  any  (especially  of  note)  are 
dangerously  sicke,  for  all  that  professe  friendship  to 
them,  to  visit  them  in  their  extremity,  either  in  their 
persons,  or  else  to  send  some  acceptable  persons  to  them, 
therefore  it  was  thought  meete  (being  a  good  and  warrant- 
able action)  that  as  we  had  ever  professed  friendship,  so 
we  should  now  maintaine  the  same,  by  observing  this 
their  laudable  custome :  and  the  rather,  because  we  desired 
to  have  some  conference  with  the  Dutch,  not  knowing 
when  we  should  have  so  fit  an  opportunity.  To  that 
end  my  selfe  having  formerly  beene  there,  and  under- 
standing in  some  measure  the  Dutch  tongue,  the 
Governour  againe  laid  this  service  upon  my  selfe,  and 



fitted  me  with  some  cordials  to  administer  to  him,  having 
one  Master  John  Hamden  a  Gentlem